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Moses (1393-1273 BCE)

Moses (1393-1273 BCE)

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Maimonides calls him "the most perfect human being", and the sages of the Talmud said that "the Divine Presence spoke from his throat." Yet the Torah also attests that the man who took the Children of Israel out of Egypt and received the Torah from G‑d was "the most humble man on the face of the earth."

Moses was born in Egypt on the 7th of Adar of the year 2368 from creation (1393 BCE), at a time when the Israelites were slaves to the rulers of the land and subject to many harsh decrees. He was the third born of Jocheved and Amram's three children -- his brother Aaron was his senior by three years, and his sister Miriam by six.

When he was three months old, Moses was hidden in a basket set afloat in the Nile to escape Pharaoh's decree that all male Hebrew children be drowned; he was retrieved from the river by Pharaoh's daughter, Batyah, who raised him in the palace. At age 20, Moses fled Egypt after killing an Egyptian he saw beating a Jew and made his way to Midian, where he married Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro, and fathered two sons, Gershom and Eliezer.

When he was 80 years old, Moses was shepherding his father-in-law's sheep when G‑d revealed himself to him in a burning bush at Mount Horeb (Sinai) and instructed him to liberate the Children of Israel. Moses took the Israelites out of Egypt, performed numerous miracles for them (the ten plagues in Egypt, the splitting of the sea, extracting water from a rock, bringing down the manna, and numerous others), received the Torah from G‑d and taught it to the people, built the Mishkan (Divine dwelling) in the desert, and led the Children of Israel for 40 years as they journeyed through the wilderness; but G‑d did not allow him to bring them into the Holy Land. Moses passed away on his 120th birthday on Mount Nebo, within sight of the land he yearned to enter.

Links

The Birth of a Leader
The Head
Moses Disappears
More on Moses

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Mark Denver November 5, 2016

Tough to pinpoint which Pharaoh was reigning when Joseph and Moses were alive. Joseph most likely rose to Vizier under the Hyksos and then 400 years later Moses liberated our people. The Torah is silent in identifying the pharaohs of Egypt. Israeli history is easier to put in chronological order than Egyptian history, so we can only speculate the timeline of the Egyptian rulers. Reply

Anonymous June 16, 2016

How long ago Moses born Reply

Leslie Malachowsky March 21, 2016

Question-did Moses live during the time of Ramsess II? The movie The 10 Commandments has a referrence to Neferterie. How accurate is the portrayal? Thank you. Reply

Chabad.org Staff February 26, 2016

Yes there is a source for Moshe's birth and passing date, please see this link for the details. Reply

Shlomo Shlemel Las Vegas February 25, 2016

How do we know so precisely when Moses was born and died? Is his birthdate given in the Torah? Reply

WoundedEgo Portland, ME February 13, 2016

Now it is "BCE". Reply

Anonymous chicago February 13, 2016

That's "BC", not "BCE". Reply

ricardo Canada February 7, 2016

Exodus 1:8 clearly states that a new (king)Pharaoh arose over Egypt who did not know Joseph....so obviously it was not the same Pharaoh who appointed Joseph as viceroy...because Moses came after Joseph who had died years before, and it was he who led the Israelites out of Egypt. Reply

Mini John Keezhillam EKM Dist January 28, 2016

very pleasent to read and understand the .Jewish history Reply

Ellen Homeister January 22, 2016

Thutmoses IV would have been the Pharoah when Moses was born. Moses most likely grew up with Akhnaten (Amenhotep IV) in the palace since Moses was born in 1393BCE. Akhnaten became Pharoah c. 1352-1334 BCE. Akhnaten believed in one G-d and instituted a cultural-religious Revolution during his reign. I believe that Moses's religion had a possible influence on Akhnaten. The pharoah reigning when Moses returns to Egypt would likely be Djeserkheperue Setpenre Horemheb who was a general and went about destroying all the images of the solar disc god the Akhnaten had used to describe the one G-d almighty. The next pharoah c. 1292-1290 was Menpehtue Ramesses a non-royal reign 1292-1290; next Pharoah was Menmastre Seti reign 1290-1279 approx.( who regained much of the territory lost during Akhnaten's pacifist reign ) who was most likely the Pharoah during the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt. Of approx 1280 BCE. At this point Ramses II the great reigns 1279-1213. Reply

WoundedEgo Portland, ME January 14, 2016

So Moses died within sight of the promised land but did not enter. Is he gone forever? Reply

Michael nigeria December 7, 2015

Moses was highly favored by God which I admire so much. I really need to be like him some day. Reply

Shaul Wolf Chabad.org November 5, 2015

There are varying opinions amongst historians as to the identity of the Egyptian Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus. Within Jewish tradition as well, it is disputed whether the Pharaoh of the Exodus is the same Pharaoh as the one that appointed Joseph as viceroy over Egypt. Regardless of who the exact Pharaoh was, we know that Moses was reared by his daughter Batya, and grew up in the royal palace. Reply

Rehan Karachi. Pakistan November 5, 2015

I always like Moses and wanted to his way to find God's blessing Reply

Anonymous November 4, 2015

Doesn't Moses grow up with Ramses II as brothers? I can't find any information about Moses living in the palace or the what was going on the the Egyptian Pharaoh at around the time of the Exodus. Reply

Anonymous September 30, 2015

Moses was the greatest prophet Reply

Anonymous August 18, 2015

I thought that all Moses received was the Ten Commandments, so it is so important to me that he received the entire law and all of the stories of the people Reply

Shaul Wolf Chabad.org July 30, 2015

The last time that the sons of Moses are mentioned in the Torah is when they were brought to the desert to join the Jewish people. Yisro took his daughter Tziporah and two grandsons and brought them to Moses. Only Aaron and his sons were anointed to be Priests, and not the children of Moses.
For a more detailed recount see our article here: Reply

Anonymous July 28, 2015

Moses was the greatest prophet ever that spoke with God face to face Reply

Richard PRIOR KELOWNA, B.C,, CANADA June 21, 2015

Is there any mention of the two sons of Moses serving in the the tabernacle or elsewhere? Reply