It's hard for me to get into Chanukah. As far as I can see, the whole thing
was a major disaster. Here we have a meeting of two rich cultures, with so much
to share, so much to contribute to the world together, so much synergy that
could happen, and instead, BOOM! -- the extremists of both sides hit the
I don't get it. The Greeks were universalists. They were open to new ideas
from wherever they came. They spread knowledge and understanding throughout the
Mediterranean. Here was an opportunity to take Jewish values to the world, to go
public. Why couldn't those Maccabee hotheads work out some sort of compromise?
The Short Answer:
Actually, this was the greatest thing that could have happened to the Greek
mind: To discover that one thing it could not tolerate -- something like the
massage therapist who helps you to find that one trigger point where you can't be
For the Jew, as well, this was a defining experience. The red lines became
clear, and with those guidelines, the essential Torah was made able to survive
to this day.
The Long Answer:
You're right about one thing: The whole Chanukah story was completely out of
character for Ancient Greece. I don't believe there was any other culture they
ever oppressed or forbade. Every new culture had its set of gods and rituals,
and that was just great. "Hey, you got gods? We got gods, too! Here, let's
trade god cards! How 'bout mix and match? You got rituals? You got
belief-systems? We're into all that stuff! We'll even help you make big, pretty
statues!" Greeks were great syncretists -- meaning, they could jerry
together every culture of the known world and make one big tzimmes out of all of
So what on earth did they have against the Jews?
Sure, there were political power-plays going on that were the ostensible
reasons for the conflict. But it's obvious there was something deeper at play.
Some subliminal annoyance that brought out the worst in the Greek and pushed the
Maccabees to revolt. Apparently, there was something about the Jewish mind that
didn't mix and match.
Now look at it from the Jewish side: Jews have also borrowed from every
culture they've come in contact with. Whatever your grandmother tells you,
Abraham did not smear his gefilte fish with chrane. One culture we borrowed more
from than perhaps any other was that of Ancient Greece. The Talmud tells us that
the only language the Torah could be translated into elegantly is Greek. They
said it was a beautiful language. They say that of all peoples, the Greeks had
ideas closest to ours. They praised many of the Greek philosophers. Maimonides
wrote that Aristotle was half a prophet. The Seder Hadorot, a kind of
classic Jewish history book, claims that Aristotle was really Jewish!
So what is going on here? Why such a violent clash? Why were the Jews unable
to work out some sort of compromise with a Hellenist ruler?
We need to know because in a very real way, Chanukah lives on. Our society
today is a bizarre grafting of these two cultures, the Hellenist and the Jewish.
If this conflict existed back then, the question is, has there been some
resolution over time? Or are we still fighting Greek elephants? Simply put: Is
our society schizoid?
Head-To-Head -- and Beyond
So here's how the conversation goes. Which conversation? The conversation
that's been going on ever since the Greek mind and the Jewish mind met one
another, almost two and a half millennia ago. Where does it happen? Mostly,
somewhere deep inside Jewish minds:
Greek: So tell us about your gods, Mr. Maccabee.
Jew: Um, that's singular.
Greek: Okay, tell me about your gods.
Jew: No, not you. G‑d. G‑d is singular. Only one god.
Greek: Don't worry, we've got so many I'm sure we can spare a few.
Jew: That's okay, one is enough.
Greek: So, this one G‑d, what does He look like? We'd love to make some
nice statues for you. You poor, uncultured people, you have no statues!
Jew: That's because He doesn't have looks.
Greek: No looks? Ugly? That's cool! A god of ugliness! Don't worry, we
can make ugly statues, too.
Jew: No, no. He has no looks at all. You can't see Him.
Greek: An invisible G‑d? Well, maybe we can do that in glass. But you
have to give us some description.
Jew: Nope. Sorry. No description.
Greek: You mean nobody ever saw Him? How can you worship something if you
don't know what it looks like? I mean, how do you know He exists in the first
Jew: It's not that we don't know what He looks like. He doesn't have any
looks. He has no image.
Greek: Well, I'm sorry then. If He has no image, we can't make a statue.
Jew: That's fine with us.
Greek: But we'd like to write books about Him. So just give us some
definition and we'll work around it.
Jew: Oh, our G‑d can't be defined.
Greek: Come, now. Everything has to have a definition. Or else it's not a
J: But G‑d is not a thing. He creates things. But He isn't a
G: Oh! So He is the Cosmic Mind Who conceives and shapes all forms from
the primal essence-matter.
J: No, He doesn't just form them, He creates them. Out of nothing.
G: Now you're getting silly. You can't make something out of nothing. You
need stuff to make it out of.
J: But there wasn't any stuff when things began.
G: There was always stuff. How else could the Cosmic Mind make anything?
J: Out of nothing!
G: Look, you Jews don't really think straight. But that's okay. We've
conquered all sorts of primitive cultures. You'll learn, too. So, you worship
the Cosmic Mind -- you'll get along just great with Aristotle and…
J: No, He's not just the Cosmic Mind.
G: Well, nothing's higher than the Cosmic Mind.
J: Because that's not who He is. I mean, even if He didn't make a world,
He would still be G‑d. So you can't say, "that's who He is -- the One that
makes a world." There doesn't have to be a world for Him to exist.
G: Of course there has to be a world. Otherwise, why is there a world if
there doesn't have to be one? The world makes sense. The Cosmic Mind makes
sense. That's what it's all about. Reason. The highest and most perfect of all
things. We Greeks will teach you all about that. So, now tell me about your
rituals. We Greeks really dig rituals. Any that have to do with wine? Parties?
J: Sure, we make kiddush on Friday night to commemorate the Creation of
the world from nothing.
G: Well, you can give up that one now, since I've just shown you that
creation of the world from nothing makes no sense whatsoever.
J: We don't eat milk with meat.
G: Why not?
J: G‑d says so.
G: For what reason?
J: Reason? He needs a reason? For the same reason He created heaven and
G: Which is?
J: He just wanted to.
G: That's not a reason!
J: Sure it is. He decided He would like a world where there would be milk
and meat and He would tell people, "Don't eat that milk and meat
together!" and they would listen.
G: That makes no sense. That's not a reason!
J: Reason is just another of His creations.
G: Reason is the ultimate! There is nothing higher than Reason!
J: Okay then, explain to me why the world is the way it is. Why does one
plus one equal two? Why does the square of the length of the hypotenuse equal
the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides? Why do parallel
lines never meet?
G: Because those are the rules of geometry!
J: So why does the Cosmic Mind, as you call Him, have to follow your
rules of geometry?
G: They're not our rules! They are the self-evident truths of
J: Why are these the truths and not something else?
G: You stubborn Jew! Don't you see that this is the most elegant,
rational way things could be?
J: I'll bet you He could break them. I'll bet our G‑d could make a world
where parallel lines meet. He could break any of the laws of nature.
G: You can't break laws of nature! They're not like laws of the state or
like your silly laws about cheeseburgers. They are truths. They are perfect.
They are the ground of reality. They are because they have to be.
J: Nothing has to be. Nothing but the Source of Being. But He could be
any way He wants.
G: Geometry has to be. Cause and effect has to be. Logic has to be. If A
= B then B = A. That is an absolute Truth. It must be.
G: Why?! Because if they don't have to be, then I and you and this whole
world have no real substance! And that cannot be!
J: That's just what I was trying to tell you. This world has no real
substance. The only truth is…
G: Don't say it, Mr. Maccabee! You people are downright dangerous.
And that is why the Greeks did not forbid Jewish practice altogether. What
they (initially) forbade were those practices that they saw as irrational. Those
practices that Jews do simply because they believe they have a relationship with
a Being who is higher than reason. That, they could not tolerate.
Of course, as you know, eventually some bright boys came up with geometries
where parallel lines meet; cause and effect got bumped out of quantum physics;
the world was discovered to have had a beginning; and even now it still is
really nothing because the sum of all radiant energy minus all of the universe's
mass equals zero. Most of us today have accepted that there are things that are
the way they are not for any reason, but just because that's the way they are.
Nothing has to be the way it is. Why do masses attract? Why is the grass
green? Why is there anything at all? There doesn't have to be a reason for
everything, because reason is not the foundation of reality. So what's so absurd
about connecting to the Foundation of Reality through mitzvot that are beyond
Mind Under Matter
Nevertheless, the battle continues. You see, as mentioned above, the Greek
mind, aside from worshipping human intellect, is also a great syncretist. That
means it can hammer together the most incongruous ideologies without blinking an
eyelid. You've heard of Rice-Christians? Peyote-Catholics? The Greek mind could
do any of that, and more.
The two characteristics go hand in hand: When there's nothing higher than
intellect, intellect has no guiding light. Everything, even the stupidest thing
-- as long as it doesn't deny intellect -- can be tolerated. Aristotle knew that
the pantheon of Athenian gods was nonsense. But what's wrong with the common
people, who cannot understand any better, having their way?
You can easily see that a knowledge of an absolute Divine Will beyond reason
has become a necessity for human survival. Without the supposition of a Divine
Will, whatever you wish to make sense can make sense. If your system of logic
cannot support an idea, just change the postulates and rethink the data.
Anything can be made to make sense when you determine the assumptions.
Every society has had its philosophers and philosophers have justified
everything imaginable -- from coliseum killing games to gas chambers.
Strangely, this may have worked to humanity's advantage in one regard: The
Greek mind applied itself to figuring out the material world. When your belief
system begins with Divine revelation you don't necessarily apply yourself to
mundane matters of how things work. So technological progress became chiefly the
domain of the Greek mind throughout history.
But it also has some nefarious consequences. Because when you marry intellect
and materialism (a good description of Stalin's Russia and Hitler's Germany),
you've entered a bottomless pit of quicksand.
Which brings us to a fascinating point. The Lubavitcher Rebbe points out that
in Hebrew, the name for ancient Greece, Yavan, has another meaning:
quicksand (as in Psalms 40:3 and Talmud, Eruvin 19a). Water mixes with sand,
dirt and clay. You step in it and you can't get out. The more you try to climb
up, the further down you go.
Take a look at the letters that spell Yavan in Hebrew: יון . It starts
with a small point of a yud -- representing wisdom. That stretches down
to become a vav. And the vav stretches even further down, below
the line, to become a long nun. It's all a description of the process of
intellect sinking into the material world and, with nothing to hold it in place,
sinking further and further.
A Donkey and an Ox
Today, we have those syncretists who wish to marry materialism with Torah.
And nothing is less congruous than that.
Materialism is the ultimate of Greece stuck in the mud. It is the idea that
all that exists is that which can be observed, described and explained.
Evolutionism, for example, is a materialistic explanation of existence. When
people became disillusioned with the church and with faith, they needed an
explanation of existence that relied on Chance and Necessity alone, without
recourse to G‑d. Darwinism and current cosmologies provide just that. So do the
standard interpretations of history we are taught today.
Torah is an understanding that behind the world lies a Divine Will,
unhampered by the limitations of nature or human logic -- because it is the
source of all this. Why are there laws of nature? Because G‑d generally chooses
to work in consistent ways. Why did history unfold the way it did? Because that
is all in G‑d's plan.
When someone tries to provide a materialistic explanation for Torah and
mitzvot, they are creating a Procrustean bed, killing all sense of Torah in the
process. So too, attempting to resolve conflicts between evolutionary doctrines
and Torah makes less sense than marrying a donkey to an ox.
Yes, we try to understand as much as we can. The Torah commands us to think
deeply, to immerse our intellects in study and comprehension. Whatever we can
fit into intellect, we must strive to do so. Whatever explanation we can give,
we must give it. But always with the sense that with every new grain of
understanding, we have expanded the seashore of the Infinite Unknowable.
We can have a thousand reasons for not mixing meat and milk, but when it
comes down to it, we do it because that is our personal connection with the
Divine Will, the Life of All Things. And that is the victory of Chanukah.
For a different perspective on the same topic, please read Were the Maccabees Barbarians?