SECTION 585 The Series of Shofar Blasts during which One may Sit. (1–11)

סימן תקפה סֵדֶר הַתְּקִיעוֹת מְיֻשָּׁב וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1 The shofar must be sounded while standing. [This concept is derived1 as follows:] It is written,2 “It shall be a day of sounding [the shofar] for you (לכם),” and [with regard to the counting of the Omer] it is written,3 “And you shall count for yourselves (לכם).” Just as לכם in the latter verse [signifies that the counting of the Omer must be performed] while standing, as clarified in sec. 489[:4], so, too, in the former verse [does it signify that the shofar must be sounded] while standing.

Accordingly, [while sounding the shofar, one] should not lean on any object in such a way that he would fall if it were to be removed. [Such a stance] is called leaning, not standing. Nevertheless, if one transgressed and sounded the shofar even while sitting, he has fulfilled his obligation and need not sound the shofar again while standing. For [the obligation to] stand [at this point] is merely Talmudic in origin, as explained in sec. 8[:4,] and sec. 489[:4]; see that source.

א צָרִיךְ לִתְקֹעַ מְעֻמָּד,א,1 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ב,2 "יוֹם תְּרוּעָה יִהְיֶה לָכֶם", וּלְהַלָּן הוּא אוֹמֵר ג,3 "וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם", מַה "לָּכֶם" הָאָמוּר שָׁם מְעֻמָּד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תפ"ט ד אַף כָּאן מְעֻמָּד.ה וּלְפִיכָךְ לֹא יִסְמֹךְ עַל שׁוּם דָּבָר בְּעִנְיַן שֶׁאִם יִנָּטֵל אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁסָּמַךְ עָלָיו הָיָה נוֹפֵל,ו שֶׁאֵין זוֹ עֲמִידָה אֶלָּא סְמִיכָה.ז וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם עָבַר וְתָקַע אֲפִלּוּ מְיֻשָּׁב – יָצָא,ח וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִתְקֹעַ מְעֻמָּד, לְפִי שֶׁעֲמִידָה זוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ח' ט וּבְסִימָן תפ"ט י עַיֵּן שָׁם:

2 Those who listen to the shofar blasts need not stand, even if they have not yet fulfilled their obligation.4

ב הַשּׁוֹמְעִין הַתְּקִיעוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא יָצְאוּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן יא,4 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינָן צְרִיכִים לַעֲמֹד:יב

3 It is customary to sound the shofar on the reader’s platform from which the Torah is read.5 It is appropriate to appoint a person who is righteous and honorable [to sound the shofar. The choice should be made, however,] in a manner that will avert contention.

ג נוֹהֲגִים לִתְקֹעַ עַל הַבִּימָה יג בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁקּוֹרִין.יד,5 וְרָאוּי לִתֵּן לִתְקֹעַ לְצַדִּיק וְהָגוּן, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מַחֲלֹקֶת בַּדָּבָר:טו

4 Before sounding the shofar, while standing, [the person sounding the shofar] should recite the blessing [aloud]:6 “[Blessed are You…] Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to hear the sound of the shofar” לשמוע קול שופר. He should not say לשמוע בקול שופר, for that would imply “to heed the sound of the shofar.”

Why do we not say, “to sound the shofar”? Because the essence of the mitzvah is not to sound the shofar but to hear it. [This principle is exemplified by the ruling in] sec. 587[:2], that a person who sounded the shofar but did not hear its blasts has not fulfilled his obligation. Nevertheless, if one transgressed or erred and [concluded] the blessing [with the words] “to sound the shofar” or “concerning the sounding of the shofar,” he has fulfilled his obligation.

ד קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְקַע יְבָרֵךְ טז,6 מְעֻמָּד יז "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ קוֹל שׁוֹפָר", וְלֹא יֹאמַר "בְּקוֹל שׁוֹפָר" דְּמַשְׁמַע לְצַיֵּת לְקוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר.יח וְלָמָה אֵין מְבָרְכִין "לִתְקֹעַ בְּשׁוֹפָר", לְפִי שֶׁהַתְּקִיעָה אֵינָהּ עִקַּר הַמִּצְוָה אֶלָּא שְׁמִיעַת קוֹל שׁוֹפָר הוּא עִקַּר הַמִּצְוָה,יט שֶׁהֲרֵי הַתּוֹקֵעַ וְלֹא שָׁמַע קוֹל שׁוֹפָר לֹא יָצָא כ כְּמוֹ שֶׁ[יִּ]תְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקפ"ז כא עַיֵּן שָׁם. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם עָבַר אוֹ טָעָה וּבֵרַךְ "לִתְקֹעַ בְּשׁוֹפָר" כב אוֹ "עַל תְּקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר" כג – יָצָא:

5 After reciting this blessing, [the person sounding the shofar] should recite the blessing Shehecheyanu,7 because the mitzvah [of sounding the shofar] comes only from time to time. These two blessings should be recited both by one who is sounding the shofar to fulfill his own obligation, and by one who has fulfilled his own obligation and is sounding the shofar to enable others to fulfill their obligations.

When does the [latter case] apply? When the listener does not know how to recite the blessings. If, however, he knows how to recite the blessings, he should recite them himself instead of hearing them from someone who has already fulfilled his obligation,8 as clarified in sec. 273[:6]; see that source.9

ה וְאַחַר בְּרָכָה זוֹ יְבָרֵךְ שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ,כד,7 לְפִי שֶׁהִיא מִצְוָה הַבָּאָ[ה] מִזְּמַן לִזְמַן.כה וְאֶחָד הַתּוֹקֵעַ לְעַצְמוֹ וְאֶחָד מִי שֶׁיָּצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ וְתוֹקֵעַ לְהוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן – מְבָרֵךְ שְׁתֵּי בְּרָכוֹת אֵלּוּ.כו בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאֵין הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ, אֲבָל אִם הוּא יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ – יְבָרֵךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ,כז וְלֹא יִשְׁמַע מִמִּי שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ8 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"ג,כח עַיֵּן שָׁם:9

6 After reciting these two blessings, tekiah-shevarim-teruah-tekiah should be sounded three times, tekiah-shevarim-tekiah three times, and tekiah-teruah-tekiah three times, as will be explained in sec. 590[:1-2]; see that source.

If one is in doubt whether he heard the sounding of the shofar [properly] on the first day of Rosh HaShanah, when the requirement to hear it is of Scriptural origin, he must [hear the] sounding [of the shofar again]. He should not recite a blessing, however, because whenever there is a doubt [as to whether or not] a blessing [should be recited], we rule leniently; [i.e., the blessing should not be recited].10 On the second day of Rosh HaShanah, [when the requirement to hear the sounding of the shofar] is merely Rabbinic in origin, there is no need to [hear the] sounding [of the shofar a second time], because whenever there is a doubt with regard to a Rabbinic obligation, we rule leniently.

It is preferable to sound the shofar from the right side of the mouth if that is possible,11 for it is written,12 “Satan was standing at his right side” — and Satan is confounded by the blasts of the shofar.13

ו וְאַחַר שֶׁבֵּרַךְ שְׁתֵּי בְּרָכוֹת אֵלּוּ יִתְקַע תשר"ת ג' פְּעָמִים וְתש"ת ג' פְּעָמִים וְתר"ת ג' פְּעָמִים,כט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"צ,ל עַיֵּן שָׁם.

מִי שֶׁנִּסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם שָׁמַע קוֹל שׁוֹפָר בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁהוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה – צָרִיךְ לִתְקֹעַ, אֲבָל לֹא יְבָרֵךְ שֶׁסְּפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל,10 וְאִם הוּא בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִתְקֹעַ,לא דִּסְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל.

טוֹב לב לִתְקֹעַ בְּצַד יָמִין לג שֶׁל פִּיו לד אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בְּכָךְ,לה,11 מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לו,12 "וְהַשָּׂטָן עוֹמֵד עַל יְמִינוֹ", וְהַתְּקִיעָה מְעַרְבֶּבֶת הַשָּׂטָן:לז,13

7 It is desirable that the mouth of the shofar be pointed upward rather than to the side, in the spirit of the phrase,14G‑d ascends through the sounding [of the shofar].”

ז וְטוֹב שֶׁיַּעֲמִיד פֶּה הַשּׁוֹפָר לְמַעְלָה לח וְלֹא יַטֶּנּוּ לִצְדָדִים,לט שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר מ,14 "עָלָה אֱלֹהִים בִּתְרוּעָה וגו'":

8 If one began sounding the shofar and was unable to complete all 30 shofar blasts,15 another person should replace him. If he, too, cannot complete [the mitzvah], he should be replaced by still another person, and so on [until the mitzvah is completed].

None of these [replacements] are required to recite the blessing,16 because they all fulfilled their obligation with the blessing recited by the first individual. [Moreover,] even if that individual was unable to sound even one note, his blessing was not recited in vain, because his intent in reciting it was that all the listeners should discharge their obligation.17 This is why those who sound the shofar after him and the congregation who heard his blessing do not have to recite a blessing again.

If, by contrast, he is replaced by a person who did not hear his blessing, that person must recite a blessing before he sounds the shofar, because he did not fulfill his obligation with the blessing recited by the first individual.18

ח אִם הִתְחִיל לִתְקֹעַ וְלֹא יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁלִים כָּל הַשְּׁלֹשִׁים תְּקִיעוֹת15 – יִתְקַע אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו, וְאִם גַּם הַשֵּׁנִי אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁלִים – יַשְׁלִים אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו, וְכֵן לְעוֹלָם. וְכֻלָּם אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְבָרֵךְ,16 לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְטְרוּ כֻּלָּם בְּבִרְכַּת הָרִאשׁוֹן.מא וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָרִאשׁוֹן לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לִתְקֹעַ אֲפִלּוּ תְּקִיעָה אַחַת מב – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא הָיְתָה בִּרְכָתוֹ לְבַטָּלָה,מג כֵּיוָן שֶׁכַּוָּנָתוֹ הָיְתָה בְּבִרְכָתוֹ לְהוֹצִיא כָּל הַשּׁוֹמְעִין,17 וְאִם כֵּן הַתּוֹקְעִין אַחֲרוֹנִים וְכָל הַקָּהָל שֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ בִּרְכָתוֹ אֵינָם צְרִיכִים עוֹד לְבָרֵךְ.מד

אֲבָל אִם בָּא לִתְקֹעַ תַּחְתָּיו מִי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע בִּרְכָתוֹ – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְקַע,מה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא לֹא יָצָא בְּבִרְכַּת הָרִאשׁוֹן:18

9 When does this apply? When the person sounding the shofar has not fulfilled his own obligation, for he has not heard the sounding of the shofar at all. If, however, he heard the sounding of all the shofar blasts in another synagogue, he is not required to recite a blessing before he sounds the shofar, because the congregation already heard the blessings from the first person who [attempted to] sound the shofar.19

ט בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁתּוֹקֵעַ זֶה לֹא יָצָא עֲדַיִן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע עֲדַיִן כָּל הַתְּקִיעוֹת, אֲבָל אִם כְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ שֶׁשָּׁמַע כְּבָר כָּל הַתְּקִיעוֹת בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אַחֶרֶת – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְקַע, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַצִּבּוּר שָׁמְעוּ כְּבָר הַבְּרָכָה מִן הַתּוֹקֵעַ הָרִאשׁוֹן:מו,19

10 It is customary for the [sheliach tzibbur] who led the Morning Service to read out the order of the shofar blasts word by word for the person sounding the shofar, so that he will not err. This is a desirable custom.20 See also sec. 590.21

י נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁהַמִּתְפַּלֵּל שַׁחֲרִית מַקְרִיא סֵדֶר הַתְּקִיעוֹת לִפְנֵי הַתּוֹקֵעַ מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעֶה בִּתְקִיעוֹתָיו, וּמִנְהָג יָפֶה הוּא.מז,20 וְעַיֵּן בְּסִימָן תק"צ:מח,21

11 (It is forbidden to receive payment for sounding the shofar on Rosh HaShanah, even if one was hired before the festival began.22 [The rationale is that] he would be receiving wages for [working on] the festival, and this is forbidden for the reasons explained in sec. 306[:11]; see that source.23 If one receives payment [for sounding the shofar], he will never realize any blessing from that payment.)24

יא (אָסוּר לִטֹּל שָׂכָר לִתְקֹעַ שׁוֹפָר בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אֲפִלּוּ שְׂכָרוּהוּ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב,,22 לְפִי שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל שְׂכַר יוֹם טוֹב מט וְאָסוּר מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ו נ עַיֵּן שָׁם.23 וְאִם נָטַל – אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה סִימַן בְּרָכָה נא מֵאוֹתוֹ שָׂכָר נב לְעוֹלָם):24