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Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 207 - Laws Governing Blessing to be Recited After Partaking of Produce

Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 207 - Laws Governing Blessing to be Recited After Partaking of Produce

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SECTION 207 The Laws Governing the Blessing to be Recited After Partaking of Produce. (1–2)

רז דִּין בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַל פֵּרוֹת, וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 The blessing Borei nefashos (“…Who created souls…”) should be recited [after partaking] of “the fruit of trees,” with the exception of those from the five species,1 as will be stated in sec. 208,2 on “the produce of the earth,” on leafy vegetables,3 and on all foods that do not grow from the earth.4 If one partook of the minimum measure5 of any of these types of foods, he should recite [only] one blessing,6 since the same blessing is recited for all [these types of food]. This same law applies if one ate and drank.

This blessing concludes without the mention of G‑d’s name, Baruch chei haolamim, “Blessed is He Who is the life of all worlds.”7 [This ruling — whereby only the word Baruch is recited — reflects a compromise,] because there are authorities who maintain that [our Sages] ordained a concluding blessing for it8 and other authorities maintain that they ordained that its recitation employ the short format [for blessings].9

א עַל פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן, חוּץ מֵה' מִינִים1 שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"ח,א,2 וְעַל כָּל פֵּרוֹת אֲדָמָה וִירָקוֹת,3 וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין גִּדּוּלוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ4 – מְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת".ב וְאִם אָכַל כְּשִׁעוּר5 מִכָּל מִין וָמִין מִמִּינִים אֵלּוּג – מְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם בְּרָכָה אַחַת,6 כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּרְכָתָם שָׁוָה.ד וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם אָכַל וְשָׁתָה.ה

וּבְרָכָה זוֹ חוֹתֵם בָּהּ בְּלֹא שֵׁם, שֶׁאוֹמֵר: "בָּרוּךְ חֵי הָעוֹלָמִים",ו,7 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ בָּהּ חֲתִימָה,ז,8 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםח שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ, אֶלָּא הוּא מַטְבֵּעַ קָצָר: ט,9

2 The meaning of the term vechesronan [in this blessing]resembles [that of the term machsorecha alai in the verse:]10 “All your needs (machsorecha) are my [responsibility],” i.e., [vechesronan means] “what [people] need for their sustenance,” what they lack and must have in order to exist, what they could not do without, e.g., bread [i.e., sustaining food,] and water. [The blessing continues:] “for everything that You have created with which to grant vitality to” — this refers to the other entities that G‑d created from which [man] derives pleasure, like fruit.11

Others say that the term chesronan is linked to the phrase “for everything that You created to grant vitality to,” i.e., [You created beings] that are lacking and need “everything You created to grant vitality to….”

The term chei (“life of”) should be pronounced chei, i.e., vocalized with a tzeirei.

The sections [208–211 are] not extant. They were never printed in the [Alter Rebbe’s] Shulchan Aruch. The themes discussed in them can be found in the Alter Rebbe’s Seder Birkas HaNehenin.12

ב "וְחֶסְרוֹנָן", הוּא מִלְּשׁוֹן10 "כָּל מַחְסוֹרְךָ עָלָי",י כְּלוֹמַר צָרְכֵי סִפּוּקָן, שֶׁהֵם חֲסֵרִים וּצְרִיכִים לָהֶם לְצֹרֶךְ קִיּוּם חֲיּוּתָם, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לְהִתְקַיֵּם זוּלָתָם, כְּגוֹן לֶחֶם וּמַיִם. וְ"עַל כָּל מַה שֶּׁבָּרָאתָיא לְהַחֲיוֹת בָּהֶם", הֵם שְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁבְּרָאָם לְהִתְעַנֵּג בָּהֶם, כְּגוֹן מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת.יב,11

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים,יג שֶׁ"חֶסְרוֹנָן" הוּא דָּבוּק לְ"עַל כָּל מַה שֶּׁבָּרָאתָ", כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁהֵם חֲסֵרִים וּצְרִיכִים לְ"כָל מַה שֶּׁבָּרָאתָ לְהַחֲיוֹת כוּ'".

צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "חֵי" בְּצֵרֵ"י: יד

הסימנים החסרים לא נדפסו בתוך הש"ע מעולם וכל מבקשם ימצאם [לקמן] בתוך סדר ברכת הנהניןטו מהרב המחבר זצלה"ה.טז

Footnotes
1.
The one blessing that encapsulates the three blessings of Grace (which concludes either Al ha­michyah, Al hagefen, or Al hapeiros) is recited after partaking of food from the seven species for which Eretz Yisrael is blessed. Five of those seven species are fruits. The blessing Borei nefashos is recited after partaking of all other fruits.
2.
This section is not extant in the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch. See Seder Birkas HaNehenin, ch. 1, law 7, where these laws are discussed.
3.
The term pri haadamah, “the produce of the earth,” includes legumes and tubers, while yerakos, literally, “greens,” refers to leafy vegetables, such as cabbage, spinach, and lettuce (Rabbeinu Yonah, Berachos 24b). See also section 205:1 above.
4.
Berachos 44b.
5.
According to Shiurei Torah 3:9 an olive-sized portion has a volume of 28.8 cc. (slightly over 1 fl. oz.) in contemporary measure. It must be emphasized, however, that this measure is a measure of volume, not a measure of weight. Moreover, in sec. 486:2 (based on Uktzin 2:8), the Alter Rebbe writes that this measure should be calculated without crushing the small air pockets within the food. When measuring foods or liquids that have a similar consistency as water (specific density of 1), the food’s weight can be used to measure its volume. Thus, 28.8 gm weight will take up a volume of 28.8 cc, the size of one olive-sized portion. The specific density of bread, cake, and crackers ranges from 0.5 to 0.75 (and even less when there are air pockets). For example, an olive-sized portion of matzah or crackers will weigh 14.4 gm.
6.
Which will include all the food he ate.
7.
With regard to our translation, see Tosfos Yom Tov, Tamid 7:4.
8.
Including the words, Baruch Atah A-donai. See Talmud Yeru­shalmi, Berachos 6:1.
9.
I.e., its form resembles that of the blessings recited before partaking of foods that do not conclude with the phrase “Blessed are You, G‑d….”
10.
Shoftim 19:20.
11.
11. In Nusach Ashkenaz, the wording of this blessing is: על כל מה שברא (“for everything that He created”), i.e. employing third person.The wording used here: על כל מה שבראת (“for everything that You created”), in second person,stems from the AriZal (Shaar HaMitzvos, Parshas Eikev).
12.
The subjects discussed in sec. 208 in the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro are found in the Alter Rebbe’s Seder Birkas HaNehenin, ch. 1, those discussed in sec. 210 in ch. 8, and those discussed in sec. 211 in ch. 10.
Sources
א.
סי' זה בשוע"ר לא הגיע לידינו, וראה סדר ברה"נ פ"א ה"ז.
ב.
רב פפא ברכות מד, ב ותוס' שם ד"ה עבידנא. טור ושו"ע. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"א ה"ו. סדר ברה"נ שם.
ג.
ולענין צירופם לשיעור ראה סדר ברה"נ פ"ח ה"ז.
ד.
טור ושו"ע.
ה.
מ"א ס"ק א.
ו.
רבינו יונה ברכות מד, ב ד"ה ובירושלמי. שו"ת הרשב"א ח"א סי' קמט. רבינו ירוחם נתיב טז ח"ג. שו"ע.
ז.
ירושלמי ברכות פ"ו ה"א. רא"ש ברכות פ"ו סי' ח. טור.
ח.
רבינו יונה שם.
ט.
כברכת הפירות והמצוות שפתיחתן היא חתימתן.
י.
שופטים יט, כ.
יא.
לשון נוכח. שער המצות פר' עקב ד"ה ונחזור לענין ראשון. מ"א ריש הסימן. וכ"ה בנוסח הסידור.
יב.
תוס' לז, א ד"ה בורא. רא"ש שם. טור. ט"ז ס"ק א.
יג.
טור בשם י"א. ב"י.
יד.
מ"א ריש הסימן. וכ"ה בנוסח הסידור.
טו.
מ"א ריש הסימן. וכ"ה בנוסח הסידור.
טז.
סי' רח בפרק א (בסדר ובלוח ברה"נ). סי' רי בפרק ח (ובלוח ברה"נ פ"ב). סי' ריא בפרק י (ובלוח ברה"נ פ"ג).
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