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What Makes a Jew "Jewish"?

What Makes a Jew "Jewish"?



Is Judaism a "religion"? Is the term "non-religious Jew" an oxymoron? Can one still be Jewish without observing the edicts and ethos of Torah in one's daily life?


Jews defy all conventional definitions of a "people" or "nation." We lack a common race, culture or historical experience. While we all share our eternal rights to the Land of Israel, for all but a few centuries of the last 4,000 years the overwhelming majority of Jews have not lived or even set foot in the Jewish homeland.

Throughout our 3300-year history, what has defined us as Jews is a relationship and commitment. We are Jews because G‑d chose us to be His "cherished treasure from all the nations... a kingdom of priests and a holy people" (Exodus 19:5-6). We are Jews because G‑d chose us to play the central role in the implementation of His purpose in creation: to orientate our lives in accordance with His will, and to develop a society and world community that reflects His goodness and perfection.

The substance of this relationship, the charter of this commitment, is the Torah. The Torah is G‑d's concept of reality as communicated to man, the blueprint that describes the perfected world envisioned by its Creator and details the manner in which the Inventor of Life wishes it to be lived.

This would seem to define our Jewishness as a "religion": we are Jews because we adhere to the beliefs and practices mandated by the Torah. But the Torah itself says that this is not so.

The Torah itself proclaims (Leviticus 16:16) that G‑d "dwells amongst them in the midst of their impurities" — that His relationship with His people remains unaffected regardless of their behavior. In the words of the Talmud (Sanhedrin 44a), "A Jew, although he has transgressed, is a Jew."

According to Torah law, a person's Jewishness is not a matter of life-style or self-perception: one may be totally unaware of one's Jewishness and still be a Jew, or one may consider himself Jewish and observe all the precepts of the Torah and still not be a Jew.

In other words, it is the relationship between the Jew and his Creator that defines his Jewishness — not his acknowledgment of this relationship or his actualization of it in his daily life. It is not the observance of Torah's mitzvot (Divine "commandments") that makes him a Jew, but the commitment that the mitzvot represent.

The Essence of a Transgression

This is the deeper significance of the axiom, "A Jew, although he has transgressed, is a Jew."

The simple meaning of these words is that a Jew is still a Jew despite his transgressions. But on a deeper level, it is because he has transgressed that he is a Jew. A non-Jew who eats chametz (leavened bread) on Passover has done nothing wrong; likewise, his eating matzah on the Seder night has no moral or spiritual significance. But for a Jew, the mitzvot of Passover are a component of his relationship with G‑d: by observing them he is realizing this relationship and extending it to his daily life; if he violates them, G‑d forbid, he is transgressing — he is acting contrary to the commitment which defines his identity. Thus, in a certain sense, the fact of a Jew's transgression is no less an expression (albeit a negative one) of his relationship with G‑d than his observance of a mitzvah.

Indeed, the Hebrew word mitzvah means both "commandment" and "connection." The relationship between the word's two meanings can also be understood on two levels. On the behavioral level, we connect to G‑d through our fulfillment of His commandments. On a deeper level, we are inexorably connected to Him by virtue of the fact that He chose us as the object of His commandments. Obviously, these two levels of connection are two sides of the same coin, being the inner and outer faces of the same truth: our observance of the mitzvot is the manifestation, in our daily lives, of the intrinsic bond between G‑d and Israel.

The Six-Dimensional Link

The Zohar, the basic work of the Kabbalah, expresses this concept in the following manner:

There are three connections ('kishrin") that are bound to each other: G‑d, the Torah, and Israel —each consisting of a level upon a level, hidden and revealed. There is the hidden aspect of G‑d, and the revealed aspect; Torah, too, has both a hidden and a revealed aspect; and so it is with Israel, who also has both a hidden and a revealed aspect.

The Zohar goes on to describe the manner in which the Torah serves as the connecting link between G‑d and Israel: how the Torah is one with its Divine Author, and how the Jewish people connect to the Torah through their study and observance of its teachings.

But what are the "hidden" and "revealed" elements of G‑d, Torah and Israel? And what is their relevance to our connection to G‑d through His Torah?

The Zohar is intimating that these three "connections" are interlinked on two levels, both on a "hidden" and on a "revealed" plane. For each of the three interconnected links possesses both an explicit and an implicit dimension.

There is the so-called "revealed" aspect of G‑d — those expressions of His reality which He chooses to manifest within the created existence; and there is His "hidden" unknowable essence. The Jew, too, has his revealed and manifest self — the manner in which he expresses himself through his behavior; and his hidden, quintessential self. And the Torah, as outlined above, has both a more pronounced as well as a more implicit significance as the connecting link between G‑d and Israel.

On the "hidden" plane, the soul of the Jew is bound to the very essence of G‑d through the underlying relationship and commitment which Torah represents. Even if the Jew's life, on the conscious-behavioral level, is inconsistent with the revealed will of the Almighty, s/he is no "less" a Jew, G‑d forbid: no matter what, the "hidden" intrinsic bond that defines his Jewishness is unaffected. But in order to express this relationship on all levels of his being, in order to bring his life in line with her essence, the Jew must reiterate the connection on the "revealed" level. This s/he does by studying G‑d's Torah and observing its mitzvot.

The Third Juncture

There is, however, another, yet deeper meaning to the Zohar's words.

The above-cited passage speaks of "three connections which are bound to each other." The Aramaic word translated here as "connections" is kishrin, which literally means "knots."

At first glance, this seems to be an inaccurate usage. If Torah is the link between G‑d and Israel, then what we have are three entities (G‑d, Torah and Israel) linked via two connections (Israel's connection to Torah and the Torah's connection with the Almighty). Where do we have three knots/connections?

This brings us to a second definition of the "hidden" and "revealed" dimensions of the relationship between G‑d and Israel. The Midrash states:

Two things preceded G‑d's creation of the world: Torah and Israel. Still, I do not know which preceded which. But when Torah states "Speak to the Children of Israel...", "Command the Children of Israel...", and so on, I know that Israel preceded all (Tana D'vei Eliyahu Rabba, chapter 14)

In other words, G‑d created the world in order that Israel might implement His Divine plan for existence, as outlined in the Torah. So the concepts of "Israel" and "Torah" both precede the concept of a "world" in the Creator's "mind." Yet which is the more deeply rooted "idea" within the Divine consciousness, Torah or Israel? Does Israel exist so that the Torah be implemented, or does the Torah exist to serve the Jew in the fulfillment of his mission and the expression of his relationship with G‑d? If the Torah describes itself as a communication to Israel — the Midrash is saying — this presumes the concept of "Israel" as primary to that of "Torah."

This means that G‑d's relationship with Israel "pre-dates" (in the conceptual sense) the Torah, for the Torah comes to serve that relationship. In this sense, Israel is the "link" between the Torah and G‑d: the Torah's existence as the embodiment of the Divine wisdom and will is a result of Israel's existence and its connection with G‑d.

Thus, we have three connections linking G‑d, Israel and the Torah:

On the revealed level, the Torah serves as the link between G‑d and Israel: the Torah is connected to G‑d, and Israel is connected to the Torah. (This includes both levels of connection outlined above — the connection achieved through the performance of a mitzvah and the connection defined by the commitment itself ).

But on a deeper, more quintessential level, there exists a third connection: the "direct" connection between G‑d and His people which precedes the very concept of a Torah. On this level, Israel's involvement in Torah is what connects the Torah to G‑d — what causes Him to extend His infinite and wholly indefinable being into a medium of "Divine wisdom" and "Divine will." On this level, it is not the Jew who needs the Torah in order to be one with G‑d, but the Torah who "needs" the Jew to evoke G‑d's desire to project Himself via the Torah.

Nevertheless, the Torah is crucial to the Jew's relationship with G‑d. The essence of the Jew, as it is rooted within the essence of G‑d, is indeed one with its Source. But then it "descends" to become part of the created existence, assuming a distinct identity as a soul and then as a human being. So G‑d provided the Jew with His Torah. Through Torah, the Jew touches base with his own quintessential self and makes his intrinsic bond with his Creator a reality in his daily life.

(See also Moses Disappears)

From an address by the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson; translation/adaptation by Yanki Tauber.
Originally published in Week in Review.
Republished with the permission of If you wish to republish this article in a periodical, book, or website, please email
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Rabbi Yossi Grossbaum, for May 23, 2017

Is it really all that preposterous? It's not about a belief system - that can change. Consider it your spiritual DNA; just like your DNA can't change whether you like it or not, you're Jewish - even if your mother and grandmother don't subscribe to it. Reply

Deborah Chicago May 24, 2017
in response to Rabbi Yossi Grossbaum, for

DNA Hearing "you're Jewish" from a Rabbi is very encouraging - it is strange to experience rejection of who/what you are based on ideologic differences versus science. Thank you. Reply

Deborah Chicago May 18, 2017

Funny- My DNA showed 12 ethnicities including Ashkenazi Jew. And I have no doubt about myself being considered a Greek Italian Spanish (Iberian Peninsula) English Irish French German Eastern European Czek Turkish human being. Only the "Jewish" portion is called into question... Reply

Jael Trenton May 25, 2017
in response to Deborah:

Science doesn't dictate membership in a community or in a nation. You may have Spanish DNA, but that does not make you a Spanish citizen. Ditto for being a citizen of England, Germany, Turkey, or wherever.

Or, to take another tribal example, many American Indian tribes count you as a member if you are maternally descended from a tribal member. You may genetically be 96% non-Indian descent, but the father's descent doesn't matter, and the mother's father's descent doesn't matter, and on back--only the mother's mother's mother's descent matters. That is enough to make you a member of the tribe.

The same is true of the tribe of Judah. You can be maternally descended from us, or you can join us through a recognized procedure. There's nothing "funny" about it. Mothers matter, and I, as a mother, am happy to keep it that way.

If you want to be one of us, please join. You are most welcome to be one of us, if that is really what you want and if you'll stick by us. Love. Reply

Anonymous May 11, 2017

I am, according to the results of an DNA test, 6% Jewish. I have felt this connection throughput my life. Point blank, am I a Jew? Reply

Jonah Boston May 20, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

It does not matter whether your DNA is much or little.

What matters is your maternal lineage. Your mother's mother's mother's mother, all the way back, must be a Jew.

If your maternal ancestor is a convert, she was still a Jew.
If your maternal ancestor goes back to Mama Sarah, or back to a convert, you are a Jew, regardless of your father's lineage.
If not, or if you cannot prove maternal ancestry going back to Europe or the Middle East or any other Jewish community, then you can still convert, even if you have no Jewish DNA.

DNA does not matter.
You can either prove your maternal line, or you can convert.
Either way, you can be a Jew if you really want to.
All the best in brotherhood,

Jonah Reply

Chaim India May 3, 2017

If one stills their mind, in to oneness with G-d, tell me where is the jew? Any sense of identity exists on the level of the mind/ego even if it is on a very subtle/holy plane. When G-d is the only reality, then tell me, where is the inherent reality of divisions such as jew and non jew? The essence of every soul is one with G-d, is one part of G-d more holy than another? Do you beleive G-d has 'parts' surely not! the human mind is limited by its definitions, in Oneness there is only Oneness. Even if you say a non jews soul is this part of the soul of Adam and a jew is another, that is still a concept of the mind. For the saint or sage who sees in truth, he sees only G-d.
divisions exist on the level of mind, on the level of attachment and ego they cannot be called ultimately real, only on a phenomenal level. Any sense of being different, or being some-thing at all, first involves the establishing of one seperatness from G-d, this is surely the initual fall from grace. Only G-d exists Reply

Rabbi Shmary Brownstein for May 22, 2017
in response to Chaim:

To Chaim: There are many philosophies/religions that conceive of G-d as you describe Him. However, Torah and Chassidic thought teaches that G-d is a personal G-d, not just "a force" or "all that is." This means that He is sentient, involved in the details, and He chooses. This does not make Him less, but more. He does care whether we eat kosher or not etc. And He does relate differently to Jew and non-Jew. Not that He loves one and not the other, G-d forbid, but we are different. For a Jew to observe the Torah is not a lifestyle, but a manifestation of his or her essence. It is not something we graduate beyond to reach some universal nothingness.
For a fuller discussion, please see here Reply

Chaim India June 1, 2017
in response to Rabbi Shmary Brownstein:

Thank you for your response Rabbi,
Let me say that as i described the relationship with G-d, it does not reflect my full conception that you may have implied, as i concur with you of the personal relationship one has with Him. What is beautiful is that G-d has revealed Himself to not just the Jewish people but also to people from many lands and maternal descents. We come from the same eternal womb of G-d, i do not want to suggest that Jewishness is meaningless, there is a parable of the Baal Shem Tov 'The Palace of Illusion' it is in this spirt one may well say what i have said. If you read the Tanya for example you find the complete mirroring of other ancient spiritual texts, and words of the seers who belonged to not religion, they belonged exclusively to G-d. The revelation of G-d is available not just on Mt Sanai but in every moment to every devoted soul. when with his King as in the parable, there is no room for the sense of identity, no spiritual DNA only Spirit, Only his glory Reply

Chaim India June 1, 2017
in response to Rabbi Shmary Brownstein:

Thank you for your response Rabbi,
Let me say that as i described the relationship with G-d, it does not reflect my full conception that you may have implied, as I concur with you of the personal relationship one has with Him. What is beautiful is that G-d has revealed Himself to not just the Jewish people but also to people from many lands and maternal descents. We come from the same eternal womb of G-d, I do not want to suggest that Jewishness is meaningless, there is a parable of the Baal Shem Tov 'The Palace of Illusion' it is in this spirit one may well say what I have said. If you read the Tanya for example you find the complete mirroring of other ancient spiritual texts, and words of the seers who belonged to not religion, they belonged exclusively to G-d. The revelation of G-d is available not just on Mt Sinai but in every moment to every devoted soul. when with his King as in the parable, there is no room for the sense of identity, no spiritual DNA only Spirit, Only his glory Reply

Lisa Lovett CA December 8, 2016

Whether you follow whatever rules one's particular religion may be or not, my point is that if you have Jewish ancestry then you should seek genetic counseling and have your DNA tested. The reason that I am a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Survivor is because I was tested and my tumor was caught early. One more time: 1 in 40 people of Ashkenazi or European Jewish Ancestry are BRCA1 and/or 2 positive. 1 in 600 people in the general population are positive. TNBC is one of the fastest moving and fastest growing breast cancer that there is. Being BRCA 1 and/or 2 positive also causes what we now know my Aunt had and what I have: Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome. My Aunt died in 1991 from Ovarian cancer. These mutations may cause many other cancers. Many people on my Father's side of my family have had cancer and most have died from it. Reply

Samuel Rochester, NY November 3, 2016

Esther is right except for one thing: the word Christians don't call their way of life Christism. They reserve "ism" for everybody else. They invented the words "paganism," "Judaism," "Buddhism," "Hinduism" and even "Mohammedism".

The Jewish way of life is not an "ism". It is Torah. Read the Bible, the mishnah, the Talmud, the Shulchan Aruch. None of them uses the word "Judaism" for a Torah-true way of life. Since I learned who invented this word "Judaism," and why, I"ve avoided using it. We are Jews, yes, and our worship is to live according to Torah. That means the Ten Words, of which the first is to avoid worshipping strange gods, and the 613 mitzvot, of which the main ones are these: "Shma Yisrael: HaShem Kelokenu, HaShem Echad; And thou shalt love HaShem thy Gd with all thy heart and with all thy soul and with all thy might." And the next one is Lev 19:18: "love thy neighbor as thyself" and "love the stranger" and "if you see your enemy's donkey fallen under its load, you shall help him"....

This is not an ism. Reply

Esther Schrager Ohio October 30, 2016

"Jewish" is an adjective. Jewish food, Jewish culture, Jewish beliefs, Jewish actors, Jewish writers,etc.

Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. However, just to be even more confusing, it isn't necessary to follow any of the beliefs typical of Judaism to be a Jew. And the beliefs are very, shall we say, open to debate and discussion. Ask ten rabbis what followers of Judaism believe and you'll get 12 opinions.

"Jew" is a noun. It refers to a member of the Jewish people. To be a member of the Jewish people one must either be born a Jew or "adopted" into the "tribe" — converted to Judaism. Just as an infant born overseas has to undergo a naturalization ceremony to be an American citizen when adopted by an American family, someone not born to a Jewish mother has to undergo conversion to become a member of the tribe. Even if you followed all the dietary laws and observed the holidays, you still would not be regarded as a Jew without formal conversion — and the Orthodox community only accept Orthodox conversions. Reply

Larry Los Angeles May 20, 2017
in response to Esther Schrager:

All fine, except that we Jews are not an 'ism'. We are a people, yes, but we deserve better than to be "otherized" as an "Ism."

We are a positive entity, not someone who is "other than Christian" as the suffix "ism" indicates. That's why some people claim they do not belong to any "ism". They mean they are not "other than" the right thing. Reply

Ricardo Hadis Buenos Aires, Argentina September 13, 2016

An anthropological view of our tribe (or group) Yes, we are a tribe. Granted, we no longer live in a single location, we speak very many languages, listen to and dance many musics, etc. But we do have common traditions, a taste for books, a huge creativity, common jokes, common kitchen delights, and some of us share belief in the same myths and the same religion.
This is what anthropologists call a common culture. They are trained to analyze any culture (i.e. tribe with common traits beyond the genes) without any bias, without a classification, without degrees of superioriy or inferiority.
Anlyzing any culture form this point of view has yielded incredibly rich results. The anthropologist who started this way of thinking was Claude Levi-Strauss. His work is a powerful theoretical framework that explains with enormous insight and helps understand well the social behavior, the religions, the myths of many tribes, no matter how far, how primitive, isolated, etc they may be.
(2nd part continues in another comment) Reply

Lisa Lovett Ca, USA September 3, 2016

DNA I have always known that my Dad's side of my family are Jewish. Then in 2013 I was diagnosed with Triple Negative Breast Cancer. When the doctors found out that my Dad was Jewish, I was tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. They can cause TNBC and other cancers. 1 in 40 people of Jewish Ancestry have BRCA mutations. 1 in 600 people in the general population have BRCA mutations. I am BRCA1 positive. According to Genetic testing, I am 49% "European Jewish". Being Jewish is a religion and an ethnicity. Reply

Nava Illinois September 1, 2016

Chaia West of the Nile was Africa. Your DNA results verifies history. Reply

A August 31, 2016

I’m Jewish on my father’s side. My mother is not Jewish. I’m middle aged now and have always felt myself a Jew. I’m not religious but I try follow the laws of Torah as best as I can. I look more Jewish than gentile so other Jews don’t doubt my Jewishness unless I decide to volunteer the truth. When I have, I’ve only received negativity. I would get a whole spiel about conversion and so forth. Proper conversion requires a religious lifestyle and not everyone is wired for that. Jews are a race, an ethnicity—a people. Part of my genetics are Jewish. If a blue-eye Aryan from Northern Germany properly convert he’s considered a Jew, but I’m not because my mother is not. Absurdity at its finest. Originally being Jewish went by the father, which makes sense since the father is the one who impregnates the mother. I’ve met many fully Jews don’t care about G-d or being Jewish, but are embraced by the orthodox, while half-Jews are considered shmucks. Shame. Reply

Chaia Ny August 11, 2016

Being Jewish I had a DNA test done and I found out that I am 95% Israeli with no African blood at all. I was surprised. They went very far back and I found out that we were originally from east Africa and ancestors were first to leave and head to the middle East. It's fascinating to find out that I'm very little of the European heritage i thought I was. Being a Jew whose family very well might have traveled with Moses to the promised land is the most incredible thing I could imagine. It's made me more of a Jew and following more of the laws. Im proud. I'm Jewish Reply

Naomi Buffalo July 14, 2016

Ken If you have a Jewish mother, you are a Jew even if you fail to do a single mitzvah. Of course, such a Jew is breaking the promise he made at Sinai.

Meanwhile, if you do not have a Jewish mother, you only need to keep the Seven Laws of Noah and to treat all kinds of people, including Jews, with respect and kindness, and you will have a portion of the World to Come.

If you do not have a Jewish mother, and you want to be a Jew anyway, then you can become a Jew via orthodox conversion, which involves making the Sinai promise to keep the "613" commandments in the Torah. In that case, you should start with "modern orthodox," which will generally enable you to convert in about a year of classes, after which you will be questioned to be sure you have a modicum of understanding. After that, men need to become circumcised, and both men and women need to go in the mikveh (immersion pool).

You don't not "become Jewish" merely by beliefs or learning or loving. Reply

Ken Florida July 9, 2016

Jewish It's simpler than everybody thinks. Believe in God at face value, read the Tanakh and believe like a little child, there is peace of mind. And love, love is your light to the nations. Exercise it often, not only on fellow Jews. Don't forsake wisdom, balance love and wisdom like walking on 2 legs. Also, fear not, have faith that the God of Israel is with you. Pray Psalms, keep Shabbat, and celebrate as much of the beautiful things as you can, do everything out of love and awe. Reply

Naomi Boston June 18, 2016

A Jew is neither a religion nor a race so being a Jew is unlike both of these It's not a race. The ancestry of your father, your mother's father, or your mother's mother's father, are all unable to make you a Jew.

It's not a religion. Your beliefs aren't enough to make you a Jew.

If your mother's mother's mother's mother was a Jew, then you're a Jew. Your soul stood at Sinai & promised to keep the 613 commandments in the Torah. If you fail to do this, you're breaking your promise and you'll be held responsible for this failure.

If your mother's mother's mother's mother was not a Jew, you can become a Jew. First, hang out with a Jewish community. Take classes to learn the mitzvahs. When the rabbi is convinced you're sincere and have learned enough, you get circumcised (if male) and you go into the mikveh (the immersion pool). Once you've been properly immersed, you're a son or daughter of Abraham and it's the same as if you've always been a Jew. Mazal tov and welcome home! Reply

Anonymous Hall April 19, 2017
in response to Naomi:

I find this a somewhat preposterous position to take. My great grandmother was Jewish through an unbroken maternal line of decent. She was however the last person to practice the religion. My grandmother is a catholic. My mother a self described pagan and I am an atheist. I have zero connection or identification with Judaism. I know next to nothing about it and certainly don't live it. To call me a Jew is simply absurd. Reply

Ken Samet 64154 June 10, 2016

Being Jewish means being singled out by neighbors,coworkers, and acquaintances as "The Jew". Thus, since you represent all the world's Jews, you should act with wisdom and kindness, as you would wish them to treat you. One person speaks to another about their experiences with "The Jew" and transfers their observation in their mind from hater or antisemite to judeophile, or lover of Judaism. Reply

Danny Chicago May 31, 2016

If your mother's mother's mother's mother was a Jew, or if any of these women converted to become a Jew. then you inherit that status.
Your father's lineage is not relevant to your Jewish identity. If your mother is not Jewish (by birth or "conversion") you can become a Jew by "conversion".

If your mother is Jewish (by birth or "conversion") then you are a Jew. In that case, your father's identity determines what kind of Jew you are.

For example, you may be a Levite or a Cohen. Or you may belong to the tribe of Benjamin, since the kingdom of Judah included the tribe of Benjamin.

But if you are not a Jew, you are also not a Levite or a Cohen, and "conversion" will not make you into a Levite or a Cohen. However, after an orthodox "conversion," you are a fully Jewish Jew, with all the obligations that go with that status.
Why only an orthodox conversion? Because only the orthodox conversion requires you to promise to keep all the commandments.
Welcome home Reply

Menachem Posner February 22, 2016

To Anon in Victoria As I understand it, Karet means that the person's soul is cut off from its spiritual source and nourishment. It does not mean that the person ceases to be Jewish.

With regard to teshuvah, while it is more *difficult* to repair the soul damage caused by more sever sins, no sin is beyond repair and no souls is beyond hope. Sincere regret for the past coupled with a firm resolve to do better in the future go a long way toward healing whatever may have been hurt. Reply

Anonymous Victoria February 15, 2016

Transgression of Torah If a Jew who transgresses remains a Jew, then what of the offenses the Torah speaks of that result in Karet? And how can that Karet be reversed in the Ba'al Tshuvah? Reply

Ruth Newark January 22, 2016

Luca What do you want to know?

You already know that, although you are not a Jew, you have many Jewish ancestors.

Do you want to be a Jew? You could convert if you so desire.

Or you can be whatever religion that suits you.

But if you are interested in genealogy, that is a totally different question, and needs to be addressed by experts in genealogy. Reply

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