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What Are Archangels?

What Are Archangels?


The term “archangel,” which denotes an angel of high rank who commands other angels, doesn’t actually have a Hebrew equivalent in Jewish Scriptures. The book of Daniel, however, mentions two angels by name, Gabriel and Michael, and refers to Michael as a sar, which means “prince” or “minister.”1The term “minister” seems an apt description of what differentiates angels like Michael and Gabriel from the unnamed angels we encounter throughout the Bible, starting from Genesis.

There are many different types of angels, each one tasked with a specific mission and function. Some angels are created for one specific task, and upon completion of the task they cease to exist. Other angels, after completing their task, may be given another one to do. This is the case with the angels we refer to as ministers or archangels.

Note that, unlike people, angels cannot multitask. That’s why G‑d had to send three separate angels to visit Abraham—each one was tasked with a separate mission: one to bring Abraham the news of Isaac’s impending birth, one to overturn Sodom, and one to heal Abraham.2

And although people can have multiple modes of serving G‑d—love, awe, etc.—when it comes to angels, each one has its own specific form of Divine service that does not change.

Michael and Gabriel: Fire and Water

In the Midrash, Michael is called the “prince of kindness (chessed) and water” and Gabriel “the prince of severity (gevurah) and fire.3” Thus, Angel Michael is dispatched on missions that are expressions of G‑d's kindness, and Gabriel on those that are expressions of G‑d's severity and judgment.

However, as we explained earlier, angels don’t multitask. Therefore, although Michael may be the chief angel or “prince” of chessed, he has many underlings, angels that work under him and represent a service of chessed. The same holds true for Gabriel and his Divine service through severity.

Thus, Michael and Gabriel are referred to as “archangels,” since they are at the head of these differing groups of angels, which are known as “hosts (tzvah),” “camps” (machaneh) or “banner” (degel) of angels.

Peace in Heaven and Earth

Since angels are by definition absolutists, it is natural that their differing modes of service would clash. The sages explain that we allude to this every day when we say, at the conclusion of the Amidah and Kaddish Prayers, “He who makes peace in His heavens, may He make peace for us and for all Israel; and say, Amen.”4

We are saying that just as G‑d keeps the peace between the angels Michael and Gabriel, even though they represent opposing modes of Divine service (fire vs. water), so too, may He “make peace for us and for all Israel.”

And to that, we say a hearty “Amen!”

Midrash Bereishit Rabbah 50:2; Rashi, Genesis 18:2.
See Midrash Tanchumah, Vayigash 6.
Midrash Tanchumah, Vayigash 6.
Rabbi Yehuda Shurpin responds to questions for's Ask the Rabbi service.
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S.A. Saverino Chino Valley, Z November 5, 2017

I did not ask about archangels;I asked whether there were/are any female angels? Reply

Mpit Ohio November 5, 2017
in response to S.A. Saverino:


Hashem is obviously a sexist.

Actually, angels are spirits and are sexless. Reply

Anonymous Jerusalem November 5, 2017

This is so clearly written! Thank you for clarifying what until now were simply words in the davening... Reply

Yehuda Shurpin (author) November 2, 2017

Different names to refer to angels In the words of Maimonides (Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 2:7):

The different names with which the angels are called reflect their [spiritual] levels. Thus, they are called: 1) The holy chayyot, who are above all the others; 2) the ofanim; 3) the er'elim; 4) the chashmalim; 5) the serafim; 6) the mal'achim;7) the elohim;
8) the sons of the elohim; 9) the keruvim; 10) the ishim.

These ten names which are used to refer to the angels reflect their ten [different spiritual] levels...." Reply

Michael Stuart Jacksonville November 3, 2017
in response to Yehuda Shurpin (author):

Angel names The word " names" is, perhaps, the wrong term. Classifications would be better. Names such as "Michael and Gabriel " are true names, whereas the above terms you have given are not. We also need to be careful of Kabbalist conjecture which may not have any Scriptural basis. Reply

S.A. Saverino Chino Valley.AZ November 2, 2017

Not a comment, but a question: Are there any female angels? Reply

Yehuda Santa Monica November 4, 2017
in response to S.A. Saverino:

Your guardian angel is a special angel assigned to look after you personally during your life. Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Zoroastrianism include belief in guardian angels. A lady claims when she was upset and stressed out she had an apparition in the middle of the night. No it couldn't be a dream, lucid dream, hallucination, sleep paralysis, overactive imagination, or fiction dressed up as fact - or, for that matter, some spirit or lowercase-g god or something yet more obscure originating from one of the world's massive number of religions that don't include angels and have just about as much credibility as the ones that do. It had to be her guardian angel. Anecdotal evidence like that abounds but somehow proof is lacking Reply

Anonymous Tennessee November 4, 2017
in response to S.A. Saverino:

Angels are non gender. Reply

Evie Scottsdale November 28, 2017
in response to Yehuda :

I do believe totally in angels. I know that is difficult to believe if it didn't happened to you, but I had had several indications of angels helping me and my daughters. I would like to tell the story but is too difficult to believe, so its not worth. But please have faith and pray to them and thanks them for taking care of you and advice you. Reply

Anonymous San Diego November 29, 2017
in response to Yehuda :

Somehow guardian angel was my designation for one particular person - and she also felt it. Once my task was over for her, she was no longer under my 'care.' Interesting couple of years, that's for sure. Even her friends knew ... none were Jewish.

Since then that experience never happened again for me. Reply

Shelley November 2, 2017

Love this post, the discussion and comments. Still waiting on a Hebrew explanation for the differences between Seraph, Maloch and Shaliach, per my input, below. Angels and all of His otherworldly beings before mankind just fascinate me. The offhand mention of Nephilim in Genesis would also be a great topic for a Chabad article. Reply

Eli November 2, 2017
in response to Shelley:

I believe that maloch just means angel while seraph is a specific type of angel and a shliach means a messenger Reply

Bryan Glovetsky Independence November 2, 2017

There may not be a specific term in Hebrew for these angels, but I know that in the bedtime shema, we call on them to be with us and to protect us. Reply

Sharon NY November 2, 2017

Angels That was a great read. Reply

aleks yakubson Staten Island November 1, 2017

i usually comment critically, but i like the idea expressed in this article that keeping peace in Heaven means keeping peace between Heaven's various inhabitants Reply

Zalman West Orange November 1, 2017

Is there a Jewish book on all the angels and their tasks, roles, etc? Reply

Pedro Cibecue November 1, 2017

Do they also have demons,that have the same type of area of work? Reply

Shari Westbrook Victorville CA November 1, 2017

I was under the impression that Samuel was the archangel of death. Also that there's another archangel of the ocean. Reply

Josh Levin Marlton, NJ November 2, 2017
in response to Shari Westbrook:

That's "Samael". Reply

Wesley E. Smoth Foresthill, CA November 3, 2017
in response to Shari Westbrook:

How could anyone go by their impressions instead of every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God? Reply

Shari Westbrook Victorville CA November 4, 2017
in response to Wesley E. Smoth:

Samael True, very true. I should have never said impression. I read what a Rabbi wrote on the subject and took it as face value. I am sick. I am going to die from Alzheimer's disease. I also have dementia and can't remember what I read or write or say. Please forgive me for not being sure of what I read or heard about anything. Thank you Reply

Bernard Zycherman Silver Spring November 1, 2017

What are Archangels? You mention each angel that visited Abraham had a separate task which begs the question. If one angel was to heal him and one was to tell him the good news of Sarah having a child what was the third angel doing there? Secondly, two angels went to visit Lot, one to destroy Sodom and one to escort Lot and his family away from the city. Which angel joined from visiting angels joined the destroying angel of Sodom or was there a 4th angel? I am very confused!!! Reply

Lee Palm Bch Gdns, FL November 1, 2017
in response to Bernard Zycherman:

Third angel brought the Manischevitz. After being restrained from killing his son, Abraham needed a drink (Jack Daniels was not invented until later.) Reply

Jay Silverman Delray Beach November 2, 2017
in response to Bernard Zycherman:

Although the Torah does not mention the names of the angels that went to visit Abraham, the Talmud tells us they were Raphael, Michael and Gabriel. (Bava Metzia 86b)

Throughout most of their interaction, the Torah does not refer to them on an individual basis, but rather as a group, as it is written, "[Abraham] stood over them beneath the tree and they ate. [Afterwards,] THEY said to him..." (Genesis 18:8-9)

There are, however, instances in which the angels act as individuals. For example, only the angel Michael told Sarah that she was going to have a baby (Genesis 18:10). In Sodom, only the angel Raphael told Lot to flee from the city (Genesis 19:17). Similarly, it was only the angel Gabriel that informed Lot that the city was going to be destroyed.

From these verses, we can derive that an angel can only perform one mission: Gabriel's mission was to destroy Sodom; Michael's mission was to inform Sarah that she would give birth in a year's time; Raphael's mission was to heal Abraham Reply

aleks yakubson Staten Island November 1, 2017
in response to Lee:

lol Reply

Shelley November 2, 2017
in response to Lee:

best answer ever Lee. Because would we really be Jewish if we didn't have senses of humor? (and where's my angel; I could use a glass of that!) Reply

Scott November 5, 2017
in response to Jay Silverman:

There were only two angels ... the third “Man” was God not an angel Reply

Jay Silverman Delray Beach November 5, 2017
in response to Scott:

Shalom Scott,

Clearly there were three angels. HaShem was there as well and Abraham interrupted his conversation with Him to attend to the guests. Please read "The Midrash Says" series of books by Rabbi Moshe Weissman. They are excellent. Reply


So when your multi-tasking in the home or for a friend/relative and they say 'Your an angel' ! You can point out that this is not strictly correct, you are not an angel, because angels cannot multi-task? Better say nothing! Let them think you are an angel :) ! Reply

Jamie Moran London, UK November 1, 2017

Are the 6-fold [6 winged] seraphim and 4-fold [4 winged] cherubim not 'Jewish' angels? Are those not Hebrew terms? They are certainly not Greek terms.

Also angle names sound distinctly Hebrew- Rafa-el = something of God. All names ending in 'el' refver to spirit powers of God, don't they? Reply

Jay Silverman Delray Beach November 1, 2017
in response to Jamie Moran:

Yes they are Hebrew words. Reply

Josh Levin Marlton, NJ November 1, 2017
in response to Jamie Moran:

Seraphim and Cherubim are not angels, but are "celestial beings".
Angels are God's messengers on earth. Reply

Frank Szustak Baltimore November 1, 2017

Where's the referenced book of Daniel?

Is it in this web page? Reply

Defender Navarre beach Florida November 1, 2017

THE MOST HIGH should busy HIMSELF with our affairs less we destroy HIS creation. Reply

Michael Stuart Jacksonville November 1, 2017

A bit convoluted in its explanation, as it strained to answer the original question. So....yes, they do exist. Reply

Edward L Yablonsky Phoenix November 1, 2017

That the archangels command hosts and that they or their compeers and hosts cannot multitask is novel.Where do we get such views? Reply

Anonymous Athens November 1, 2017

Archangelos is a word of greek origin meaning the leader among the angels Reply

Jamie Moran LOndon, UK November 1, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

Actually in Homeric Greek, 'angelos' just means a messenger, and 'arche' means the 'first form' of something, the exemplary model for all versions of it. Plato uses arche-type of the Good, the Beautiful, the True, in this sense. Maybe at a stretch= 'the most excellent or ideal form' of something significant to the whole kosmos of being.. Jung borrows archetype for the unconscious psyche, but in Plato, it occupies an idealised, perfect 'place' above everything else. A super consciousness, perhaps we could say. Jews should not confuse a spatial Eternity of Plato [and Christianised Plato] with the Jewish 'everlasting' in time and beyond time. What space is for Greeks, time is for Jews. Reply

Villie Florida November 1, 2017
in response to Jamie Moran:

Yes! It's kinda like the battle of Archangel Michael for the body of Moses being "The Torah of 5 books. Of the law, you know... Reply

Ronald Sevenster The Netherlands November 1, 2017

I find this to be a philosophically deeply flawed article. It cannot be true what is said here because it contradicts reason. If angels are intelligent beings then they obviously can multitask. Intelligence implies self-reflection and self-reflection is only possible if one's object of thought is universal. Intelligence also implies free will and moral consciousness, because intellectual knowledge implies the free affirmation of truth

Also, it is an absurd thought to assume that some angels cease to exist after having performed their task. Intelligent beings have a sense of the first cause and the ultimate end-goal of their existence, which is G-d. This is part of their make-up, and it would be absurd that they cannot attain their ultimate end-goal. This would mean that these angels would live in despair. Reply

Josh Levin Marlton, NJ November 1, 2017
in response to Ronald Sevenster:

God's Robots I have heard it said that angels are "God's robots". It has long been assumed that angels lack free will. Reply

Jay Silverman Delray Beach November 1, 2017
in response to Ronald Sevenster:

Some angels come and go with different names and different tasks. Only a few have permanent names and continue to exist in their present form. This is explained in the Kabbalah. See if you can find The Sefer Yetzirah by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan. Reply

Anonymous South Africa November 1, 2017
in response to Ronald Sevenster:

Angels do not have a free will. Reply

Marty U.S. November 1, 2017
in response to Ronald Sevenster:

Perhaps because only Man was created in G-d's image and not the Angels, we cannot fully understand their nature? Are you applying human attributes, nature and definitions to Angels?

Perhaps the uniqueness of all the parts of creation in the seemingly paradoxical opposing aspects of creation and nature result in an entire system that is beyond our complete comprehension; yet works as a material and spiritual 'ecosystem'. Reply

Shari Westbrook Victorville CA November 1, 2017
in response to Ronald Sevenster:

I think that as well. Why would G d do that? The Angels are sent to do things yes but, they do it out of their Love for G d. Also, to say they have no free will is absurd. We know what Satan did and is doing now. He wasn't created to be the " Accuser of man". He is an Angel, with his own free will. Reply

K November 1, 2017
in response to Ronald Sevenster:

I agree, it does not seem the Nature of the most High to just use creatures like mere tools. Reply

Michael Leader Atlanta November 1, 2017
in response to Ronald Sevenster:

Reply to Ronald Sevenster: What exactly is "free will"? Free will or "behira" is one of the foundations of G-d's creation of man. If I tell you to go down to the street level from my tenth story apartment you have the choice to jump out the window or take the elevator. The reality of choosing the window is predictable, immediate, and repulsive because we know what will happen. Judaism states that everything is in the hands of G-d except the love for G-d. He does not force us to love Him. What kind of love would that be? We are not punished if we choose not to love Him, but Jews are required to obey Him as transmitted to us from Mount Sinai. We have behira or free will to obey or not. Obedience to the Law is sometimes rewarded both in this world and the next one, but always fully rewarded in the next. The same holds true for disobedience.

If reward and punishment in this were as dependable as the results of jumping out of the tenth floor window we would not have real freedom of choice. Again, we are free to make the choice to obey or disobey because G-d purposely does not make Himself known to us, such as the reality of a ten story fall, to enable us to choose between the tests He sets for each of us. As the Torah states" See, I have set before you Life and Death. Choose Life". Not so with the angels.

G-d is the reality to the angels to the point that there is no room for disobedience because they comprehend the guaranteed end result of not doing G-d's will. They trust and love G-d because of their absolute knowledge of Him and His attributes of loving-kindness and tender mercy. He will one day reveal Himself to the whole world. We will still have free will to follow Him or not, but that reality, when it happens, (and it will happen), will make disobedience much more difficult. Reply

Yehuda Shurpin (author) November 2, 2017
in response to Ronald Sevenster:

Re: Satan and angels sinning With regards to the question of Satan and whether angels have free will and can sin, please see the article Can Angels Sin? Reply

Villie Cocoa, FLORIDA November 1, 2017
in response to Josh Levin:

Excellently explained !
They don't have free will, and They should not have no part or inheritance with Israel, for the Lord is Their all, as He has promised Them. So They we're judged by the things written in the books ( of the Bible:) Reply

Michael Eastman Indianapolis, IN November 2, 2017
in response to Josh Levin:

How then could Satan (which is said is a "fallen angel"), have made the mistake of falling away or sinning against G-d? Reply

Scott November 1, 2017
in response to Villie:

Very sad you think angels have no free will, you really think very little of God’s intent, his desires, angels serve him with a freewill, just as a person decides whether to serve him or not. You are so very misguided, love does not dictate or force its own way Reply

B Etzbah November 5, 2017
in response to Scott:

Scott, this is not what the Torah states and not what Judaism believes. The only creations with Free Will are Mankind. Angels act like animals without Free Will, therefore they have no choice but to perform G-d’s will. Reply

Yehoram South Africa November 3, 2017
in response to Michael Eastman:

That story of Satan as a "fallen Angel" is a christian made up story. Read the Torah in Context Reply

Yehoram South Africa November 5, 2017
in response to Michael Eastman:

Scot, The Torah does not say that satan is the fallen angel, you read that misguided translation. You will not find that scripture in the original Jewish Bible. Why would the writers of a Jewish Bible use Lucifer a Greek word in their Bibles? If you want to understand Chinese you don't go to the Russians to learn Chinese, you go to the Chinese. Just like the Torah and Tanak, you go to the Jewish People. You cannot tell a Jew what is in the Jewish scriptures if you are not a Jew. Reply

Michael Stuart Jacksonville November 5, 2017
in response to Yehoram :

Angel names You most certainly can. Haven't you many times told Gentiles that their teachings, even though presented by religious Jews, is wrong.? Haven't you already ignored the valuable insights of the Septuagint, written by Jews, simply because it was written in Greek? Shall we ignore English translations of Torah because it is not written in Hebrew? For that matter, is God a Jew? Reply

Edward L Yablonsky Phoenix November 4, 2017
in response to Marty:

Am wrong in assuming that Torah was given by G-d to the Jews to remedy duality,attaining the perfected state through practice of the mitzvahs ,and is the fragmenting of the light through the process of Tzimtzum originally a result of our inability to bear the light undiluted as it were?The 10 orders of angels were messengers along the evolving path of our attainment of g-dhood . the equivalent of the unity of G-d. In the tehillim, I cannot recall the apothegm "ye are gods" (in his image and likeness? Reply

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