SECTION 608 The Order of the Meal Preceding the Fast. (1–10)

סימן תרח סֵדֶר סְעוּדָה הַמַּפְסֶקֶת וּבוֹ י' סְעִיפִים:

1 It is a positive Scriptural commandment to add [time] from the mundane realm to the realm of holiness,1 both with regard to afflicting oneself2 and with regard to the prohibition against work, as it is written, “And you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month in the evening; from evening to evening shall you observe your day of rest.”3

Could [the verse mean] that one should fast on the ninth of the month? [It could not, for] the verse states, “In the evening.”4 If one postulates “in the evening,” should [the fast begin] from nightfall? [It could not, for] the verse states, “On the ninth.” What, then, is implied? One should begin to fast while it is still day.5 From this we learn that we must add [time] from the mundane realm to the realm of holiness.

(Sec. 604[:1] states that from the exposition of this [same] verse it was derived that we are commanded to eat on the day preceding Yom Kippur. Nevertheless, the simple meaning of the verse is that one must actually fast [on part of that day], as explained here. It is only that the Sages commanded that one eat more [than usual] on the day preceding Yom Kippur, for the reason explained there. They found a support6 [for this practice] in the Torah, as it is written, “And you shall afflict [your souls] on the ninth of the month.” The Sages interpreted this to mean that one should prepare oneself for the affliction of the tenth by eating on the ninth.)

[The above teaches only that time must be added] before [the fast]. What source teaches that [time must also be added] after [the fast]? The verse states, “from evening to evening.” This establishes an equation between the two evenings. [Just as time must be added in the evening preceding the fast, time must be added in the evening following the fast.]

[The above refers] solely to Yom Kippur. What source teaches that [time should also be added] with regard to Shabbos? The above verse continues, “shall you observe [your day of rest].”7 What is the source that teaches that [an addition should also be made] with regard to festivals? The verse concludes, “[shall you observe] your day of rest.” [This implies that] whenever you observe a day of rest, you must add to it from the preceding [day] and the following [day].

Lest one think that [non-observance of] this addition8 is punishable by kares,9 a [preceding] verse states,10 “Any [person] who performs any work on that very day,11 I will cause to perish….” Similarly, with regard to afflicting one’s soul, it is written,12 “Any [person] who will not afflict himself on that very day will be cut off.” Thus the punishment of kares is administered for [working or eating on] “that very day,” but not for [committing these transgressions in] the additional time [appended to the holiday].

א מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה א מִן הַתּוֹרָה ב לְהוֹסִיף מִן הַחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ,ג,1 בֵּין בְּעִנּוּי ד,2 בֵּין בְּאִסּוּר מְלָאכָה,ה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ו "וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת נַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב מֵעֶרֶב עַד עֶרֶב תִּשְׁבְּתוּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶם",3 יָכוֹל יִתְעַנֶּה בַּתְּשִׁיעִי לַחֹדֶשׁ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "בָּעֶרֶב",4 אִי בָּעֶרֶב יָכוֹל מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "בְּתִשְׁעָה", הָא כֵיצַד? מַתְחִיל וּמִתְעַנֶּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,5 מִכָּאן שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִים מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ.ז

(וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּמִּקְרָא זֶה לָמַדְנוּ בְּסִימָן תר"ד ח שֶׁמִּצְוָה לֶאֱכֹל בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם כִּפּוּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם פְּשַׁט הַכָּתוּב מִשּׁוּם תַּעֲנִית מַמָּשׁ ט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר כָּאן, אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּצְוַת חֲכָמִים הִיא ילְהַרְבּוֹת בִּסְעוּדָה בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם כִּפּוּר יא מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, וּמָצְאוּ לָהֶם סְמָךְ6 מִן הַתּוֹרָה,יב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְעִנִּיתֶם וגו' בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ", וּפֵרְשׁוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים שֶׁיָּכִין אֶת עַצְמוֹ בַּאֲכִילַת תְּשִׁיעִי לְעִנּוּי שֶׁל עֲשִׂירִי יג).

אֵין לִי אֶלָּא מִלְּפָנָיו, מִלְּאַחֲרָיו מִנַּיִן? יד תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "מֵעֶרֶב עַד עֶרֶב",טו הֻקְּשׁוּ שְׁנֵי הָעֲרָבִים זֶה לָזֶה,טז וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שַׁבָּת מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "תִּשְׁבְּתוּ",7 יוֹם טוֹב מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "שַׁבַּתְּכֶם", כָּל שְׁבוּת שָׁאַתָּה שׁוֹבֵת – אַתָּה מוֹסִיף לָהּ בֵּין מִלְּפָנֶיהָ בֵּין מִלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ.יז

יָכוֹל יְהֵא עָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת9 עַל הַתּוֹסֶפֶת?8 תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר יח,10 "וְכָל הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה כָּל מְלָאכָה בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה11 וְהַאֲבַדְתִּי וגו'", וְכֵן בְּעִנּוּי הוּא אוֹמֵר יט,12 "כִּי כָל הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא תְעֻנֶּה בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וְנִכְרְתָה וגו'" – עַל עִצּוּמוֹ שֶׁל יוֹם עָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת, אֲבָל אֵין עֹנֶשׁ כָּרֵת עַל הַתּוֹסֶפֶת:כ

2 This time must be added before bein hashmashos,13 for [this] period itself is a matter of question: (Is it day) or is it night? Therefore, [observing the prohibitions at this time] is not considered an addition. Indeed, even if Scripture did not forbid [partaking of food or working] at that time, one would still have to refrain because of the possibility of transgression.

ב וְתוֹסֶפֶת זֶה צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,כא,13 דְּאִלּוּ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת עַצְמוֹ (סְפֵק יוֹם) סְפֵק לַיְלָה הוּא וְאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא תּוֹסֶפֶת, וְאַף אִם לֹא הָיָה הַכָּתוּב מַזְהִיר עָלָיו – הָיָה צָרִיךְ לִפְרֹשׁ מִסְּפֵק עֲבֵרָה:כב

3 This additional period does not have a fixed measure. Instead, [the concept can be explained as follows]: There is a period of time [sufficient to walk] three-and-a-quarter mil from the beginning of sunset, i.e., when the sun is no longer visible on the earth, until bein hashmashos. [Bein hashmashos] itself begins from [the time it takes to walk] three-quarters of a mil before nightfall.14

If one desires, he may consider this entire time15 as the addition [to the holy day]. If he desires, he may convey this status on part of that time, provided he adds a certain amount of time that is definitely mundane to the holy [day].

ג וְתוֹסֶפֶת זֶה אֵין לוֹ שִׁעוּר,כג אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּתְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה שֶׁאֵין הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נִרְאֶה עַל הָאָרֶץ עַד בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁהוּא ג' רְבִיעֵי מִילִין קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָה,14 וְהַזְּמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא מַהֲלַךְ ג' מִילִין וּרְבִיעַ רָצָה לַעֲשׂוֹת כֻּלּוֹ15 תּוֹסֶפֶת – עוֹשֶׂה, רָצָה לַעֲשׂוֹת מִקְצָתָהּ – עוֹשֶׂה, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיּוֹסִיף אֵיזֶה זְמַן שֶׁיִּהְיֶה וַדַּאי מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ:כד

4 [The following principle applies in a situation in which] women eat and drink until the actual beginning of bein hashmashos,16 unaware that it is a mitzvah to add time from the mundane realm to the realm of holiness. If [one] is certain that [his warnings] will not be heeded and they will continue willfully, he should not reprimand them.17 Better that they [transgress] unknowingly18 than knowingly.19

This principle applies to all prohibitions that are not explicitly stated in the Torah, but [(a)] were derived by the Sages through the principles of exegesis, or [(b)] were received as a tradition passed down to them as laws taught to Moshe [orally] on Mount Sinai,20 or [(c)] were ordained by the Sages themselves. If a person unwittingly violates a ruling of the Sages because he does not know of the prohibition, and even if he were to be informed he would not stand corrected, there is no obligation to reprimand him. [On the contrary,] it is preferable for him [to transgress] unknowingly than [to transgress] knowingly.

ד נָשִׁים שֶׁאוֹכְלוֹת וְשׁוֹתוֹת כה עַד בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת כו,16 מַמָּשׁ כז וְהֵן אֵינָן יוֹדְעוֹת שֶׁמִּצְוָה לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ – אֵין מְמַחִין בְּיָדָן,17 אִם הוּא יָדוּעַ שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ לָנוּ כח וְיַעֲשׂוּ בְּזָדוֹן, דְּמּוּטָב שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שׁוֹגְגִין18 וְאַל יִהְיוּ מְזִידִים.כט,19

וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל דְּבַר אִסּוּר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה ל אֶלָּא שֶׁחֲכָמִים לְמָדוּהוּ מִמִּדְרַשׁ הַפְּסוּקִים,לא אוֹ שֶׁהוּא קַבָּלָה בְּיָדָם הֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי,לב,20 אוֹ שֶׁהֵן בְּעַצְמָן אָסְרוּ דָּבָר לג וְאָדָם אֶחָד לד עוֹבֵר עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּשְׁגָגָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ הָאִסּוּר, וְאַף אִם יוֹדִיעַ לוֹ הָאִסּוּר לֹא יְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ לה – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ, דְּמּוּטָב שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שׁוֹגֵג וְלֹא יִהְיֶה מֵזִיד:

5 With regard to a prohibition explicitly stated in the Torah,21 by contrast, one is obligated to reprimand a transgressor even if one knows that he will not accept the rebuke when he is informed of the prohibition.22 [The rationale is that] all of Israel are responsible for each other,23 and by reprimanding [the transgressor] one frees himself of this liability. Nevertheless, one should not reprimand him publicly more than once.24 One should not repeatedly reprimand [the transgressor] publicly25 once he is certain that [the transgressor] will not accept his rebuke. With regard to such matters it was said,26 “Just as it is a mitzvah to say something that will be heeded, so is it a mitzvah not to say something that will not be heeded.”

In private, by contrast, one is obligated to reprimand [the transgressor] even 100 times,27 until the transgressor berates him.28 Since he informed him of the transgression and he [continued] to willfully violate it, each and every member of the Jewish people is obligated to rebuke him, as it is written,29 hocheiach tochiach — “You shall surely rebuke.” [The dual verb implies that one must reiterate a rebuke] even 100 times.

Nevertheless, if the transgression was performed in private, the rebuke should be administered first in private.30 If, however, [the transgressor] does not amend his conduct, he should be shamed publicly until he repents.31 If, however, he transgressed overtly, he should be rebuked immediately, so as not to bring about a desecration of G‑d’s name.32

ה אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאִסּוּרוֹ מְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה,לו,21 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּדוּעַ לָנוּ שֶׁהַחוֹטֵא הַזֶּה לֹא יְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ אַף אִם נוֹדִיעַ לוֹ הָאִסּוּר22 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ,לז לְפִי שֶׁכָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲרֵבִין זֶה בָּזֶה לח,23 וְעַל יְדֵי שֶׁמּוֹחֶה בְּיָדוֹ הוּא מוֹצִיא אֶת עַצְמוֹ מֵהָעַרְבוּת.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא יוֹכִיחֶנּוּ בָּרַבִּים אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת,24 אֲבָל לֹא יַרְבֶּה בְּתוֹכָחוֹת בָּרַבִּים,25 מֵאַחַר שֶׁבָּרוּר לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ,לט וְעַל זֶה אָמְרוּ מ,26 "כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמִּצְוָה לוֹמַר דָּבָר הַנִּשְׁמָע כָּךְ מִצְוָה שֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִשְׁמָע".

אֲבָל חַיָּב לְהוֹכִיחוֹ בְּיָחִיד אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה פְּעָמִים27 עַד שֶׁיִּנְזֹף בּוֹ הַחוֹטֵא,מא,28 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוֹדִיעַ לוֹ הָאִסּוּר וְהוּא עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּזָדוֹן – חַיָּב כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְהוֹכִיחוֹ,מב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר מג,29 "הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ" – אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה פְּעָמִים.מד

מִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הִיא עֲבֵרָה שֶׁבַּסֵּתֶר – יוֹכִיחֶנּוּ בִּתְחִלָּה בַּסֵּתֶר,30 וְאִם לֹא שָׁב מִדַּרְכּוֹ – מַכְלִימִים אוֹתוֹ בָּרַבִּים עַד שֶׁיָּשׁוּב,מה,31 אֲבָל אִם עוֹבֵר עֲבֵרָה בְּגָלוּי – מוֹכִיחִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד, שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַלֵּל שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם:מו,32

6 If one rebuked a fellow Jew [for committing a transgression], and [he] berated him, he should not rebuke him again for the same transgression, as it is written,33 “Do not rebuke a mocker.”

ו מִי שֶׁהוֹכִיחַ אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ וְנָזַף בּוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ הַחוֹטֵא – לֹא יוֹכִיחֶנּוּ עוֹד מז עַל עֲבֵרָה זוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר מח,33 "אַל תּוֹכַח לֵץ וגו'":

7 If one stopped eating while it was [obviously] still daytime, he may eat again even though he had resolved not to eat any more that day, because he did not articulate [this intent], and the designs of one’s heart are not binding.

If one did articulate [this intent] he is forbidden to eat, (not because of the prohibition of [eating on] Yom Kippur, but) because [he is considered to have taken] a vow, for he explicitly said that he would not eat again that day.34

[Different principles apply,] however, if one undertook the fast of Yom Kippur without further qualification, not stating explicitly that he would no longer eat. If it is before plag haminchah,35 his acceptance is of no consequence, and he may eat again. If, however, (for the reason, see sec. 261[:5],36) it is after plag haminchah, his acceptance is significant and the full stringency of Yom Kippur applies to him. [Besides being forbidden to eat,] he is forbidden to work, to wash, or to anoint himself. He is, however, allowed to wear shoes, as stated in sec. 553.37

There it is explained that it is advisable to be stringent and to stipulate38 at [the conclusion of] the meal preceding the fast that one will still be permitted to eat and drink after the meal.

ז אִם הִפְסִיק מֵאֲכִילָתוֹ בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל,מט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִסְכִּים בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל עוֹד הַיּוֹם נ – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לוֹ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיא כֵּן בִּשְׂפָתָיו, דִּדְּבָרִים שֶׁבַּלֵּב אֵינָן דְּבָרִים.נא וְאִם הוֹצִיא כֵּן בִּשְׂפָתָיו – אָסוּר לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל נב מִדִּין נֶדֶר נג (וְלֹא מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים), כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל עוֹד הַיּוֹם.34

אֲבָל אִם קִבֵּל עָלָיו תַּעֲנִית שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בִּסְתָם וְלֹא אָמַר בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל עוֹד, אִם הוּא עֲדַיִן קֹדֶם פְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה,35 – אֵין קַבָּלָתוֹ כְּלוּם נד וּמֻתָּר לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל, וְאִם (עַיֵּן סִימָן רס"א נה,36 טַעַם עַל זֶה) הוּא אַחַר פְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה – אֲזַי מוֹעֶלֶת קַבָּלָתוֹ וְחָל עָלָיו כָּל חֹמֶר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים נו וְאָסוּר בִּמְלָאכָה וּבִרְחִיצָה וְסִיכָה,נז חוּץ מִנְּעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל נח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקנ"ג,נט,37 וְשָׁם נִתְבָּאֵר דְּטוֹב לְהַחְמִיר וּלְהַתְנוֹת38 בִּסְעוּדָה הַמַּפְסֶקֶת שֶׁיְּהֵא רַשַּׁאי לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד אַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה:ס

8 On the day preceding Yom Kippur, even during the morning meal, one should eat only foods that are readily digestible (so that he will not be [overly] satiated),39 e.g., fowl and fish, so that he will not be satisfied and proud while praying on the day preceding Yom Kippur.

Additionally, one should not eat foods that spur [the production of] semen, e.g., garlic and eggs, even in the morning meal. Milk products and butter,40 by contrast, although they [too] spur the production of semen, are customarily eaten in the morning, since they are easily digestible. One should not, however, partake of them at the meal before the fast that is close to nightfall. Similarly, at that meal one should not partake of foods such as spices and saffron that arouse the body’s natural heat, lest that lead to a nocturnal emission.

ח בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם כִּפּוּר סא אֲפִלּוּ בִּסְעוּדַת שַׁחֲרִית סב – אֵין לֶאֱכֹל אֶלָּא מַאֲכָלִים קַלִּים לְהִתְעַכֵּל סג (כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה שָׂבֵעַ)39 כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר עוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים,סד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא שָׂבֵעַ וּמִתְגָּאֶה כְּשֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל סה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים.

וְכֵן אֵין אוֹכְלִים דְּבָרִים הַמַּרְבִּים זֶרַע אֲפִלּוּ בִּסְעוּדַת שַׁחֲרִית, כְּגוֹן שׁוּמִים וּבֵיצִים,סו אֲבָל מַאַכְלֵי חָלָב סז וְחֶמְאָה סח,40 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מַרְבִּין זֶרַע – מִכָּל מָקוֹם נוֹהֲגִין לְאָכְלָם בְּשַׁחֲרִית,סט כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם מַאֲכָלִים קַלִּים ע לְהִתְעַכֵּל.

אֲבָל בִּסְעוּדָה הַמַּפְסֶקֶת שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לַלַּיְלָה – אֵין לֶאֱכֹל אוֹתָם. וְכֵן אֵין לֶאֱכֹל בִּסְעוּדָה הַמַּפְסֶקֶת דְּבָרִים הַמְחַמְּמִים אֶת הַגּוּף [כְּגוֹן] בְּשָׂמִים וְכַרְכֹּם, שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹא לִידֵי קֶרִי עא בַּלַּיְלָה:

9 One who overate on the day before Yom Kippur should not put his finger down his throat [on Yom Kippur]41 in order to vomit, lest he swallow part of his vomit.

ט אִם אָכַל הַרְבֵּה בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם כִּפּוּר – לֹא יָשִׂים אֶצְבָּעוֹ בְּפִיו עב,41 לְהָקִיא, שֶׁמָּא יִבְלַע מִן הַקִּיאָה:עג

10 One should not eat sesame seeds on the day preceding Yom Kippur, [lest] they cause regurgitation on Yom Kippur.

י לֹא יֹאכַל שֻׂמְשְׂמִין בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם כִּפּוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּעֲלֶה גֵּרָה עד בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים: