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Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 185 - To Recite Grace after Meals Aloud; Other Particulars Applying to Grace after Meals

Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 185 - To Recite Grace after Meals Aloud; Other Particulars Applying to Grace after Meals

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SECTION 185 To Recite the Grace after Meals Aloud; Other Particulars Applying to Grace after Meals. (1–5)

קפה לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּקוֹל רָם, וְיֶתֶר פְּרָטִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, וּבוֹ ה' סְעִיפִים:

1 The Grace after Meals may be recited in any language,1 as [implied by] the phrase:2 “You shall bless G‑d…,” i.e., in any language that you bless.3 For Scripture required one only to “bless G‑d your L‑rd,” [understood to mean]: You may bless Him in any language in which you understand that you are blessing “G‑d your L‑rd for the good land that He gave you.” If, however, one does not understand the language [in which he is reciting Grace], even if it is [recited in] the Holy Tongue, he does not fulfill his obligation. Since he does not understand the words that he is reciting,4 it cannot be said that he is “bless[ing] G‑d your L‑rd.”2 (See Magen Avraham 434:6,5 [which discusses the nullification of chametz]. In that instance, [even though one does not understand the exact words he is saying, his statements are effective,] because all that is necessary is that the person nullify [his ownership of chametz] in his heart,6 as stated in Chok Yaakov [434]:12.7 In contrast, one is obligated to actually verbalize the words of Grace, as will be stated.8 [Hence, unless he understands what he is saying, he does not fulfill his obligation.])

Although the person knows for Whom he is reciting the blessing and his intent is to bless G‑d with these words, [still, since he does not understand what he is saying, he does not fulfill his obligation]. How much more so does this apply when the person’s heart turns to other matters while he recites Grace, even though he understands the Holy Tongue! Therefore, women and unlearned people who do not understand the Holy Tongue are obligated to recite Grace in a language that they understand and not in the Holy Tongue. Similarly, they may not fulfill their obligation by listening to [the blessings recited] in the Holy Tongue by the leader of Grace in a zimun. Instead, they should recite Grace themselves in a language that they understand.

Other authorities maintain that a person fulfills his obligation [by reciting or listening to a blessing] in the Holy Tongue even if he does not understand that language. This does not apply with regard to other languages. Therefore, women and unlearned people may fulfill their obligation by listening to [the blessings recited] in the Holy Tongue by the leader of Grace in a zimun. This is the common practice, although it is appropriate to be stringent and follow the first opinion.

א בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן נֶאֱמֶרֶת בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן,א,1 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרב,2 "וּבֵרַכְתָּ אֶת ה' וְגוֹ'", בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן שֶׁאַתָּה מְבָרֵךְ,ג,3 כִּי לֹא חִיֶּבְךָ הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא שֶׁתְּבָרֵךְ "אֶת ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ", וּבְכָל לָשׁוֹן שֶׁאַתָּה מַכִּיר שֶׁאַתָּה מְבָרֵךְ "ה' אֱלֹקֶיךָ עַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לָךְ"2 – תּוּכַל לְבָרֵךְ.ד אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מַכִּיר הַלָּשׁוֹן – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ, שֶׁאֵין אֲנִי קוֹרֵא בּוֹ:2 "וּבֵרַכְתָּ אֶת ה' אֱלֹקֶיךָ", כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין תֵּבוֹת הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁמּוֹצִיא מִפִּיוה,4 (עַיֵּן בְּסִימָן תל"ד בְּ"מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם" סְעִיף קָטָן ו',ו,5 וְהַיְנוּ מִשּׁוּם דְּבִטּוּל סַגִּי בַּלֵּב,ז,6 כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּ"חֹק יַעֲקֹב" סְעִיף קָטָן י"א,ח,7 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן צָרִיךְ שֶׁיּוֹצִיא בִּשְׂפָתָיו, כְּדִלְקַמָּן) ט,8 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְמִי מְבָרֵךְ, וְכַוָּנָתוֹ לְבָרֵךְ ה' בְּתֵבוֹת אֵלּוּ.י וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם לְבָבוֹ פּוֹנֶה לִדְבָרִים אֲחֵרִים בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַבְּרָכוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּבִין לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ.יא וְלָכֵן הַנָּשִׁים וְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינָם מְבִינִים לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ – חַיָּבִים לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בַּלָּשׁוֹן שֶׁמְּבִינִים וְלֹא בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ. וְכֵן אֵינָם יוֹצְאִים בִּשְׁמִיעָה מֵהַמְבָרֵךְ בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּזִמּוּן,יב אֶלָּא יְבָרְכוּ לְעַצְמָן בַּלָּשׁוֹן שֶׁמְּבִינִים.יג

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיד שֶׁבִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ יוֹצֵא אָדָם יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין הַלָּשׁוֹן, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּשְׁאָר לְשׁוֹנוֹת. וְלָכֵן הַנָּשִׁים וְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ יוֹצְאִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם בִּשְׁמִיעָה מֵהַמְבָרֵךְ בְּזִמּוּן בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ. וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִים,טו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָאוּי לְהַחְמִיר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה: טז

2 The above applies only to Grace. With regard to other blessings — whether blessings recited over benefit, blessings recited over mitzvos, even Kiddush for Shabbos, which is a Scriptural obligation9 — there are opinions that maintain that one fulfills his obligation [by reciting them] in any language, even if one does not understand [that language]. The same ruling applies with regard to [the recitation of] Hallel.10

In contrast, with regard to the reading of the Megillah,11the recitation of the Shema,12 and the Shemoneh Esreh, [one does not fulfill his obligation unless he understands what is being said]. For with regard to the Megillah, it is written:13 “To the Jews, in their script and in their language,” thereby excluding other languages with which they are not familiar. With regard to the recitation of the Shema, it is written:14 “Hear,” which [our Sages interpret15 as meaning,] in any language that you hear, i.e., understand. If, by contrast, one does not understand that language, even if it is the Holy Tongue, he does not fulfill his obligation, unless he understood and concentrated during [the recitation of] the first verse,16 as [our Sages stated:]15 “Until this point, there is a mitzvah to concentrate.17 Afterwards, the mitzvah is to read.” And the mitzvah of reading may be fulfilled even if one does not understand the language [he is reading], as is true with regard to Hallel10and the Megillah.18

Similarly, with regard to the Shemoneh Esreh, since with regard to the first blessing,19 concentrated intent is a prerequisite, even after the fact, it is governed by the same laws as the recitation of the Shema. By contrast, after the fact, concentration is not imperative for other blessings, with the exception of Grace.20

Other authorities maintain that all the blessings resemble Grace in this respect and one does not fulfill his obligation when he does not understand the wording. According to the second opinion [in subsection 1, this applies only] in other languages, and according to the first opinion, even in the Holy Tongue. For our Sages established all their ordinances in a manner resembling Scriptural practice.21 [As stated above,] with regard to Grace, it cannot be said that [one is fulfilling the commandment to] “bless G‑d your L‑rd” when he does not understand the words of the blessing or when his heart turns to other matters. The same applies with regard to other blessings: [when understanding or concentration is lacking,] one does not fulfill the obligation of the blessing.

With regard to [the recitation of] Hallel and [the reading of] the Megillah, by contrast, the binding obligation is only the mitzvah of reading,22 as is true with regard to the recitation of the Shema after the first verse. [Therefore,] one may recite a blessing over this reading even though he does not understand the Holy Tongue. To cite a parallel: An unlearned person who knows how to read the Torah23 receives an aliyah and recites the blessings of the Torah in the presence of the congregation even though he does not understand what he is reading.24 [This ruling applies] even in the present era when a person who receives an aliyah does not himself read from the Torah.25

All the blessings, by contrast, were ordained, not as [mere] recitation, but as [an act of] blessing G‑d, as it is written with regard to Grace, “You shall bless G‑d, your L‑rd.” Therefore if one does not understand the words that are the essential elements of the blessing or if one’s heart is turned to other matters when reciting them, he is not considered to be reciting a blessing at all. This [ruling] applies even if he recites the blessing in the Holy Tongue according to the first opinion [mentioned in subsection 1].

(The words that are the essential elements of the blessing are “Blessed,” “G‑d,” His sovereignty,26 and the subjectfor which one is reciting the blessing, e.g., “…Who created the fruit of the earth” or “…through Whose word everything came into existence.” Similar concepts apply with regard to the blessings concerning the mitzvos. [This does not apply with regard] to the remainder of the wording of the blessings in the long blessings. Even with regard to those words whose recitation is a binding imperative [even] after the fact, e.g., the covenant [of circumcision] and the Torah, in the blessing [of thanks] for Eretz Yisrael, and the royal House of David, in the blessing Boneh Yerushalayim27— what is an absolute imperative is the recitation of these words and not their comprehension. For [these words] are not deemed a blessing, concerning which we would say that since one does not understand them, he is [therefore] not considered to be blessing G‑d. In contrast, whenever a blessing begins and concludes with the word “Blessed,” the understanding of the beginningand the end of the blessing is a binding requirement. This applies even when there are many blessings that follow in succession to each other, like the blessings of the Shema.

These blessings do not resemble the blessings of the Shemoneh Esreh, [concerning which the ruling is that] from the second blessing onward, the comprehension of the blessing is not a binding requirement after the fact. [The rationale:] All of the blessings of the Shemoneh Esreh [in essence] constitute one mitzvah. In the first three blessings, one is like a servant who presents words of praise in his master’s presence.In the thirteen intermediate blessings, one is like a servant who asks for an allotment from his master, and, in the last three, like a servant who has received [an allotment] from his master, takes leave of him, and seeks his permission [to do so].28 Indeed, for this reason, it is unacceptable for one to recite one [of these blessings] without [reciting all] the others, as explained in sec. 69:1.29 Therefore, once a person understood [the meaning of] the first blessing and concentrated during its recitation, [since] it is the fundamental expression of praise for the Holy One, blessed be He, [our Sages] did not require him to repeat the Shemoneh Esreh [even if his understanding or concentration was lacking in the later blessings]. For he fulfilled the fundamental mitzvah of the Sages by presenting the praises of the Omnipresent in his mouth and heart through [the recitation of] the first blessing. Its [recitation] is the fundamental dimension of the mitzvah of prayer, [as evidenced by the ruling19 that] if one did not concentrate his attention during [the recitation of] the first blessing — even though he concentrated throughout the remainder of the Shemoneh Esreh — he did not fulfill his obligation.

[The above rationale does not apply, however,] with regard to the blessings of the Shema. Each [blessing] is an independent mitzvah, as explained in the above source.30 Accordingly, [one’s] understanding and concentration during one [of those blessings] is of no consequence with regard to another.)

With regard to the application of this law, [we follow the principle:] “After the fact, when there is uncertainty regarding the necessity [to repeat] a blessing, we rule leniently.”31 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one should be very careful with regard to his concentration during the recitation of blessings. In particular, [this applies with regard] to Grace, since there are authorities who maintain that even after the fact, one does not fulfill his obligation [if he lacks concentration].32

ב וְכָל זֶה בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת, בֵּין בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין בֵּין בִּרְכַּת הַמִּצְוֹת,יז וַאֲפִלּוּ קִדּוּשׁ לְשַׁבָּתיח שֶׁהוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָהיט,9 – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכ שֶׁיּוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מֵבִין. וְכֵן בְּהַלֵּל.כא,10

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּמְגִלָּהכב,11 וּבִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַעכג,12 וּבִתְפִלָּה,כד שֶׁבַּמְּגִלָּה נֶאֱמַר בָּהּ: כה,13 "וְאֶל הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָם", לְמַעֵט שְׁאָר לְשׁוֹנוֹת כְּשֶׁאֵין מַכִּירִין,כו וּבִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע נֶאֱמַר: כז,14 "שְׁמַע", בְּכָל לְשׁוֹן שֶׁאַתָּה שׁוֹמֵעַ,כח כְּלוֹמַר מֵבִין.כט,15 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מֵבִין הַלָּשׁוֹן, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁל – לֹא יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵבִין וְנִתְכַּוֵּן בְּפָסוּק רִאשׁוֹן,16 שֶׁעַד כָּאן מִצְוַת כַּוָּנָה,17 וּמִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ מִצְוַת קְרִיאָה,לא וּמִצְוַת קְרִיאָה יָכוֹל לְקַיֵּם אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין הַלָּשׁוֹן, כְּמוֹ בְּהַלֵּללב וּמְגִלָּה.לג,18 וְכֵן תְּפִלָּה, הוֹאִיל וְהַכַּוָּנָה מְעַכֶּבֶת בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד בִּבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָהלד,19 – דִּינָהּ כִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע.לה אֲבָל שְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת חוּץ מִבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – אֵין הַכַּוָּנָה מְעַכֶּבֶת בְּדִיעֲבַד.לו,20

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלז שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת הֵן כְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן לְעִנְיָן זֶה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין הַלָּשׁוֹן, לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה בִּשְׁאָר לְשׁוֹנוֹת, וּלְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אֲפִלּוּ בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ, שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִיםלח – תִּקְנוּ כְּעֵין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,לט,21 וּכְמוֹ שֶׁבְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֵין אֲנִי קוֹרֵא בּוֹ:2 "וּבֵרַכְתָּ אֶת ה'", כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין תֵּבוֹת הַבְּרָכָה, אוֹ שֶׁלְּבָבוֹ פּוֹנֶה לִדְבָרִים אֲחֵרִים – הוּא הַדִּין בִּשְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת הַבְּרָכָה.

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּהַלֵּל וּבִמְגִלָּה שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם אֶלָּא מִצְוַת קְרִיאָה לְעַכֵּב,מ,22 כְּמוֹ בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע מִפָּסוּק רִאשׁוֹן וָאֵילָךְמא – יָכוֹל הוּא גַּם כֵּן לְבָרֵךְ עַל קְרִיאָה זוֹ אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁעַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה23 עוֹלֶה וּמְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ בְּצִבּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין קְרִיאָתוֹ,מב,24 וַאֲפִלּוּמג בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁהָעוֹלֶה הוּא אֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא בְּעַצְמוֹ.מד,25

אֲבָל כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת לֹא תִּקְּנוּ אוֹתָם כְּדֵי לִקְרוֹתָן, אֶלָּא לְבָרֵךְ אֶת ה', כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן:2 "וּבֵרַכְתָּ אֶת ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ", לְפִיכָךְ אִם אֵינוֹ מֵבִין הַתֵּבוֹת שֶׁהֵן עִקַּר הַבְּרָכוֹת, אוֹ שֶׁלְּבָבוֹ פּוֹנֶה לְדָבָר אַחֵר בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירָתָן – לֹא בֵּרַךְ כְּלוּם, אֲפִלּוּ בֵּרַךְ בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.

(וְתֵבוֹת עִקַּר הַבְּרָכָה הֵן: "בָּרוּךְ", "ה'", וּמַלְכוּת,מה,26 וְעִנְיָן שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, כְּגוֹן "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה", אוֹ "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ". וְכֵן בְּבִרְכוֹת הַמִּצְוֹת. אֲבָל שְׁאָר נֻסַּח הַבְּרָכָה בַּבְּרָכוֹת הָאֲרֻכּוֹת, וַאֲפִלּוּ תֵּבוֹת הַמְעַכְּבוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד, כְּגוֹן בְּרִית וְתוֹרָה בְּבִרְכַּת הָאָרֶץ, וּמַלְכוּת בֵּית דָּוִד בְּ"בוֹנֵה יְרוּשָׁלַיִם"מו,27 – אֵין מְעַכְּבוֹת אֶלָּא אֲמִירָתָן וְלֹא הֲבָנָתָן, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין שֵׁם בְּרָכָה עֲלֵיהֶן לוֹמַר שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ ה'. אֲבָל כָּל בְּרָכָה שֶׁפּוֹתַחַת וְחוֹתֶמֶת בְּ"בָרוּךְ" – מְעַכֶּבֶת הֲבָנָתָהּ בִּפְתִיחָתָהּ וּבַחֲתִימָתָהּ, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן בְּרָכוֹת רַבּוֹת סְמוּכוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ, כְּמוֹ בִּרְכַּת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע.

וְאֵין דּוֹמוֹת לְבִרְכוֹת הַתְּפִלָּה מִבְּרָכָה שְׁנִיָּה וָאֵילָךְ, שֶׁאֵין הֲבָנָתָן מְעַכֶּבֶת בְּדִיעֲבַד, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל בִּרְכ[וֹ]ת הַתְּפִלָּה הֵן מִצְוָה אַחַת, ג' רִאשׁוֹנוֹת כְּעֶבֶד שֶׁמְּסַדֵּר שֶׁבַח לִפְנֵי רַבּוֹ, וְי"ג אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת כְּעֶבֶד שֶׁמְּבַקֵּשׁ פְּרָס מֵרַבּוֹ, וְג' אַחֲרוֹנוֹת כְּעֶבֶד שֶׁקִּבֵּל מֵרַבּוֹ וְנִפְטָר וְנוֹטֵל רְשׁוּת,מז,28 וְלָכֵן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר זוֹ בְּלֹא זוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס"ט.מח,29 לְפִיכָךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵבִין וְנִתְכַּוֵּן בִּבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהִיא עִקַּר סִדּוּר שְׁבָחָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּאמט – לֹא הִצְרִיכוּ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁקִּיֵּם עִקַּר מִצְוַת חֲכָמִים, שֶׁסִּדֵּר שְׁבָחָיו שֶׁל מָקוֹם בְּפִיו וּבִלְבָבוֹ בִּבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁזֶּהוּ עִקַּר מִצְוַת הַתְּפִלָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם לֹא כִּוֵּן לִבּוֹ בִּבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכִּוֵּן בְּכָל שְׁאָר הַתְּפִלָּה – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ.נ אֲבָל בְּבִרְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, שֶׁכָּל אַחַת מִצְוָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁםנא,30 – אֵין הֲבָנָה וְכַוָּנָה שֶׁל זוֹ מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם לְזוֹ).

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, סְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל בְּדִיעֲבַד. אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר מְאֹד בְּכַוָּנַת הַבְּרָכָה,נב,31 וּבִפְרָט בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד לֹא יָצָא: נג,32

3 A person should not recite the Grace after Meals [merely] in his heart. If, however, he recites Grace in that manner, he fulfills his obligation,33 provided he verbalizes the words with his lips, even though he recites them in so silent a whisper that they were not audible, merely speaking to his heart. If, however, he did not verbalize the words at all, but merely thought them over in his heart, he did not fulfill his obligation, for thinking over [the words] is not equivalent to speech.34

Nevertheless, if he cannot verbalize the words because of illness or because of another factor beyond his control,35 he should review them in his heart. To cite a parallel: Before the ordinance of Ezra was nullified,36 our Sages required37 a person who had a seminal emission and who did not have water in which he could immerse, to review [the words] of Grace in his heart, because it is a Scriptural requirement.38

By contrast, according to the letter of the law, when forces beyond his control prevent a person from verbalizing other blessings which he is obligated to recite by Rabbinic Law, he need not review them in his heart. [To cite a parallel:] One who had a seminal emission was not required to review words of Torah [merely in thought,38 although] he is permitted to contemplate words of Torah the entire day. [The rationale for the restriction:] Since the person does not fulfill his obligation to recite the blessings by reviewing the words of the blessings in his mind, in any case, [the Rabbis did not obligate him to do so]. Even so, he should review the words of the blessing in which he is obligated, because G‑d will see into his heart and reward him for his thoughts, as [intimated by] the verse:39 “Say in your hearts….”

(A sick person should conduct himself in this manner even with regard to blessings that he is not mandated to recite, but in which he causes himself to be obligated, e.g., blessings recited for benefit. A healthy person who is held back by forces beyond his control and cannot verbalize [a blessing] because his location is unclean, [but not entirely filthy] — and thus, speaking [words of blessing] is forbidden, but thought is permitted, as stated in sec. 62[:3]40 — or by other situations beyond his control,41 should not benefit from this world without a blessing,42 even though he reviews the blessing in his heart, for [in this instance, even] after the fact, one does not fulfill his obligation through thought alone.)

Other authorities maintain that, after the fact, one may fulfill all the blessings, even Grace, by reviewing them in his mind. They do not resemble the Shema, for concerning it, it is written:43 “You shall speak of them,” and reviewing the words is not equivalent to speech. With regard to Grace, by contrast, it is not stated “you shall speak,” but “you shall bless,” and one who reviews the words of a blessing in his heart can also be said to be blessing. Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion.44 Nevertheless, in a pressing situation of great necessity, one may rely on [the second opinion] with regard to the other blessings that are of Rabbinic origin.

ג לֹא יְבָרֵךְ אָדָם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּלִבּוֹ. וְאִם בֵּרַךְ – יָצָא.נד,33 וְהוּא שֶׁהוֹצִיא בִּשְׂפָתָיו, אֶלָּא שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בְּלַחַשׁ כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִשְׁמִיעַ לְאָזְנוֹ אֶלָּא בֵּרַךְ בְּלִבּוֹ, אֲבָל אִם לֹא הוֹצִיא בִּשְׂפָתָיו כְּלָל אֶלָּא הִרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ לְבַד – לֹא יָצָא, שֶׁהִרְהוּר אֵינוֹ כְּדִבּוּר.נה,34

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם מֵחֲמַת חֹלִי אוֹ אֹנֶס אַחֵר35 אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא בִּשְׂפָתָיו – צָרִיךְ לְהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ,נו כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִצְרִיכוּ חֲכָמִים37 לְבַעַל קֶרִי, קֹדֶם שֶׁבִּטְּלוּ תַּקָּנַת עֶזְרָא,נז,36 אִם אֵין לוֹ מַיִם לִטְבֹּל, שֶׁיְּהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,נח הוֹאִיל וְהִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה.נט,38

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁהוּא אָנוּס וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא בִּשְׂפָתָיו שְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בָּהֶן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹס מִן הַדִּין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הִצְרִיכוּ לְבַעַל קֶרִי לְהַרְהֵר בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה,סא שֶׁהָיָה מֻתָּר לְהַרְהֵר כָּל הַיּוֹם בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה,סב כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבַת הַבְּרָכוֹת בְּהִרְהוּר, אֶלָּא שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי כֵן יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַרְהֵר הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בָּהּ, כִּי "ה' יִרְאֶה לַלֵּבָב", לִתֵּן לוֹ שְׂכַר הַמַּחֲשָׁבָה,סג וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּבסד,39 "אִמְרוּ בִלְבַבְכֶם וְגוֹ'".

(וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה הַחוֹלֶה אֲפִלּוּ בִּבְרָכָה שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַיֵּב בָּהּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁמֵּבִיא עַצְמוֹ לִידֵי חִיּוּב, כְּגוֹן בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין. אֲבָל הַבָּרִיא שֶׁהוּא אָנוּס וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבַטֵּא בִּשְׂפָתַיִם מִפְּנֵי הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקִי, בְּעִנְיַן שֶׁאָסוּר לְדַבֵּר וּמֻתָּר לְהַרְהֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס"ב,סה,40 אוֹ מִפְּנֵי אֹנֶס אַחֵרסו,41 – לֹא יֵהָנֶה מֵעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה,סז,42 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּהַרְהֵר אוֹתוֹ בְּלִבּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּהִרְהוּר בְּדִיעֲבַד).

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים,סח שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, יוֹצֵא אָדָם יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּהִרְהוּר בְּדִיעֲבַד, וְאֵינָן דּוֹמוֹת לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע,סט שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהּ:43 "וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם",ע וְהִרְהוּר אֵינוֹ כְּדִבּוּר, אֲבָל בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן לֹא נֶאֱמַר "וְדִבַּרְתָּ", אֶלָּא "וּבֵרַכְתָּ", וְהַמְבָרֵךְ בְּלִבּוֹ – גַּם כֵּן שֵׁם בְּרָכָה עָלֶיהָ.עא וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.עב,44 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּשְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁהֵן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל זֶה בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק וּלְצֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל: עג

4 When a head of a household eats together with his young children who have reached the age when they should be trained to recite Grace,45 but they do not know how to recite Grace, or [when he] eats together with his wife who does not know how to recite Grace, he must recite [Grace] aloud so that they will listen and fulfill their obligation, even though he is not including them in a zimun.46It is preferable that they recite the Grace with him, word-for-word, because concentrating and listening [to every word of Grace] is [virtually] impossible, as stated in sec. 183[:10]. (Similar [laws apply] with regard to Kiddush47and Havdalah.)48

ד בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁאוֹכֵל עִם בָּנָיו הַקְּטַנִּיםעד שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ לְחִנּוּךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן45 וְאֵינָן יוֹדְעִים לְבָרֵךְ, אוֹ עִם אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁאֵינָהּ יוֹדַעַת לְבָרֵךְעה – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּקוֹל רָם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ וְיֵצְאוּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן,עו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם מְזַמְּנִים עֲלֵיהֶם.עז,46 וְטוֹב שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ עִמּוֹ מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה, לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְכַוֵּן וְלִשְׁמֹעַ,עח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"געט (וְכֵן בְּקִדּוּשׁפ,47 וְהַבְדָּלָה):48

5 A person who is slightly tipsy from [drinking] wine49 is forbidden to pray50 until the influence of the wine abates, even though he would be able to speak before a king without becoming befuddled, as explained in sec. 99:1. Nevertheless, such a person may recite Grace,51 as long as he would be able to speak in the presence of a king. [This leniency applies] even when he cannot speak in a truly appropriate manner, i.e., when he speaks, it is apparent that he is tipsy, but still, he does not blunder or become befuddled. [This concept is derived from] the verse:2 “When you have eaten and are satiated, you shall bless G‑d, your L‑rd.” Now, after a person [eats to] satiation, there are times when he becomes tipsy. Nevertheless, [even in such a situation,] the Torah obligates him to recite Grace.

If, however, a person is intoxicated to the extent that he could not speak in the presence of a king without becoming befuddled, there are authorities who maintain that he should not recite Grace, because a blessing recited by an intoxicated person is an abomination, like the prayer of such a person, as stated in sec. 99[:loc. cit.]. Should he have recited Grace, it is uncertain whether he must recite Grace again when the influence of the wine abates, if his food has not yet begun to digest,52 like an [intoxicated person] is obligated to pray again when the influence of the wine abates.53 [There is room for leniency,] because the laws governing the recitation of Grace are not as severe as those governing prayer, as evidenced by the ruling that, as an initial preference, a person who is tipsy may recite Grace, but he may not pray.

Similarly, it is uncertain whether [Grace must be recited a second time in the following situation]: A person recited Grace and, afterwards, found feces in front of him54 or at his side, within four cubits, in a place where there was reason to think that excrement might have been found there, and thus it was necessary that he check before he recited Grace there. He, however, was negligent and failed to check [the place. Were such a situation to occur] with regard to prayer, the person would be required to pray again, for to such a prayer, [our Sages55 applied the words of censure],56 “The offering of the wicked is an abomination,” as explained in sec. 76[:11. It is uncertain whether the Sages] were as stringent with regard to Grace and required him to recite it again because of his negligence. [Or perhaps the laws governing the recitation of] Grace are not as severe as [those governing] prayer, as reflected by [the leniency granted to one who is] tipsy.

(From the above, it can be deduced that one who is tipsy is also forbidden to recite the Shema, just like [he is forbidden] to pray. For someone who recited the Shema in a place where there was reason to suspect that feces would be present is required to recite the Shema again [if feces were indeed discovered there], just as he is required [to do so] with regard to prayer, as stated in sec. 76[, loc. cit.. In this regard,] the recitation of the blessings of the Shema is equivalent to the recitation of the Shema itself.

Similarly, it is uncertain whether one who, due to a factor beyond his control, interrupted [his recitation of] Grace — even if he [merely paused] in silence, but waited for the duration of time it would take to complete its recitation — is required to go back to the beginning [of Grace] as he is required to go back to the beginning of his prayers according to all opinions.57 ([There is reason to rule stringently, because the ruling regarding Grace] is stringent like [that regarding] prayer with regard to making an interruption [to initiate or respond to greetings to and from] one who commands fear and one who ought to be honored, as stated in sec. 183[:11. On the other hand,] perhaps [there is room for leniency with regard to Grace]. For [the rulings governing it] are not as stringent as [those governing] prayer with regard to one who is tipsy or, after the fact, with regard to one who interrupted [Grace to initiate or respond to greetings],58 in which instance, he is not required to go back to the beginning of Grace as he would be with regard to prayer. [Hence,] it is possible to say that similar [leniency is granted] if one waited for the duration of time it would take to complete [the entire Grace].)

([With regard to actual practice,] when there is a doubt with regard to the recitation of blessings, we rule leniently. True, the recitation of Grace is a Scriptural requirement.59 Nevertheless, the requirements to return to the beginning of Grace because: a) the blessing of a drunkard is an abomination; b) “The offering of the wicked is an abomination” when one was negligent and did not check the place [where he recited Grace], and c) unwillingly, due to a factor beyond one’s control, he waited the duration of time in which he could complete the entire Grace, are [all] Rabbinic [stringencies].)

There are authorities who maintain that even an intoxicated person who could not speak before a king at all may recite Grace. [They also derive this leniency from] the verse:2 “When you have eaten and are satiated, you shall bless G‑d, your L‑rd.” For sometimes, after a person eats to satiation, he becomes [not only tipsy, but also] intoxicated.

As an initial preference, the first opinion should be given weight and one should recite Grace before he reaches [a state of intoxication]. If it happens that a person becomes intoxicated, he should nevertheless recite Grace, as mandated by the latter opinion, because the doubt concerns a Scriptural obligation. Therefore, stringency is required.

According to the latter opinion, a person who is tipsy is also not exempt from the recitation of the Shema and its blessings, only one who is intoxicated. True, stringency is applied with regard to [these prayers] and one is required to recite them again when he was negligent and did not check [the cleanliness of] the place and yet [this stringency] is not applied with regard to the recitation of Grace. This fact is not [evidence] that [the laws regarding recital of Shema] are also more stringent with regard to one who is tipsy, only with regard to one who is intoxicated. Therefore, as an initial preference, weight should be given to the first opinion.60 [After the fact,] if it happened that a person drank [immoderately], he should not refrain from reciting the Shema, because this is an issue of uncertainty regarding a Scriptural commandment.61 And whenever one recites the Shema, even because of uncertainty, he must recite it together with its blessings, as stated in sec. 67[:1].

One may recite all the other blessings even when intoxicated, as stated in sec. 99[:1]. Even according to the authorities who maintain that concentrated intent is required with regard to the recitation of all the blessings,62 [blessings recited by an intoxicated person are,] nevertheless, [not disqualified]. For an intoxicated person may have concentrated intent, for he is considered as a mentally competent individual with regard to all matters. He is considered as one who acts intentionally with regard to [being subject to] all the punishments mandated by the Torah, as stated in Choshen Mishpat 235[:22].63 It is only that with regard to the recitation of the Shema and the She­moneh Esreh — where a higher level of concentrated intent is required — the intent of an intoxicated person is not considered as intent. Instead, it is considered as an abomination, since it is [recited in a] befuddled [state], as evidenced by the fact that he cannot speak in the presence of a king without confusion. With regard to other blessings, by contrast, even a minimal intent is sufficient, even if he is befuddled.

ה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁתוּי יַיִן49 אָסוּר בִּתְפִלָּה50 עַד שֶׁיָּסִיר יֵינוֹ מֵעָלָיו, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֵינוֹ מִשְׁתַּבֵּשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן צ"טפא – מְבָרֵךְ הוּא בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,פב,51 כָּל שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר כָּרָאוּי, שֶׁמְּדַבֵּר וְנִכָּר מִדִּבּוּרוֹ שֶׁהוּא שָׁתוּי,פג אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכְשָׁל וּמִשְׁתַּבֵּשׁ,פד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרפה,2 "וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבֵרַכְתָּ וְגוֹ'", וְאַחַר שְׂבִיעָה פְּעָמִים שֶׁהוּא שָׁתוּי,פו וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵּן חִיְּבָה אוֹתוֹ הַתּוֹרָה לְבָרֵךְ.פז

אֲבָל אִם הוּא שִׁכּוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּלֹא שִׁבּוּשׁ – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפח שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁבִּרְכַּת שִׁכּוֹר תּוֹעֵבָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁתְּפִלָּתוֹ תּוֹעֵבָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן צ"ט. וְאִם בֵּרַךְ – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ כְּשֶׁיָּפִיג יֵינוֹ בְּעוֹד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעַכֵּל הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו,פט,52 כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִצְרִיכוּ בִּתְפִלָּה לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל כְּשֶׁיָּפִיג יֵינוֹ,53 כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֵינָהּ חֲמוּרָה כָּל כָּךְ כְּמוֹ תְּפִלָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי שָׁתוּי מֻתָּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן וְלֹא בִּתְפִלָּה.

וְכֵן יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בְּמִי שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן וְאַחַר כָּךְ מָצָא צוֹאָה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ54 אוֹ בְּצִדּוֹ תּוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹתצ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁרָאוּי לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בּוֹ בְּצוֹאָה וְצָרִיךְ לְבָדְקָן קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ שָׁם וּפָשַׁע וְלֹא בָּדַק, בְּעִנְיַן שֶׁבִּתְפִלָּה צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל,55 מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר56 "זֶבַח רְשָׁעִים תּוֹעֵבָה", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ע"ו,צא אִם הֶחְמִירוּ גַּם כֵּן בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן לְהַצְרִיכוֹ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ מִשּׁוּם פְּשִׁיעוּתוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֵינָהּ חֲמוּרָה כְּמוֹ תְּפִלָּה לְעִנְיַן שָׁתוּי.צב

(וּמִכָּאן אַתָּה לָמֵד, שֶׁהַשָּׁתוּי גַּם כֵּן אָסוּר בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע כְּמוֹ בִּתְפִלָּה,צג שֶׁהֲרֵי מִי שֶׁקָּרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁרָאוּי לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בּוֹ בְּצוֹאָה – הִצְרִיכוּהוּ לַחֲזֹר וְלִקְרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִצְרִיכוּהוּ בִּתְפִלָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ע"ו. וּבִרְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע הֵן כִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע עַצְמָהּ) צד.

וְכֵן יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם פָּסַק בְּאֶמְצַע בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁתִיקָה וְשָׁהָה כְּדֵי לִגְמֹר אֶת כֻּלָּהּ מֵחֲמַת אֵיזֶה אֹנֶס, אִם צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִצְרִיכוּהוּ בִּתְפִלָּה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּלצה,57 (הוֹאִיל וְהִיא חֲמוּרָה כִּתְפִלָּה לְעִנְיַן הַפְסָקָה, שֶׁאֵין מַפְסִיקִין בָּהּ מִפְּנֵי הַיִּרְאָה וְהַכָּבוֹד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ג,צו אוֹ שֶׁמָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ חֲמוּרָה כִּתְפִלָּה לְעִנְיַן שָׁתוּי, וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן הַפְסָקָה בְּדִיעֲבַד,58 שֶׁלֹּא הִצְרִיכוּהוּ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹןצז כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִצְרִיכוּהוּ בִּתְפִלָּה,צח יֵשׁ לוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא הַדִּין אִם שָׁהָה כְּדֵי לִגְמֹר אֶת כֻּלָּהּ).

(וּסְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל, שֶׁאַף שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִן הַתּוֹרָה,צט,59 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, זֶה שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ וּלְבָרֵךְ, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁבִּרְכַּת שִׁכּוֹר תּוֹעֵבָה, אוֹ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁ"זֶּבַח רְשָׁעִים תּוֹעֵבָה", שֶׁפָּשַׁע וְלֹא בָּדַק הַמָּקוֹם, אוֹ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁשָּׁהָה כְּדֵי לִגְמֹר אֶת כֻּלָּהּ מֵחֲמַת אֹנֶס וְלֹא בִּרְצוֹנוֹ – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם).

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםק אֲפִלּוּ שִׁכּוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּלָל – מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר2 "וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבֵרַכְתָּ", וְאַחַר הַשְּׂבִיעָה פְּעָמִים שֶׁהוּא שִׁכּוֹר.

וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וּלְבָרֵךְ קֹדֶם שֶׁבָּא לִידֵי כָּךְ. וְאִם אֵרַע שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּכֵּר – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה, כִּי הוּא סָפֵק שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וּלְהַחְמִיר.קא

וּלְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה, גַּם בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ לֹא נִפְטָר הַשָּׁתוּי,קב אֶלָּא הַשִּׁכּוֹר לְבַדּוֹ,קג כִּי מַה שֶּׁהֶחְמִירוּ בָּהֶן לַחֲזֹר וְלִקְרוֹת כְּשֶׁפָּשַׁע וְלֹא בָּדַק הַמָּקוֹם וְלֹא הֶחְמִירוּ כֵּן בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֵינוֹ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהֵן חֲמוּרוֹת מִמֶּנָּה לְעִנְיַן שָׁתוּי, אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן שִׁכּוֹר לְבַד. לְפִיכָךְ, לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,60 וְאִם אֵרַע שֶׁשָּׁתָה – לֹא יִמָּנַע מִקְּרִיאַת שְׁמַע, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,קד,61 וְכָל הַקּוֹרֵא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע אֲפִלּוּ מִסָּפֵק – צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹתוֹ בְּבִרְכוֹתָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס"ז.קה

וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת כֻּלָּן יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא שִׁכּוֹר,קו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן צ"ט. וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםקז שֶׁהַכַּוָּנָה מְעַכֶּבֶת בְּכָל הַבְּרָכוֹת,62 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַשִּׁכּוֹר יֵשׁ לוֹ כַּוָּנָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא כְּפִקֵּחַ לְכָל דָּבָר, וּלְכָל עֳנָשִׁין שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה דִּינוֹ כְּמִתְכַּוֵּן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן רל"ה.קח,63 אֶלָּא לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וְלִתְפִלָּה שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכוֹת כַּוָּנָה מְעֻלָּה – אֵין כַּוָּנַת הַשִּׁכּוֹר חֲשׁוּבָה כַּוָּנָה, וְתוֹעֵבָה הִיא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא מְשֻׁבֶּשֶׁת, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּלֹא שִׁבּוּשׁ, אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת דַּי בְּכַוָּנָה כָּל שֶׁהוּא, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא מְשֻׁבֶּשֶׁת:

Sotah 32a.
Devarim 8:10.
Sotah 33a.
A marginal note appended to the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch states that there are some authorities who differentiate between the person reciting the blessing — who is not obligated to understand what he is saying — and those who fulfill their obligation by listening to his recitation, who must understand the words of the blessing. The note explains that from Megillah 18a, it is apparent that it is improper to make such a distinction, and cites many authorities who rule in this manner.
There, Magen Avraham writes that when one recites the standard wording for the nullification of chametz in the Holy Tongue (and by extension, in Aramaic, as is the present custom), the nullification is effective as long as he has a general idea of what he is saying, even if he does not know the particular meaning of the words he recites. See sec. 434:8 in the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch.
I.e., there is a Rabbinic obligation to make a verbal statement nullifying one’s ownership of chametz. Nevertheless, according to Scriptural Law, all that is required is that one nullify his ownership in his heart. Even according to Rabbinic Law, that is sufficient after the fact. See sec. 434:7.
Hence, the fact that the person does not understand the words he recites is of no consequence. What is necessary is that he desire to nullify his ownership. Since he intends to nullify his ownership and he has a general idea of what he is saying, the nullification is effective. [We have cited the source as 434:12 for that is where it appears in the contemporary printings of Chok Yaakov.]
See subsection 3.
See sec. 271:1.
See sec. 62:5. There, the Alter Rebbe states that one fulfills his obligation even if he recites a translation of Hallel which he does not understand.
As will be explained, with regard to the mitzvah of reading the Megillah, there is a distinction. If one hears it read in the Holy Tongue, he need not understand the words. If, however, one hears it read in other languages, he must understand that language (Megillah 17a, 18a; the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro, Orach Chayim 690:8–9).
See sec. 62: 2.
Esther 8:9.
Devarim 6:4.
Berachos 13b; see sec. 62:2.
Concentration is also required when reciting the sentence beginning Baruch shem k’vod (see sec. 63:5).
See sec. 60:5, which states: “What is required here (in the recitation of the Shema) is not the performance of an action, but the acceptance of the Kingdom of Heaven… — and this acceptance depends on understanding the concepts [of which this passage speaks].”
See Megillah 18b. For that reason, one fulfills his obligation by hearing the reading of the Megillah in Hebrew, even if he does not understand that language.
I.e., if one does not concentrate and understand the meaning of the words he recites in the first blessing of the Shemoneh Esreh, he does not fulfill his obligation (sec. 101:1). There (subsection 5) the Alter Rebbe states: “[What of] an unlearned person who can recite the prayers in the Holy Tongue but does not understand them? Rather than praying in the Holy Tonguewithout mental focus, it is preferable that he pray in a language that he understands, even when praying individually, so that he can concentrate on what he is saying — for prayer without devout intent is of no value.” See also footnote 31.
Obviously, as an initial preference, it is desirable to concentrate when reciting all the blessings, as stated in the conclusion of this subsection. Nevertheless, after the fact, one’s recitation of other blessings is not invalidated if he did not concentrate during their recitation.
Pesachim 30b, et al. See other illustrations of this principle in sec. 161:1, sec. 296:19, and sec. 454:15, et al.
Megillah, loc. cit. In a marginal note, the Alter Rebbe explains that the commentaries (glosses of Rabbeinu Yonah to Rabbeinu Yitzchak Alfasi, Berachos 33a, and Rabbeinu Asher, Berachos 7:6) state that the reason why it is sufficient for one to hear or read the Megillah without understanding is because the reading was ordained “to publicize the miracle”; they do not mention that the essential mitzvah is the reading. The Alter Rebbe explains that these authorities are explaining why the essential mitzvah is the reading of the Megillah: for even the reading alone will achieve the objective of publicizing the miracle. Obviously, that objective is accomplished more effectively when one understands the meaning of what is being read. Therefore — as Rabbeinu Nissim states (gloss to Rabbeinu Yitzchak Alfasi, Megillah 4b) — it is preferable for one who does not understand the Holy Tongue to hear the Megillah read in a language that he or she understands.
The Alter Rebbe is referring to the custom observed in the Talmudicera (and in certain communities at present), that the person who receives an aliyah to the Torah would actually read from the Torah himself.
See the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro, Orach Chayim 135:5 (this section is not extant in the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch). See also the Alter Rebbe’s Hilchos Talmud Torah 2:12.
In which instance, the halachic difficulty resulting from his lack of understanding is even more acute, in light of the opinion quoted above (footnote 4), that differentiates between reading without understanding and hearing without understanding. The fact that an unlearned person recites a blessing when called to the Torah indicates that what is essential is the reading of the Torah’s words, not the understanding of them.
See sec. 214:1, which states that mentioning G‑d’s name and His sovereignty are fundamental requirements in the recitation of all the blessings.
See sec. 187:4, which explains this obligation.
Berachos 34a. See sec. 112:1.
In that source, the Alter Rebbe explains that one may not make an interruption during the blessings of Shemoneh Esreh, nor change their sequence, because they are a single continuum: “The blessings of Shemoneh Esreh, by contrast, have a [required] sequence which [the Sages] ordained for their recitation. If one changed that sequence, he must return to the beginning and say [the blessings] in order, for they are all linked to each other in the sequence set out by the Sages. Therefore, once a person began saying some of them, he must complete them all in their specified sequence.”
I.e., in sec. 69:1; see also sec. 60:3.
I.e., since the blessings are of Rabbinic origin, we follow the principle that whenever there is uncertainty whether one is obligated in a Rabbinic ordinance, we rule leniently and do not require him to perform it. Moreover, one should not repeat the blessing because it is possible that he will be reciting the blessing in vain. Thus even if one did not understand the meaning of the words of a blessing, after the fact, his recitation is acceptable.

Nevertheless, the Alter Rebbe’s words here clearly underscore the importance of endeavoring to understand the prayers and blessings that one recites. Though there is room to allow their recitation in the Holy Tongue without understanding them, the Alter Rebbe considers it halachically preferable to recite one’s prayers in a language he understands. Parallel to this, in a gradual process, one can habituate himself to praying in the Holy Tongue, as one new passage after another becomes familiar and intelligible.
To present these concepts in a table:


Other languages


1st opinion:
Understanding is a prerequisite.
2nd opinion:
Understanding is not imperative.

Understanding is a prerequisite.

Other Blessings

1st opinion:
Understanding is not imperative.
2nd opinion:
Understanding is a prerequisite.

1st opinion:
Understanding is not imperative.
2nd opinion:
Understanding is a prerequisite.


Understanding is not imperative

Understanding is a prerequisite


Understanding is not imperative

Understanding is not imperative

Shema, 1st verse

Understanding is a prerequisite

Understanding is a prerequisite

The remainder of the Shema

Understanding is not imperative

Understanding is not imperative

Shemoneh Esreh, 1st blessing

Understanding is a prerequisite

Understanding is a prerequisite

Subsequent blessings of Shemoneh Esreh

Understanding is not imperative

Understanding is not imperative

Berachos 15a–b; see also sec. 206:5. As stated there, as an initial preference, one should recite all blessings audibly.
Shabbos 150a; see sec. 60:3, which states similar laws with regard to the recitation of the Shema.
E.g., he is in an unclean place, where recitation is prohibited, as stated in sec. 60, op. cit.
Scriptural Law allows one who had a seminal emission to study Torah and pray. Ezra instituted the requirement that one who had a seminal emission must immerse in a mikveh before prayer or study, so that “scholars will not frequent their wives like roosters.” Some time later, the Talmudic Sages observed that people on the whole had never fully accepted this standard and ruled that this obligation was no longer binding. (See Berachos 22b; see also sec. 88:1.)
Berachos 20b.
Ibid., 21a.
Tehillim 4:5. This verse is also cited as a prooftext in sec. 94:7, when the Alter Rebbe states similar concepts with regard to reviewing the Shemoneh Esreh in one’s mind. In sec. 62:3, he cites different sources with regard to reviewing the Shema in his mind.
Generally, wherever the presence of filth prevents one from saying words of Torah, the mental review of such words is also forbidden. Here, however, the Alter Rebbe draws a distinction. His source for this is Rama (Orach Chayim 62:4), who refers to an intermediate situation such as the inner anteroom of a bathhouse (Magen Avraham 62:2).
A marginal note attached to the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch cites the ruling of Turei Zahav 62:1, which speaks of a situation in which a person awakes at night and is thirsty, but does not have water with which to wash. He is forbidden to speak words of Torah or recite a blessing, but is allowed to review the words of Torah in his mind. Turei Zahav advises that one also review the blessing in his mind, after which he may drink.

The note suggests that one may take issue with the ruling of Turei Zahav, because the situation he describes differs from that described in the source he cites as support for his ruling — the gloss of Rabbeinu Yonah to Halachos of Rabbeinu Yitzchak Alfasi, Berachos 8b. Rabbeinu Yonah mentions the leniency of reviewing the blessing in his mind only for one who is already obligated to recite a blessing or for one who is bedridden and is exposed to filth. A healthy person who awakens in the middle of the night, by contrast, is not obligated to drink. Therefore, he should not rely on a blessing that he merely reviewed in his mind.
Berachos 35a; see sec. 167:1.
Devarim 6:7.
That reviewing the words in one’s mind is not equivalent to speech with regard to blessings.
The age when a child should be trained to perform mitzvos depends on the child’s acuity and his ability to properly perform that specific mitzvah (sec. 343:3). With regard to Grace, the Alter Rebbe writes (sec. 187:4): “Minors younger than eight… should be trained in [the recitation of] Grace, bit by bit ([reciting portions] from every blessing, until they know how to recite all the blessings as ordained).” Similarly, in sec. 199:9, he writes (with regard to including minors in a zimun): “At the very least, he must be more than six. [He may only be included at that young age] if he is bright and knows on his own accord, without being taught, to Whom the blessings are directed. When a child is less than six, even if he is bright and understands [the above] on his own accord, it is of no consequence, for he is not reached an age of advanced childhood and he is considered as lacking intellectual acuity.”

It appears that the Alter Rebbe is focusing on understanding the meaning of the blessings. Until the age of six (and perhaps, for several years thereafter), a child is incapable of understanding the meaning of the blessings he is reciting (even when he knows that by reciting them, he is blessing G‑d). As such, when reciting blessings, he is more or less just parroting words. While such training is fundamental to a child’s development, it may not be considered in the scope of the Alter Rebbe’s directives here.

Also, it must be emphasized that in the Alter Rebbe’s age, siddurim were far less common than they are today and thus educational techniques were different. In present, it is customary to train children to recite Grace, portion by portion at an early age.
As stated in sec. 193:1 and sec. 213:2, when two people eat together, they cannot join together in a zimun. Therefore, it is preferable that each person recite Grace alone. Nevertheless, if one is unable to recite Grace on his own, he may fulfill his obligation by listening to another person’s blessing. This principle applies not only to the members of his household, but also to any other individuals who dine together.

As mentioned in subsection 1, there are authorities who maintain that a person who does not understand Hebrew does not fulfill the mitzvah of reciting [or listening to] Grace in Hebrew. The ruling here may be referring to a situation where the family members are familiar with Hebrew, but are unable to read on their own. Alternatively, it can be said that this ruling follows the second opinion mentioned there — that individuals who do not understand Hebrew may fulfill their obligation by listening to Grace recited in Hebrew.
In sec. 271:7, the Alter Rebbe states that a woman who does not understand Hebrew should recite the Kiddush word-for-word with the person reciting it. Evidently, in that ruling, the Alter Rebbe is following the more lenient position mentioned above (the beginning of subsection 2). Although fundamentally, the woman fulfills her obligation by listening to the recital of Kiddush, she is advised to recite the words of Kiddush herself. Possibly, the intent is that since she does not understand what is being said, she will not listen attentively unless she mouths the words together with the reader.
The advice given here is rarely followed nowadays, neither at Kiddush, nor at Havdalah. This may be due to the fact that most women nowadays are at least somewhat literate and are able to follow the fundamental points of the blessings.
Or any other alcoholic beverage.
More particularly, here and throughout this subsection when prayer or praying is mentioned, the intent is the recitation of the Shemoneh Esreh.
Talmud Yerushalmi, Terumos 1:4.
I.e., as stated in sec. 184:3, as long as one’s food has not begun to become digested, he is obligated to recite Grace.
As stated in sec. 99, loc. cit.
If the feces are within one’s direct line of vision, no matter how far they are in front of him, he is forbidden to pray (sec. 76:3, 79:1).
Berachos 22b.
Mishlei 21:27.
See sec. 104:4. See also sec. 65, where this issue is discussed with regard to the recitation of the Shema and other matters.
Sec. 183, loc. cit.
And thus, seemingly, one should follow the principle: “When there is a doubt regarding a Scriptural requirement, we rule stringently.”
Therefore, one should control the amount of alcohol he drinks before the time for prayer so that he will not be tipsy when the time for prayer arrives.
I.e., the recitation of the Shema is a Scriptural commandment; the uncertainty is whether a person is obligated to recite it while tipsy.
See subsection 2 above.
If, however, a person becomes “as intoxicated as Lot” (see Berei­shis, ch. 19, which describes Lot’s extreme state of drunkenness), he is considered as having lost control of his conduct and is exempt from all the mitzvos (Eruvin 65a, cited insec. 128:51).
משנה סוטה לב, א. טור ושו"ע ס"א.
דברים ח, י.
סוטה לג, א. טור ולבוש ס"א.
ראה תוס' סוטה שם ד"ה ברכת המזון.
תוס' ברכות מה, ב ד"ה שאני. הרב רבנו יונה שם (לג, א ד"ה ונראה). רא"ש פ"ז דברכות ס"ו. מרדכי שם רמז קנח. הנה בטור ושו"ע סי' קצג ס"א כתוב אם אינו מבין אינו יוצא בשמיעה, וכן הלבוש שם ס"א מחלק בהדיא בין המברך ובין השומע, ואחריו נמשכו העולת תמיד שם ס"ק ב ומ"א שם ס"ק ב. אבל המעיין בגמ' מגילה יח, א (הובא ברא"ש שם). יראה לעינים דאי אפשר לחלק בהכי. וכן משמע בטור סי' תרצ להדיא, וכן משמע בב"י שם בשם המגיד משנה הל' מגילה פ"ב ה"ד. ורמב"ן מגילה יז, א ד"ה והרב והרשב"א שם יז, ב ד"ה אבל, ע"ש ודוק ותשכח דהכי הוא. וברא"ש והרב רבנו יונה הנ"ל כתבו בהדיא אלא צריכה לברך ברכת המזון בלשון שמבינות. וכן יש לפרש בדעת הטור ושו"ע שלאו דוקא שמיעה אלא אף כשמברכות בלה"ק אין יוצאות כשאין מבינות. דלא כלבוש ועולת תמיד ומ"א הנ"ל. ועי' במ"ש בסי' סב ס"ב. וסי' קכד ס"ב (ועי' לקמן סי' רעא ס"ז לענין קידוש, שמחלק בזה בין שומעת למברכת בעצמה. וראה לקמן ריש ס"ב). וראה העו"ב תתט ע' 59.
ולקמן סי' תלד ס"ח, דלענין ביטול חמץ אע"פ שאינו מבין פירוש המילות - יצא י"ח.
כלומר, אף שמדרבנן צריך להוציא בשפתיו, מכל מקום אינו מעכב - כדלקמן סי' תלד ס"ז ובקו"א ס"ק ג. וראה גם לקמן סי' תקכז בקו"א ס"ק א.
לפנינו הוא ס"ק יב.
סעיף ג.
ראה ערוך השלחן ס"ק ז.
עי' במ"ש לעיל בסי' [ס] ס"ה לענין ק"ש, וש"נ. וראה אהלי שם ח"ו ע' קנח. וראה אג"ק ח"ח ע' שלב.
תוס' ורבינו יונה ורא"ש שם. טור ושו"ע סי' קצג ס"א.
רבינו יונה ורא"ש שם.
רא"ש ומרדכי שם בשם רש"י דמדמה למגילה בסי' תרצ ס"ח וט. תוס' ורבנו יונה שם בשם יש אומרים.
דרכי משה סי' קצג אות א. רמ"א בסי' קצט ס"ז. ב"ח סי' קצג ד"ה ומ"ש ולכך. ט"ז ומ"א סי' קצג ס"ק ב. אליה רבה ס"ק ב. וראה חלקת יואב מהד"ת סי' א.
ראה ט"ז שם. ומ"א שם ובסי' קצט ס"ק ה. וראה לעיל סי' סב ס"ב דכ' בסתם דבהמ"ז צריך שיבין הלשון. וראה לקמן סוף ס"ב.
וכן לקמן בדעה הב' לא חילק ביניהם, וכ"ה בתוס' המצויין לקמן בסמוך. ולעיל סי' סב הזכיר רק ברכות המצות. וראה גם לעיל סי' ה ס"א. לקמן סי' רו ס"ד. לקמן סי' תקכז קו"א ס"ק א. ולענין ספה"ע עי' לקמן סי' תפט ס"י.
ובדעה הב' דלקמן לא פירש אם יחלוק גם בקידוש. וראה לקמן סי' רעא ס"ז. לעיל סי' סב ס"ב.
כדלקמן רס"י רעא.
תוס' רפ"ז דסוטה ד"ה קריאת שמע. מ"א סי' סב ס"ק א. וראה גם רא"ש ברכות פ"א סי"ד בשם הראב"ד. לקמן סי' תקכז קו"א ס"ק א.
לדברי הכל, כדלקמן בסמוך. וראה גם לעיל סי' סב ס"ב.
שרק בלה"ק יוצא אף שאינו מבין (משנה מגילה יז, א. טור ושו"ע סי' תרצ ס"ח), אבל בשאר הלשונות אינו יוצא אלא כשמכיר הלשון (גמ' שם יח, א. טור ושו"ע שם ס"ט).
שאף בלה"ק אינו יוצא אלא כשמבין פסוק ראשון, כדלקמן בסמוך. ועי' לעיל סי' סב ס"ב.
שאף בלה"ק אינו יוצא אלא כשמבין ברכה ראשונה, כדלקמן בסמוך. וכ"ה לעיל סי' קכד ס"ב.
אסתר ח, ט.
מגילה ט, א (לענין מגילה שאינה כתובה בלשון הקודש). שם יח, א (לענין קרא ביוונית כשאינו מכיר).
דברים ו, ד.
ברכות יג, א. וכדלעיל סי' סב ס"ב.
רמב"ם הל' ק"ש פ"ב ה"י.
אף לדעת הי"א דלעיל ס"א לענין בהמ"ז, מטעם דעד כאן מצות כוונה.
ברכות יג, ב. וכדלעיל סי' ס ס"ה.
אף בשאר לשונות אפילו אינו מבין, וכדלעיל וש"נ. וראה מ"מ וציונים.
מגילה יח, א - דמה"ט יוצא בלה"ק אף שאינו מכיר. ויתבאר לקמן בסמוך (בדעת היש אומרים).
כדלעיל ריש סי' קא וש"נ.
שאף בלה"ק אינו יוצא אלא כשמבין ברכה ראשונה, כדלעיל סי' קכד ס"ב.
רק לכתחלה, כדלקמן בסוף הסעיף וש"נ.
משמעות הרב רבינו יונה ברכות (לג, א ד"ה ונראה). והרא"ש פ"ז דברכות ס"ו, שלא התירו בלה"ק כשאינו מבין אלא במגילה מטעם פרסומי ניסא. וראה גם תוס' שם מה, ב ד"ה שאני. מרדכי שם רמז קנח.
גם בשאר הברכות משום וברכת שנאמר בברכת המזון, כדלקמן בסמוך. וראה גם לעיל רס"י קסז.
כדלעיל סי' קסא ס"א וש"נ.
מגילה יח, א: מצות קריאה ופרסומי ניסא (והרב רבנו יונה והרא"ש שם דנקטו פרסומי ניסא ולא הזכירו מצות קריאה היינו דמשום פרסומי ניסא סגי בקריאה לחודה, ותדע שהרי פרסומי ניסא בידיעה עדיף, ולכן אשה שאינה מבינה בלה"ק תשמע בלשון שמבינה ולא בלה"ק, כמ"ש הר"ן במגילה שם (ד, ב ד"ה אבל קורין).
שמכאן ואילך מצות קריאה כדלעיל.
טור ושו"ע סי' קלה ס"ד. מ"א שם ס"ק ה וסי' קלט ס"ק ד. וראה גם הל' ת"ת פ"ב הי"ב. וראה הערות וציונים שם ע' 574.
כ"ה בדפו"ר. ובלוח התיקון שם "וכ"ש" ובקוה"ש הוכיח שצ"ל "ואפילו".
דברי חמודות ברכות פ"ב ס"ק כג. ט"ז סי' קמא ס"ק ג. מ"א סי' סו ס"ק ח. לעיל שם ס"ו.
ראה לקמן סי' ריד ס"א, דכל ברכה שאין בה שם ומלכות אינה ברכה, וש"נ. וראה לעיל סי' ה, כיצד לכוון בשמות.
כדלקמן סי' קפז ס"ד וש"נ.
כדלעיל סי' קיב וש"נ.
סעיף א וש"נ.
ראה אליה רבה סי' קא ס"ק א. וראה גם לעיל סי' ס ס"ה. וראה לקו"ש חכ"ב ע' 117 הערה 34.
כדלעיל רס"י קא.
וראה גם לעיל סי' ס ס"ג.
וכ"ה לעיל רס"י ה. סדר ברה"נ פ"ט ה"ג.
כדלעיל ס"א. וראה תהלה לדוד סי' קצג ס"ק א.
ברכות טו, א-ב. וראה גם לקמן סי' רו ס"ה, ובהל' שחיטה סי' א ס"ק מד-ה, שלכתחלה צריך להשמיע לאזניו.
רש"י ברכות שם ע"א ד"ה בלבו. והרב רבנו יונה שם ד"ה גמ' לא יברך, ובמשנה כ, ב ד"ה מתני' בעל קרי. רא"ש שם פ"ג סי"ד. טור ושו"ע ס"ב. ולענין הרהור בק"ש ותפלה ותלמוד תורה ושאר ברכות ראה לעיל סי' סב ס"ג וש"נ.
מ"א ס"ק א.
ראה לעיל סי' פח ס"א.
משנה שם כ, ב וכרב חסדא שם. וכ"כ הרב רבנו יונה שם ד"ה מתני' בעל קרי. ורא"ש שם. והתוס' שם ד"ה ורב.
גמרא שם כא, א. וראה כינוס תורה חי"ח ע' קד.
שם במשנה לענין בעל קרי לפי' הרב רבנו יונה שם וסייעתו.
ראה מ"מ וציונים. וראה הל' תלמוד תורה פ"ב הי"ב: וכל מה שלומד בהרהור לבד ואפשר לו להוציא בשפתיו ואינו מוציא אינו יוצא. וראה הערות וציונים שם ע' 517. ואצ"ל: ברכת התורה.
בלוח התיקון דפוס זיטאמיר הגיהו: בדברי תורה ובברכות של ק"ש [והיינו מה שמבואר במשנה שם שבעל קרי לא יברך לא ברכות ק"ש ולא שאר ברכות דמדברי סופרים]. אבל בקוה"ש כ' שתיקון זה למותר.
הרב רבנו יונה ברכות פ"ב טו, ב ד"ה לא יברך. רמ"א בסי' סב ס"ד. וכ"ה לעיל סי' סב ס"ג לענין ק"ש. לעיל סי' צד ס"ז לענין תפלה.
תהלים ד, ה. אורחות חיים בשם פסיקתא דרב כהנא פ' כה. ב"י סי' סב ד"ה וצריך וסי' צד ד"ה כתוב בא"ח. וכ"ה לעיל סי' צד ס"ז. וראה לעיל סי' סב שם שהביא מדרש עה"פ אמרי האזינה וגו', וש"נ.
סעיף ג.
עי' בט"ז סי' סב (כגון שקם בלילה ממטתו וא"א לו ליטול ידיו, שאסור לדבר ומותר להרהר), דאין הנדון דומה לראיה, ובלא"ה דבריו צ"ע, עי' במ"ש שם [לא הגיע לידינו]. וראה דרכי החיים (ברכת המצות ח"ו ס"ק ב). העו"ב (ירות"ו) ח"ח ע' ע.
ראה לעיל סי' קסז ס"א וש"נ.
רמב"ם הל' ברכות פ"א ה"ז, וסמ"ג עשין כז הל' ברכות שבסעודה, בפי' הברייתא דברכות טו, ב. וראה שו"ת צמח צדק אהע"ז סי' קנח ס"א.
שבזה גם הרמב"ם מודה שאין יוצא י"ח בהרהור - ראה כסף משנה הל' ק"ש פ"ב ה"ח. ב"ח סי' סב ד"ה ומ"ש ובלבד.
השגות הראב"ד ברכות פ"ג (יב, א) ד"ה יצא. ב"ח שם.
ראה מ"א סי' קא ס"ק ב.
טור ושו"ע ס"ב. מ"א ס"ק א.
ראה תהלה לדוד ס"ק א.
ראה לעיל סי' קסז סוף סכ"ג, דהיינו אפילו לא אכל עמהם, וש"נ.
ראה לקמן סי' קצג ס"א, ובסי' ריג ס"ב, דהיינו לא רק בבניו ובני ביתו, וש"נ.
כל בו סי' כה. שו"ע ס"ג. וראה מ"א ס"ק ב.
כדלקמן סי' קצט ס"ו-ז לענין נשים. שם ס"ט לענין קטנים. וע"י זימון אפשר להוציא אף הבקי, כדלעיל סי' קפג ס"י. לקמן רס"י קצב.
מ"א סי' קצג ס"ק ב.
סעיף י, לענין שיודע לברך ומבין לה"ק, אלא שיוצא י"ח ע"י המברך בזימון. וראה גם לעיל סי' נט ס"ד לענין ברכות ק"ש, שאף שיכול להוציאם יאמרו בנחת עם הש"ץ. וראה גם לקמן סי' רפד סי"א. סי' תקצא ס"ד.
מ"א שם. ועי' לקמן סי' רעא ס"ז, שאם אינה מבינה לה"ק תאמר עמו מלה במלה.
סעיף א.
ירושלמי פ"ק דתרומות ה"ד. טור ושו"ע ס"ד.
תוס' ברכות לא, ב ד"ה מכאן ששכור. רא"ש שם פ"ה ס"ט. שו"ע ס"ד.
מ"א ס"ק ג. וראה גם הגהת הבאר הגולה בשו"ע שם. אליה זוטא ס"ק ג ואליה רבה ס"ק ד. קרבן נתנאל עירובין פ"ו ס"ה אות ב. יד אהרן הגב"י.
דברים ח, י.
ועי' לעיל סי' צט ס"ב. סי' קעד ס"ט.
תוס' עירובין סד, א ד"ה שיכור. ורא"ש עירובין פ"ו ס"ה, דירושלמי הנ"ל מיירי דוקא בשתוי.
תוס' שם. ורא"ש עירובין שם. שו"ע ס"ה, לפירוש המ"א שם. ועי' הרב רבינו יונה ברכות שם ד"ה שכור.
כדלעיל סי' קפד ס"ג.
כדלעיל סי' פד ס"ג וש"נ.
סעיף יא, לענין ק"ש ותפלה.
תוס' ורא"ש שם. שו"ע שם.
ירושלמי שם, לגירסת המרדכי עירובין רמז תקיב, לדעה הא' שלפנינו דמיירי בשתוי. רמ"א סי' צט ס"א. אליה זוטא ס"ק ג ואליה רבה ס"ק ד.
אליה זוטא ורבה שם. וראה תהלה לדוד סי' סה ס"ק ב.
כדלעיל סי' קד ס"ד. אבל לענין ק"ש ושא"ד מחלוקת בזה, כדלעיל סי' סה ס"א. מ"א סי' קפג ס"ק יא. וראה לעיל שם סי' סה אף לענין מגילה ותקיעת שופר, וש"נ אף לענין פסד"ז והלל.
סעיף יא.
אפי' כשפסק במזיד באמצע הברכה. לחם חמודות ברכות פ"ז אות קיג. שיורי כנסת הגדולה סי' קפג הגב"י אות ז. וראה גם לעיל סי' קפג סי"א.
ולענין ק"ש וברכות ק"ש ראה לעיל סי' קד ס"ד.
עי' עולת תמיד ס"ק ו. אליה זוטא ס"ק ה.
ירושלמי שם, לפירוש הרב רבנו יונה שם. תוס' ורא"ש ברכות שם לגירסת ופירוש מעדני יו"ט שם אות ד, ומלבושי יו"ט ס"ק א. לבוש ס"ד-ה. זהר תרומה קנג, ב. הובא במ"א ס"ק ג.
מ"א שם. ט"ז סוף ס"ק ב.
מעדני יו"ט ברכות פ"ה ס"ט אות ד. נחלת צבי סי' צט ס"ק א.
ירושלמי שם, לגירסת המרדכי שם, לסברא האחרונה דמיירי בשכור.
כמבואר במ"א ס"ק ג לענין ברכת המזון.
סעיף א.
ירושלמי שם (לסברא האחרונה). רמ"א לעיל סי' צט ס"א. אליה זוטא ס"ק ג ואליה רבה ס"ק ד (אף לסברא הראשונה). ולענין ברכת כהנים עי' לעיל סי' קכח סנ"א.
לעיל ס"ב.
סעיף כב. אא"כ הגיע לשכרותו של לוט שאז פטור מכל המצות (לעיל סי' קכח סנ"א). וראה דרכי החיים (ברכת המצות ה"ה ס"ק ב).
Translated by Rabbi Eliyahu Touger and Sholom B Wineberg.
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