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Is a non-Jewish housekeeper permitted to turn on our oven or stove?

Is a non-Jewish housekeeper permitted to turn on our oven or stove?


You are correct that certain food cooked entirely by a non-Jew may not be eaten by a Jew.

Here are a few paragraphs from the Kosher Handbook:

Certain foods which were completely cooked by a non-Jew (bishul akum) may not be eaten, even if the foods are kosher and are cooked in kosher utensils.

Foods that generally come under the category of bishul akum are: 1) Foods that cannot be eaten raw, such as meat or grains. (This excludes foods that can be eaten either cooked or raw, such as apples or carrots.) 2) Foods that are considered important, "fit to set upon a king's table." There are various opinions regarding what are considered "royal foods."

If a Jew has supervised and assisted in the cooking of these foods, such as by lighting the fire of the oven or stirring the food, such food is considered bishul Yisrael and is permitted.

These laws affect many commercially prepared foods. Some supervising services write the words bishul Yisrael on their hechsher (Kosher certification). These laws must also be kept in mind when enlisting the help of a non-Jewish housekeeper or cook."

The key is not so much that a non-Jew may not light the fire as that a Jew must light the fire or otherwise participate in the cooking in a meaningful way in order to render the food kosher.

If a non-Jew cooked the food alone, without Jewish participation, the food as well as the utensils are not kosher and the utensils must be koshered.

Important Note: The above follows the accepted custom of Ashkenazi Jewry relying on the ruling of the Rama1 who contends that symbolic participation in the cooking process such as lighting or adding to the fire is sufficient to render the food permissible.

On the other hand, Sephardim follow the ruling of the Beit Yosef2 who maintains that in the case of cooked foods a Jew must actually place the food on the fire.

I hope that I've been helpful today.

Yours truly,

Rabbi Menachem Posner


Code of Jewish Law, Yoreh De'ah 113:7.



Rabbi Menachem Posner serves as staff editor for
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Anonymous London March 31, 2016

Are you allowed to place already cooked food before shabbat into an already turned on oven on shabbat? What is the sephardi(rav ovadia)/ashkenazi ruling for this? Reply

Shaul Wolf August 8, 2014

Re: Jewish kid So long as any part of the cooking process is done by a Jew, irrespective of their age, the food is Kosher and is not considered to be food cooked by a non-Jew. Reply

Anonymous May 11, 2014

can a jewish kid -- not yet Bar Mitzah, supervise the maid and turn on the fire? will that render the food kosher? Reply

Menachem Posner April 30, 2013

To Annonymous As I see it, the problem with your first line of reasoning is that once we start rationalizing exceptions, everyone would start claiming exemption, saying that they would not be tempted. For this reason, the halachah applies to all Jews, regardless of personal circumstances. Reply

Anonymous April 30, 2013

I see this in two ways.
1. If the rule was created in order to avoid the mixing of jews with non-jews, thus preventing intermarriage, then the "non-jewish health aid" should be ok to cook for an elderly jew. Afterall, the likelihood of such a couple deciding to marry should be quite remote.
2. If the jew can participate even in a small amount so that the food is considered Kosher, then the mixing of gentiles with jews is already taking place. The original reason for the rule would then fail because cooking together brings a feeling of closeness which could lead to romance and a desire to marry.

What is the rabbi's opinion on this? Reply

Anonymous Miami Beach August 30, 2011

Participating in cooking What if you defrost, marinate, and prepare the chicken, but are not home to turn on oven, but you have participated in preparing the food except for turning on oven.....does that keep it kosher?? Reply

Mrs. Mimi Ekeremor May 17, 2011

Non Jewish housekeeper What about if a Jew is to ill to even place the food on the fire and has no other assistance but from a non Jew? Reply

Anonymous Flushing, NY November 22, 2010

Bishul Akum What do you do in the case of an elderly person who has a non jewish health aid? What do you do about the non jewish aid doing the cooking? Reply

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