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Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylonia, had accomplished his purpose. He had completely subdued the Kingdom of Judah and destroyed its capital of Jerusalem and its most sacred shrine, the Holy Temple. He had slain or captured most of the royal family and the nobility of the land. The upper classes of the Jewish people, including the leaders of the priesthood and the chief civil and military officers, were led captives en masse to Babylon. Many of them were mercilessly put to death at Riblah. Judah was crushed and bereaved of its best sons.

However, Nebuchadnezzar did not wish to turn the land of Judah into a complete desert. He permitted the poorer classes to remain in Judah to till the soil and to tend their vineyards. Over them Nebuchadnezzar had appointed Gedaliah, the son of Ahikam, as governor.

The prophet Jeremiah had been allowed to choose between remaining in Judah and going to Babylon as an honored guest of the Babylonian royal house. He chose to remain with his brethren on the holy soil. Jeremiah went to Mizpah, a short way north of Jerusalem, where Gedaliah had established the seat of his governorship, and offered him his fullest support. Gedaliah gratefully accepted, and Mizpah now became also the spiritual center of the people.

Gedaliah was a wise man, gentle and modest. He zealously began to encourage the people to cultivate the fields and vineyards, and thus lay the foundation of security. Under the wise administration of Gedaliah, the Jewish community began to prosper. Its fame began to spread abroad. Many Jews who had fled to places of safety in neighboring lands during the war of destruction were attracted by the news of the revival of the Jewish community in Judah. They came to Gedaliah in Mizpah and were warmly welcomed by him.

The Jewish governor exhorted his brethren to remain loyal to the king of Babylonia, and promised them peace and security. His advice was well taken. The Babylonian garrison stationed in the land did not molest them—on the contrary, it offered them protection against unfriendly neighbors. The young Jewish commonwealth was well on its way to recovery when it was suddenly struck by a cowardly deed of treachery and bloodshed.

Among the refugees who had joined Gedaliah in Mizpah was Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah, a descendant of the royal house of Zedekiah, the last king of Judah. Ishmael was an ambitious man who would stop at nothing to attain his goal. The honor and success that Gedaliah had won filled him with cruel jealousy. Ishmael began to plot against Gedaliah. He found an ally in the king of Ammon, who had been following with apprehension the growth of the new Jewish colony.

The conspiracy became known to Johanan, the son of Kareah, a devoted officer of Gedaliah. Johanan warned the governor of the danger threatening his person. Gedaliah, however, being of a true and generous nature, shrank from believing such treachery. When Johanan offered to slay Ishmael secretly before the latter could carry out his evil plans, Gedaliah indignantly rejected the proposal.

In the meantime, Ishmael bided his time. Before long the opportunity which he was waiting for presented itself. He was invited by the governor to a feast at Mizpah on Rosh Hashanah. Ishmael arrived at the banquet in the company of ten followers. During the feast, the ruthless band attacked and slew the governor. Having assassinated their host, they commenced a terrible massacre. Ishmael murdered many prominent followers of Gedaliah, and put to the sword the small Chaldean garrison stationed at Mizpah. His murderous deed accomplished, Ishmael left Mizpah with many captives, heading for Ammon.

Johanan and a few of his brave men had escaped the massacre, for they were not in Mizpah at that time. When Johanan learned of the terrible tragedy, be rallied additional help and pursued the assassin. Overtaking Ishmael near Gibeon in Benjamin, Johanan succeeded in freeing the captives, but Ishmael, with a few followers, managed to escape to the land of Ammon.

The plight of the Jews was now sad indeed. The assassination of Gedaliah and of the Babylonian garrison would draw the wrath of Nebuchadnezzar upon the remnants of the people in Judah. They were sorely afraid of his punishment. Yet whither could they turn? The only haven of refuge seemed to be Egypt, where the hand of Nebuchadnezzar had not reached yet. But that country was hateful to them. Although some nine hundred years had passed since their ancestors had been liberated from Egypt after centuries of slavery, Egypt was still regarded with aversion. Their despair and fright was so great, however, that the poor people did decide to seek escape in Egypt, and set out on their way southward.

The hard-pressed Jews halted in Beit Lechem and turned to Jeremiah for advice. The faithful prophet, who had shared in all their trials and misfortunes and had clung to them with unwavering affection, was still among them. To him they now turned their anxious eyes, promising to abide by whatever counsel he might give them.

For ten days Jeremiah prayed to G‑d, and finally he received a divine message which he immediately told to the assembled people:

“Thus says the G‑d of Israel . . . If you will still dwell in this land, I will build you, and not destroy you, and I will plant you, and not pluck you up . . . Fear not the king of Babylonia, of whom you are afraid . . . for I am with you to save you . . . But if you say, ‘We will not dwell in this land,’ disobeying the voice of your G‑d, saying, ‘No, but we will go into the land of Egypt’ . . . then it shall come to pass that the sword which you feared shall overtake you there in the land of Egypt, and the famine whereof you were afraid shall follow close after you in Egypt; and there you shall die . . . G‑d hath spoken to you, O remnant of Judah, go not to Egypt; know you with certainty, for I have warned you this day!”

But Jeremiah’s words fell on deaf ears. The people had already formed their resolution, and had hoped only that the prophet would confirm it. In spite of their solemn pledge to Jeremiah that they would follow his advice, they accused the prophet of plotting together with his disciple Baruch, the son of Neriah, to deliver them into the hands of the Chaldeans. Then they all proceeded on their way to Egypt, forcing Jeremiah and Baruch to accompany them.

When the refugees reached the border of Egypt, they halted. Here Jeremiah once again warned his brethren that the safety they sought in Egypt would be short-lived. He predicted that before long Egypt would be conquered by Nebuchadnezzar and destroyed. The prophet further warned them of the dangers besetting them in mixing with the idolatrous Egyptians. If they should return to idolatry, which had been the cause of all their misfortunes in the past, they would seal their fate beyond hope.

Unfortunately, the prophet’s warnings and entreaties were in vain. The Jewish refugees settled in Egypt, and before long, abandoned their faith in G‑d. They sank to the level of the heathen practices of the Egyptians.

A few years later there was a political upheaval in Egypt when Pharaoh Hophra was assassinated. Nebuchadnezzar took advantage of the situation. He invaded and destroyed the land, and most of the Jewish refugees perished in this invasion and war. Thus Jeremiah’s dreadful prophecy came true again.

Where and when the aged prophet died is not known with certainty. It is believed that he and his faithful disciple Baruch spent their last years with their exiled brethren in Babylon.

In memory of the assassination of Gedaliah and the tragedy that it brought upon our brethren in those days, so soon after the destruction of the Holy Temple, we fast on the third day of Tishrei, the Fast of Gedaliah.

Excerpted from The Complete Story of Tishrei, published and copyright by Kehot Publication Society, Brooklyn NY
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Elnora Hasberry June 7, 2016

So happy to read this biblical story. My son was born blind and on the day of his birth the name I had was changed by his father, my husband. Just like that he just open the Bible and got this name. We we knew nothing about Gedaliah at that time. I do believe the Lord Almighty had that name pick out for him already. Oh God I love them so much . I know God is with him and he is having such a hard time now as a young men but God is going to fix it and make him happy and well. This I have always known and believed. Thank you for the sharing.

Emh mcgill Reply

Dovber USA March 17, 2015

Boaz, one of the Ten Martyr's names was Ishmael. He was the Cohen Gadol too.
Not many people know this but Ishmael ben Avraham was a baal teshuva.
Although Ishmael may be the forefather of the Arabs, he himself was not a wicked person (in his later years). Reply

Boaz usa September 28, 2014

Why would a Jew have the name Ishmael? Very curious....was he even a Jew? Reply

Dina September 28, 2014

Tzom Gedalia This is yet another fast connected to the churban, the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash. With this tragedy, the destruction was complete - and we're still waiting for it to turn around. Reply

Rabbi Shmuel Zvi Sydney via September 9, 2013

Tzom Gedalia The association to Rosh Hashana is due to the assassination being on the actual day of RH ( or in close proximity, the 3rd day of the same month of Tishrei) Reply

Levi September 8, 2013

Why Ishmael killed Gedaliah Ahron good question was asking the same thing. Some commentators suggested ishmael wanted to be governor himself because of his descendance from royalty. Others say Ishmael saw Gedaliahs support for Nebuchanezzar and Babylon as treason. While Ishmael's own reasons are disputed it is clear (see Jeremiah 40) that Ishmael was sent by Baalis the King of Ammon (today modern Jordan) to kill Gedaliah. What also becomes clear is the importance to take advantage of this auspicious time (the fast of Gedaliah) to strengthen ourselves through increasing the study of Torah and in turn our relationship with Hashem and our brothers in Israel. Reply

Rabbi Menachem Posner September 20, 2012

Why Gedaliah Seems that this event was the final nail in Jewish dignified settlement in Israel. Yes, he was but one man, but his death resulted in the end of an era, the end of a dream - for the time being. Reply

Anonymous Glen Head September 19, 2017
in response to Rabbi Menachem Posner:

it only makes sense to fast and take time for rememberance of this great man, and how it put a parenthesis around a part of our history. Reply

Nosson Beijing September 20, 2012

Gedalia It seems to me that the reason this story is so powerful and we fast, is that we still had some hope left in Gedalia and Israel was still inhabited and with Gedalia's death that hope was gone. Le us counter hate and jealousy with boundless love and respect. Reply

Anonymous teaneck, nj September 19, 2012

Tzom Gedalia I am sorry but I still dont understand what this has to do with Rosh Hashana? Gedalia might have been a great man, but there have been countless great men in our history that were murdered. The Jews didnt listen to Jeremiah since he began his prophecies, so why make a big deal about it now? Am I to believe that I need to fast today just because of Gedalia being murdered? Why not when Isiah was murdered by his grandson, or the Kohen Gadol was murdered, or any other tragedy in the Jewish calander? I believe that the sages knew what they were doing in choosing the story of Gedalia, but whenever I ask for an explanation I am told this story (in many different forms) that does not explain WHY we are fasting. Reply

Anonymous September 19, 2012

I wonder if Yirmiyahu's entreaty to remain in the Land of Israel - and to do otherwise is to 'disobey the word of G-d' - is guiding instructions for Jews throughout all ages? Reply

Gedaliah London, U.K. February 13, 2012

Gedaliah A very well written article about a great man who was assassinated.
My name is Gedaliah who spent over 4 years as a young boy in a Habonim hostel in Devonshire. I was named Gedaliah because I arrived there on the commemoration day fast in October 1940 Reply

Shimon Blackman Israel September 25, 2017
in response to Gedaliah:

Hi Gedaliah,
I know that it is more than five years since you wrote this post, but in the hope that you are still with us, I wish you a shana tova and gmar hatima tova.
My father was also evacuated to Habonim in Dorset, I believe it was in Dawlish. Is this where you were?
Shimon Blackman Reply

Anonymous salford October 5, 2011

re Sheepshead Bay Anonymous from Atlanta. Are you sure the people were tossing bread into the bay? They may have been performing the ritual of Tashlich, a prayer said by a stream or lake,; traditionally and symbolically, one 'empties one's pockets of one's misdeeds into the river' at the end of the prayer.
Hope that helps. Reply

Anonymous atlanta, ga October 3, 2011

Sheepshead bay, NY I saw people tossing bread into the bay on Oct 2 in the evening -- apparently some sort of ritual. Can anyone explain the meaning of this ritual? Reply

Anonymous Eilat, Israel October 2, 2011

Tzom Gedalia I truly appreciate this well written description of our tragic history. After reviewing other websites I turned to Chabad and received the full story. As other commented and questioned so appropriately: why are we so self-destructive and stubborn? Why do we find it so hard to be followers' of HaShem's word? Hopefully we can change and bring the Mashiach in our day. . This past year was not a good one from Am Yisroel with other senseless murders involving Jews against Jews. We need HaShem's help!!!! Reply

Anonymous San Diego, CA via September 21, 2009

Because of disobedience Pain is a part of our history because of our stiff necked disobedience of G-d's commands. Reply

Aharon November 8, 2008

A remorseful event? Perhaps it is the truth of the old parental warning, "That's what happens when you don't listen." The story of Gedaliah, et al, reminds us we don't/can't always understand, nor are we supposed to understand, what G-d tells us -- our position is only to listen and obey.
On another note ... how is it that another Ishmael -- someone with the same name as Abraham's other son -- would come to do harm to his own bretheren? Reply

Anonymous via October 2, 2008

A Remorseful Event I stare blankly at the computer screen and ask myself, "Why?? Why is such pain so much apart of our history?" Reply

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