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Atonement in the Absence of Sacrifices?

Atonement in the Absence of Sacrifices?



Please help me to understand. If the foundation for G‑d’s forgiveness and atonement was initially the sacrifice on the altar in either the Tabernacle or later the Temple, how does one now find forgiveness and atonement, since the Temple and physical sacrifices no longer exist?


You ask an excellent question. Are we at a loss with regards to our ability to attain forgiveness from G‑d due to the loss of our Temple?

I’d first like to point out that this question isn’t specific to sacrifices. There are many mitzvot that we cannot perform today because of our exiled state. (See Nowadays, how many of the Torah’s commandments are still in force?) Among the other mitzvot we cannot observe today are pilgrimage to the Temple for the festivals, many tithes, any many laws associated with ritual purity and impurity.

While we are deprived of these many mitzvot, G‑d gave us alternative ways to realize the benefits that these mitzvot afforded us (albeit not in their most ideal form—otherwise we could always have always made do with the alternatives). Let us use sacrifices and atonements as an example:

Some have claimed that atonement can be attained only through blood sacrifice.

This cannot be the case. After all, one of the offerings brought by a sinner was the korban minchah, which was made up of flour.1 We also find in the Torah that both incense2 and monetary donations3 served to atone for the people.4 It should be noted that nowhere in the Torah is it stated that atonement can be found only through sacrifice, never mind blood sacrifice.5

In Temple times, an important part of atonement was normally a sacrifice brought to the Temple. But where does that leave us today, with no Temple and no possibility to sacrifice? Let us look to the Torah for a precedent.

In the book of Jonah, the people of Nineveh had sinned and G‑d was going to punish them. When Jonah showed them the error of their ways, they fasted and prayed, and were forgiven. The same thing happened in the book of Esther. Living in Persia between the first and second Temples, they fasted, regretted their sins and were forgiven. These historical examples clearly show that when there is no Temple, sincere teshuvah (repentance) is all that G‑d demands.

In fact, this was always part of the system. King Solomon himself, in his speech dedicating the first Holy Temple, already anticipates the possibility of Israel being denied access to the holy place:

If they sin against You—for there is no man who does not sin—then You will be angry with them and deliver them to the enemy, and their captors will carry them away captive to the land of the enemy, far or near. When they bethink themselves in the land where they were carried captive, and repent, and make supplication to You in the land of their captors, saying, “We have sinned and have done perversely, we have committed wickedness”; when they return to You with all their heart and with all their soul, in the land of their enemies who led them away captive, and pray to You toward their land, which You gave to their fathers, to the city that You have chosen, and the house which I have built for Your Name—then You shall hear their prayer and their supplication in heaven, Your dwelling place, and uphold their cause.”6

Here is a thought on contemporary (sacrificeless) atonement:

Our sages tell us 7 that the world stands on three pillars: Torah, avodah (literally, “work” or “service”) and gemilut chassadim (kindness and charity). We can approach this particular issue from the perspective of any one of these pillars.

Torah: The Talmud says that one who delves into the laws of sacrifices is considered as if he has actually offered a sacrifice. By studying the laws and their meanings, we achieve the atonement and closeness to G‑d that a sacrifice accomplishes.

Avodah: We replace the sacrificial “service of G‑d” with prayer, the service of the heart articulated in words. In the words of the prophet Hosea: “We will render the prayers of our lips in place of the sacrifices of bullocks.”8 As such, the three daily prayers are in place of the daily “services” and sacrifices that were performed in the Temple. On Shabbat we add the Musaf prayer, since an additional sacrifice was offered in the Temple every Shabbat. Another avenue to fill the void.

Gemilut Chassadim: Giving charity, giving of oneself, is also considered to be a method of finding atonement. One who gives his hard-earned money to charity is, in a sense, truly giving of himself—sacrificing himself for the greater good. This might be the ultimate form of sacrifice, as he is really giving something of himself—money that could have been spent for his personal benefit and gain.

After all is said and done, though, your question should really remain a question. We should ask this question of G‑d every day, asking Him when He will return to us the Temple in Jerusalem, so that we will once and for all truly be able to fill this void with the real McCoy.

I hope this helps.

All the best,

Rabbi Shmuel Kogan,

It is interesting to note that in the latter two places the Torah describes the offering as “making atonement for the soul,” which is the same expression as that used in the verse in Leviticus discussed in the next footnote.
In fact, even the verse that is most often cited as “proof” for this notion is in fact discussing the dietary laws and the reason why it is forbidden to eat blood. The reason given is: “For the soul of the flesh is in the blood, and I have therefore given it to you [to be placed] upon the altar, to atone for your souls; for it is the blood that atones for the soul.” (Leviticus 17:11) In other words, all it says is that blood contains the vitality of the animal, and that consequently, when we bring an animal sacrifice, its blood serves as the atoning agent; but not that blood is the only means to obtain atonement.
Ethics of the Fathers 1:2.
Rabbi Shmuel Kogan of Brooklyn, NY, is a responder for's Ask the Rabbi feature.
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Ben Newell March 30, 2015

Could you tell me the approximate time of the morning and afternoon prayers that occurred in the temple and were trumpets use to start them? Reply

Isaac May 1, 2014

Hmm, interesting point; thanks! Reply

Anonymous St Paul April 30, 2014

I am A Muslim and I often get this same routine argument "God only forgave through blood sacrifice" and he can only forgive sins in such a way. Funny how many Christians believe that God can do anything and everything, but turn around and confine him to only forgiving by a certain process. I am certain Elohim forgives sins through various venues. Biases are not at all easy to leave aside! Reply

Isaac April 21, 2014

So, the question that I keep having is "Why did G-d even setu up the sacrificial/alter/temple system, if it is ultimately not required?". Reply

Anonymous Minneapolis November 23, 2017
in response to Isaac:

Because it signifies the acknowledgement of transgression remember that God took Abel's sacrifice over Cain's because it was more valuable when the blood is shed it cried out to the most high signifying that a sacrifice has been made Reply

Tanya Wohner February 24, 2011

atonement It has been my experience that if I am truly sorry and go to G-d and beg Him to forgive me and to reveal Himself to me, He does. My prayer to Him has been "please show me the way and make certain that I know that the reply is from G-d and then the hardest part of the prayer is please give me the courage to obey" .... It is absolutely amazing how He responds and what I have had to do....... Reply

reed lv, tx/usa October 10, 2008

Bulls of our lips god will accept our words of repentance as sacrifice. Reply

Moishele Fort Dix, NJ February 5, 2008

Response to Anon of Jan. 31 There's a great discussion about this exact question by Tzvi Freeman on this site:

The short answer is yes; but there you will find it elaborately discussed and explained, with many common questions and misconceptions dealt with. Reply

M.D. February 1, 2008

RE: Atonement through sacrifice I was asked this question by an evangelical also. He was alluding to JC. Aside from the above mentioned quote that our prayers take the place of sacrifices, here is a great point: We dont need sacrifices for atonement. The proof? The entire book of Esther is about the Jews gaining atonement. How? Through prayer, repentance, and fasting. In addition, the entire book of Jonah deals with a non Jewish city of Ninveh gaining atonement through repentance. It neither case was sacrifices necessary. It both cases atonement and forgiveness was granted by G-d. I hope this helps. Reply

Anonymous January 31, 2008

Atonement in the absence of sacrifices Are you saying that if the Temple in Jerusalem were rebuilt you'd go back to sacrificing animals?? Reply

Lawrence Santa Ana, CA January 30, 2008

Atonement through scrifice In my city, this question is usually asked to respond to Christian friends who say that "the Bible says that without blood sacrifice there can be no atonement," meaning Jesus' crucifixion. Are there any other ways of answering these challenges? Reply

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