Contact Us

The Temple Mount As Sacred Space

The Temple Mount As Sacred Space

At the threshold of reality


In any field of inquiry, the most interesting aspect is always thresholds. Interfaces between two systems.

To an ecologist, mountains are interesting for their alpine forests and vertically oriented fauna. Plains are interesting for their grasses and swamps. But nothing is as fascinating as the foothills, where two ecosystems meet.

One of the most interesting (and useful) fields today is that of “human interface”—the place where people and their machines meet. And then there is the study of chaoplexity—the fascinating border between rigid order and total randomness, where things such as amoebas, bond traders, Chabad House rabbis and the like occur. In halachah (Torah law), there is much discussion on the status of twilight—the gray area between when day stops and night begins. A gateway is one of the most common metaphors of Torah: a place where you are neither in nor out, but part of both.

Torah generally talks in terms of dual systems: heaven and earth; G‑d and man; creator and created; nothingness and something. So if we want to get into fascinating territory, we can ask: Where do they meet, and what happens there?

The first description of such a place was given by Jacob, the third of the three fathers of the Jewish people. On his way leaving the land of Canaan he slept at a place and dreamt of a ladder with messengers of G‑d ascending and descending. When he awoke, he exclaimed, “Y‑H‑V‑H (we pronounce that ‘Havayeh,’ as the Torah instructs us not to pronounce the four-letter name of G‑d the way it is written; more about this name later) is in this place, and I didn’t realize!” Once this realization had hit him, he trembled and said, “This place is awesome!” (The classic Aramaic translation reads, “This is not a normal place.”) And then, “This could only be the house of Elokim, and this is the gateway of heaven!”

It was more than seven hundred years before Jacob’s vision could be fulfilled, when King Solomon built the Holy Temple on that mountain, placed the Holy of Holies around that spot, and placed the holy ark on the rock where Jacob had laid his head to rest. The rabbis of the Talmud call that rock “the foundation stone”—because, they say, from it the world was begun. Read that as “the origin of something from nothing, and the place where the two meet.”

What happened in that space? It met with anti-space. This is how it worked:

The chamber of the Holy of Holies measured twenty cubits by twenty cubits. The ark was placed in the center, measuring two and a half by one and a half cubits. From the southern wall of the chamber to the adjacent side of the ark measured ten cubits. The same measurement was taken on the north side of the chamber.

You’re reading correctly: The ark took up no space. Or, to be more precise, from the frame of reference of the dimensions of the chamber, the ark occupied no space. The ark itself had to take up two and a half by one and a half cubits, because those are the dimensions specified for it by the Torah in order to be an ark that can go in this chamber and not take up space.

To get to the point: Space and non-space met, but neither canceled out the other. Which is exactly what Jacob said, “Havayeh is in this space!” and yet, “This is the house of Elokim.”

Jacob found himself in a place that expresses the essence of Torah. He found himself between two expressions of the one G‑d: Havayeh and Elokim.

Pantheism and idolatry arose by separating these two manifestations of the same G‑d. All people recognize that there are forces of nature. Some are smart enough to realize the unity of all these forces from observing how they harmonize together and are expressed in similar patterns. The ancients created from this understanding a sophisticated pantheon of divine beings. The more enlightened amongst them thought of these idols as mere reflections of the forces of nature. Yet, to this day, most people still accept these forces as being absolute and necessary. A world without gravity or electromagnetic waves is almost as unthinkable as a world without TV. Never mind the absence of time, space and logic themselves.

G‑d as the force behind all natural forces is expressed by the name Elokim. When the Torah discusses the creation of the world by ten sayings, it uses this name, as in “Elokim said, ‘It should be light’—and there was light.” So this is G‑d expressed within time and space and all that we can observe. G‑d as He is immanent.

But at the essence of everything is something that is beyond all of them. Something that cannot be defined as the perfection of them, nor as the absence of them. Something that cannot be defined at all. Havayeh is G‑d as He is beyond all that can be known. Transcendent. “I am Havayeh, I have not changed.” Beyond time and space and any reasoning we could apply. The very source of all being. As Maimonides writes, “If He is, then all else is. But if He is not, then nothing else can be.” Miracles, Torah and tzaddikim are manifestations of Havayeh in the world.

Interestingly, the ancient pantheons, from Egypt to Norway, generally included an original god from whom all things began. But that godhead remained entirely aloof from the whole hierarchy. After all, getting involved in the petty world that arose from his essential being would contaminate his perfect oneness. And so Pharaoh said to Moses, “Who is Havayeh that I should listen to His voice?” Pharaoh didn’t deny the existence of such a being, just the idea that He would care to mix into Egypt’s internal politics.

Abraham was the first to smash this dichotomy. He introduced the idea that the same One G‑d who originated all things, He also has an intimate concern about what goes on down here. Until Abraham, the Midrash says, G‑d was L‑rd of the heavens. Abraham made Him G‑d of heaven and earth. Abraham said, “See all these forces of nature? All your gods of wind and fire and love and war and fertility and playfulness? They are no more than manifestations of a single, transcendent being who does not change and from whom all things come. As He can be found infinite and unchanging at the essence that precedes all things, so He can be found in the ephemeral, temporal world in which we live. Havayeh is Elokim. In truth, there is nothing else but Him.”

Jacob, Abraham’s grandson, was delighted to find a place where there was no doubt as to his grandfather’s wisdom. He had found the place where space began, the one place which was not dominated by G‑d as Elokim, but where Havayeh is in this place. He envisioned a time when his own descendants would build a house there, a means by which such a revelation could be captured and projected out into the entire world. Until “No one will teach his fellow, saying, ‘Know Havayeh!’ because all of them will know Me, from their smallest to their greatest, says Havayeh.”

Although that is a nice place to end, there is a question left that needs to be answered:

Returning to the space of the ark that took up no space, you may ask: How could space remain in the midst of a revelation of non-space? Space is a limitation. When all limitations are blasted away by a revelation of Havayeh, space should altogether disappear. Expecting otherwise is like expecting the shadows to remain when all the lights are turned on.

An easy answer is, “It’s a miracle. G‑d can do anything.” However, that’s a last-resort answer. First we need to see if there’s something we can sink our teeth into, before declaring it out of our bounds.

One way out is to ask, “Perhaps our understanding of space is not what space really is?” By acknowledging that there could be non-space, we have already cast away the impression that space is an absolute given, something that just is and must be. The same G‑d who created a world bound by time and space could have come up with something else altogether—although we creatures of time and space would be hard put to imagine such a thing.

But we could go even further: Is space a static thing? Or is it an event which is continually being renewed out of the void?

If we choose the second option, we can then see space itself as just another expression of that which is beyond space. The One G‑d expresses Himself as non-space and as space—but He is neither. And the very fact that the two can coexist is a demonstration of this idea: that He is neither of them, but rather that which is beyond both.

This is the connection between this space and the third of the forefathers: Although the world is generally a binary place, there is a third factor, that which binds and unites all opposites together—even space and non-space. And that, too, is the revelation exemplified by the Third Temple, may it be built very soon, sooner than we can imagine.

Based on “Gadol Yihyeh 5722,” a discourse by the Lubavitcher Rebbe.

Rabbi Tzvi Freeman, a senior editor at, also heads our Ask The Rabbi team. He is the author of Bringing Heaven Down to Earth. To subscribe to regular updates of Rabbi Freeman's writing, visit Freeman Files subscription. FaceBook @RabbiTzviFreeman Periscope @Tzvi_Freeman .
© Copyright, all rights reserved. If you enjoyed this article, we encourage you to distribute it further, provided that you comply with's copyright policy.
Join the Discussion
Sort By:
1000 characters remaining
Lynne Newington Australia December 13, 2016

Response to TZ Freeman One wouldn't think so but they're certainly making up for it now.
*The Vatican Wants the Temple Mount IsraelNational News.
And if you've ever read Diplomatic Relations between the Holy See and the State of Israel: Policy Basis in the Pontifical Documments [1948-1997], the second page is pretty clear on their aspirations and with all the Papal Knighthoods handed out to various prominant members of the Jewish community just to sweeten them up.....

If I forget you Jerusalem, may my right hand wither; may my tongue remain stuck to my palateif I do not keep you in my mind, if I do not count Jerusalem the greatest of my joys. Reply

Anonymous Cornwall UK December 4, 2016

At the threshold of reality. BBC's book of the week, last week, was 'Reality is not What it Seems'
and I listened to some excerpts. I intend to read the book. We are aware that scientists often discount the Divine in their understanding of the universe and of human existence. It is helpful to know that the Rebbe, of blessed memorial, was conscious of that discipline and able to set it within the context of the boundless realms revealed by accepting the Divine aspect as essential to our understanding and use of existence in this life. Without this wise acceptance of both, science becomes 'soul-less', and religion impracticable. We need science to be guided by awareness of what is right and beneficial, and we need practical knowledge of how to put to effective use the available material in order to perfect our world, not according to human aims but according to the nature of
the Divine creative power that initiates and sustains existence as we know it. I hope to find, in Ravello, evidence of this in mind. Reply

Lynne Newington Australia July 26, 2015

Tzv Freeman respnse. I have a great library and try to keep up with Jewish current affairs, agendas of others and their powers of persuasion.
Investigative journalist Joel Bainerman in particular, [R.I.P.] was one author who had a great insight and I went searching for his works after reading a couple of recent articles in Arutz Sheva last week, *In Honour of Tisha B'Av: Palestinians Say Holy Temple was Roman 24th July and *Thousands "March" for Sovereignty in Jerusalem 26th July.
Not being Jewish it's a little difficult and as an "outsider", I do support your Prime Minister absolutely, even that, I'm not sure if this site does. Reply

Tzvi Freeman July 26, 2015

For Lynne You will be hard put to find a claim to the Temple Mount in the holy books of any other religion. Reply

Lynne Newington Australia July 24, 2015

The Temple Mount a Sacred Place From my understanding [and stand to be corrected] there are two other monolithic religions laying claim to the Temple Mount......and at least one taking priority over all. Reply

Gaey W. Harper Saylorsburg, PA July 22, 2015

It is much like going to the Other Side, where the space found within, is so much larger than the apparent space, as seen from without. Reply

Gene Colo February 22, 2015

Yes. This is as it should be. I did have a problem with the idea that G-d Had to make space for the world to be created. Now you Rabbi Freeman have defined or brought to light my sense of All ability of my supreme creator. If Eloheim did it there He did it also at creation if need be. Thank you Reply

Anonymous North Carolina July 30, 2014

Pronunciation of YHWH You said: “Y‑H‑V‑H (we pronounce that ‘Havayeh,’ as the Torah instructs us not to pronounce the four-letter name of G‑d the way it is written; more about this name later)"

Where can I find more information about this?

Anonymous Kingman, Arizona July 9, 2013

Do I have this right concerning 1) The foundation stone is where Havayeh and Elokim meet. 2) Light was concealed within darkness. When Elokim said 'It should be light - and there was light' the light was manifested out of the darkness. Thus, in the beginning Havayeh and Elokim meet. 3) The name Elokim represents G-d's Divine Attribute of Justice/Judgment while the name Havayeh represents G-d's Divine Attribute of Mercy 4) Light represents G-d's Divine Attribute of Mercy while darkness represents G-d's Divine Attribute of Justice/Judgment. 5) The Third Temple is the house of Elokim and Havayeh is in the space of the Third Temple. Reply

Rabbi Tzvi Freeman Thornhill November 24, 2012

Re: Space is not a primary dimension Einstein only deals with relative space and time, that is space and time as we are able to measure them. Here we are dealing with the very concepts of space and time--the very possibility for them to exist. This is also a creation, as explained by Rabbi Menachem Azaria of Fano, and the Maggid of Mezritch. See my article on this si teWhat Is Time? for more on this topic. Reply

Anonymous November 22, 2012

modern physics comment #1 Tzvi can you comment on #1 Reply

Anonymous Memphis, Tn November 20, 2012

Space is not a primary dimension, nor is the Creation bounded by space Although our senses insist otherwise, Einstein's physics conceives of space as a secondary quantity. It comes into being as the cosmos expands. Thus, the cosmos does not fill pre-existing space, for none exists prior to the cosmic creation--the quantity of space is forever changing as the cosmos expands. This Einsteinian view of the cosmos underlies modern cosmology and is compatible with the idea that G-d's Creation is, indeed, not bounded by space, despite the evidence derived from our senses. By implication, the duality of space and non-space discussed by Freeman is a misconception that is resolved by modern physics. Reply

Anonymous Virginia Beach, VA February 3, 2011

Awesome, as always! As always, another excellent piece of writing by Rabbi Freeman!

As a gentile who has long been interested in different man-made religions, it amazes me how well the Torah is able to respond to all the questions of every type of people - however they may think and whatever their culture may be.

This establishment of duality vs. non-duality as fact simply blows Hindu/Buddhist concepts of this issue out of the water!

May G-d bless you and your whole family, Rabbi Freeman! Reply

Violeta via December 11, 2009

The Holy Temple This is truly awesome!!!!!!!

Violeta Reply

Chaya Buchman Melbourne, VIC November 14, 2007

Bethel The Sages do have a tradition for saying that Har HaBayit, Har HaMoriah and Bethel are the same place. There are several other names for Har HaBayit, as there are for many other parts of Israel as well.

Hope this helps! Reply

Anonymous August 11, 2007

the mount I thought this was intresting, but I thought Jacob had this dream at Bethel, not Har Habayit?
Do our sages have a tradition saying that they were the same, or that there was a differnt Bethel? Reply

Benyamin February 21, 2007

Rationalisation Hello Tzvi, I greatly enjoyed the article, very nice reiteration. The boundary areas are truely the frontier. The exciting place is not the one that is here. we know this. And it isn't beyond. We can't access that. It lies at the very limit of our comprehension. An incarnate, observable reality that we just can't fully fathom, but somehow we are able to access, observe, realise, and ponder. I do not see in any way how you are "rationalizing" the phenomenon. You seem simply to be standing firm in not taking the easy way out by declaring a miracle (though a miracle it was). the fun part is in recognizing that it's the "logical", "reasonable" reality we encounter day by day that is in fact the "reality" that's truely miraculous. Reply

Anonymous Taylors, SC, USA February 21, 2007

At the Threshold Beautiful, simply beautiful.

And agreed, may the temple be built soon, sooner than we all expect. A temple appropriate for our time, our situation, and for the worship of our immanent and transcendent G-d. Reply

Yael Leah Jerusalem February 21, 2007

first of all thank you - your article brougth back a memory of a few years ago, when I decided to take a "short" walk in an area close to where I used to live -between two parallel streets - in one of the neighborhoods of Jerusalem- at that time I had just started to learn Torah. In one of the classes one of the Rabbanim was talking about Eretz Hatzvi. So Eretz Yisrael stretches...! I thougth then, religious people tend to exagurate - and as I took my walk (which I thought would only take 10 minutes) I discovered little paths that led to areas that did not seem to fit between these two parallel streets - courtyards, and more took me more than half an hour. I thought to myself...where am I? what is happening? HOw could this be? A new level of consioussness was revealed to me. And after reading your article one more...thank you! Reply

Anne Margrethe Lund Oslo, Norway August 4, 2006

Thank you for excellent teaching! Thank you for excellent teaching. I am filled with joy and awe when reading the different teachings about the holy temple and the different names of the Holy One. Reply