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Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 174 - Laws Governing [Recitation of] the Blessing Over Wine During a Meal

Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 174 - Laws Governing [Recitation of] the Blessing Over Wine During a Meal

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SECTION 174 The Laws Governing [the Recitation of] the Blessing Over Wine During a Meal. (1–11)

קעד דִּין בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן בִּסְעוּדָה, וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1One should recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen ([blessing G‑d] “…Who created the fruit of the vine”) over wine, even when he drinks wine in the midst of a meal.1 Wine is not covered by the blessing recited over bread.2 True, one drinks [wine] in order to saturate the food in his digestive system.3 Thus, it is [considered as] food that comes because of the meal, in the midst of the meal, which is covered by the blessing recited over bread, as will be explained.4 Nevertheless, wine is an important entity, [its significance resulting from the institution of] a requirement to recite a blessing over it in a number of instances,2 e.g., Kiddush, Havdalah, and the blessing during the marriage ceremony, at which time, the blessing Borei pri hagafen isrecited, even though there is no necessity to drink wine.

Therefore, with regard to the blessing recited before partaking of it, Borei pri hagafen, wine is not considered as secondary to the bread so as to be covered by its blessing. True, [when one drinks wine during a meal,] it is considered secondary to [the bread] insofar as the blessing to be recited after it is covered by the Grace after Meals. [The rationale for the distinction is that, in the special instances cited,] the wine does not require a blessing for itself afterwards, only a blessing before it.5 (For whenever a cup of wine is [specifically] required, it is brought primarily to have the blessing [Borei pri hagafen] recited before partaking of it.)

א יַיִן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּא לִשְׁתּוֹת תּוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",א,1 וְאֵינוֹ נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת,ב,2 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשּׁוֹתֶה לִשְׁרוֹת הָאֲכִילָה שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו ג,3 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כִּדְבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה ד שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,ה,4 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, הוֹאִיל וְהַיַּיִן הוּא חָשׁוּב ו שֶׁגּוֹרֵם בְּרָכָה לְעַצְמוֹ ז בְּכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹת,ח,2 כְּגוֹן בְּקִדּוּשׁ ט וְהַבְדָּלָה י וּבִרְכַּת אֵרוּסִין,יא שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל הַיַּיִן "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכִים לִשְׁתִיָּתוֹ,יב לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב טָפֵל לַפַּת לְהִפָּטֵר בְּבִרְכָתוֹ יג מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטָּפֵל אֵלֶיהָ לְהִפָּטֵר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִבְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה,יד לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גּוֹרֵם לְעַצְמוֹ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה (א) אֶלָּא בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה טו,5 (לְבַדָּהּ, שֶׁבִּשְׁבִילָהּ הִיא עִקַּר הֲבָאַת הַכּוֹס בְּכָל דָּבָר הַטָּעוּן כּוֹס):

2 One should not, however, recite a blessing over water or other beverages in the midst of a meal, even if he drinks them to quench his thirst, since they are being consumed because of the meal. For it is impossible to eat without drinking. [Moreover,] even if one eats something to offset the [sharp] taste of a beverage, it is considered as secondary to the beverage, which [itself] is considered as secondary to the bread. Hence, [even the food] is included in the blessing over the bread.

Even if the person was thirsty before [beginning] the meal, [he need not recite a blessing over the water he drinks during the meal]. Since he did not desire to drink beforehand [— out of fear that] the water would cause him harm6 — the reason he is drinking [now] is because he is partaking of bread. Hence, the blessing over bread covers the water as well.

(True, the bread is only a far-removed cause for [drinking the water. In that way, drinking water] does not resemble eating fruit at the end of a meal in order to assist the food’s digestion. [Partaking of] bread is a more direct cause for [partaking of fruit].7 Nevertheless, a blessing is required before [partaking of fruit], as will be explained in sec. 177[:2. The rationale is that, in general,] fruit is considered as food that does not come because of the meal, since it is commonly eaten throughout the day.8 Therefore, if one partakes of it at the time of a meal, it is not considered as secondary to the bread, unless it comes for the purpose of [enabling bread to] be eaten, e.g., to accompany the bread or to arouse one’s appetite, as will be explained.9 [This is not the case with regard to fruit eaten in order to facilitate] the digestion of the food that one has already eaten. [It cannot be considered as coming because of the bread, because the person] has already completed [eating bread].

[Different principles apply, however, with regard to] water and other beverages that are consumed throughout the day [primarily] because of a meal [of which one partook previously]. For primarily, a person’s thirst results from having eaten [beforehand]. Even beverages that one drinks without being thirsty, e.g., beer or mead, are not commonly consumed before eating, but afterwards. Thus they also can be considered coming as a result of having eaten food previously. Therefore, when they are consumed in the midst of a meal, although [the bread] is a far-removed cause, they are considered as secondary to the meal. [Accordingly,] the blessing of the bread — the primary element of the meal — covers them.)

[The above applies] provided the bread serves as the basis for the meal. If, by contrast, the person eats a little bread so that [drinking] the water alone will not harm him, he must recite the blessing Shehakol on the bread, as will be explained.10

ב אֲבָל עַל מַיִם אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים – אֵין לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,טז וַאֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹתֶה לִצְמָאוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהֵם בָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה,יז שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַאֲכִילָה בְּלֹא שְׁתִיָּה.יח וְגַם אִם אוֹכֵל אֵיזֶה דָּבָר לְמַתֵּק הַשְּׁתִיָּה – הֲרֵי זֶה טָפֵל לַמַּשְׁקֶה וְהַמַּשְׁקֶה לַלֶּחֶם, וְנִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַלֶּחֶם.יט וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיָה צָמֵא קֹדֶם הַסְּעוּדָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה לִשְׁתּוֹת אָז כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיקוּ לוֹ הַמַּיִם6 – נִמְצָא כִּי שְׁתִיַּת הַמַּיִם בְּסִבַּת הַפַּת הִיא, וּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת פּוֹטַרְתָּם.כ

(וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפַּת הִיא סִבָּה רְחוֹקָה לָהֶם, וְאֵינָם דּוֹמִים לְפֵרוֹת שֶׁאוֹכְלִים בִּגְמַר הַסְּעוּדָה לְעַכֵּל הַמַּאֲכָל,כא שֶׁהַפַּת הוּא סִבָּה קְרוֹבָה לָהֶם,7 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן טְעוּנִים בְּרָכָה לִפְנֵיהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ז,כב לְפִי שֶׁהַפֵּרוֹת הֵם דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים שֶׁלֹּא מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְאָכְלָם כָּל הַיּוֹם,כג,8 לְפִיכָךְ אִם אוֹכְלָם בִּשְׁעַת סְעוּדָה אֵינָם חֲשׁוּבִים טְפֵלָה לַפַּת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בָּאוּ לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָהּ שֶׁיֹּאכַל עֲדַיִן, כְּגוֹן לְלַפֵּת הַפַּת, אוֹ לְעוֹרֵר תַּאֲוַת הַמַּאֲכָל,כד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,כה,9 וְלֹא לְעַכֵּל הַמַּאֲכָל שֶׁכְּבָר אָכַל, כִּי מַה שֶּׁהָיָה כְּבָר הָיָה, אֲבָל מַיִם וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁשְּׁתִיָּתָם כָּל הַיּוֹם הִיא מֵחֲמַת סְעוּדָה, שֶׁרֹב הַצִּמָּאוֹן הִיא מֵחֲמַת אֲכִילָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ מַשְׁקִין שֶׁשּׁוֹתִין אוֹתָם אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצִמָּאוֹן, כְּגוֹן שֵׁכָר כו וּמֵי דְּבַשׁ כז – אֵין דַּרְכָּם לִשְׁתּוֹתָם קֹדֶם אֲכִילָה אֶלָּא אַחֲרֶיהָ, נִמְצָא שֶׁבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת אֲכִילָה, לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁבָּאִים בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי סִבָּה רְחוֹקָה – הֲרֵי הֵם טְפֵלִים לַסְּעוּדָה, וּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת שֶׁהוּא עִקַּר הַסְּעוּדָה פּוֹטַרְתָּם).

וְהוּא שֶׁקּוֹבֵעַ סְעוּדָה עַל פַּת,כח אֲבָל אִם אוֹכֵל מְעַט פַּת בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיקוּ לוֹ הַמַּיִם בִּלְבַד – מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַפַּת "שֶׁהַכֹּל", כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר: כט,10

3 [The following rules apply when one drinks an] alcoholic beverage [other than wine] during a meal. If one drinks it in order to whet his appetite, it is considered as secondary to the meal and it is not necessary to recite a blessing over it.11 If one drinks it in order to warm his stomach so as to [better] digest the food, he should recite a blessing over it, (just like one must recite a blessing over fruit that comes to [aid] digestion). [The rationale is that,] unlike other beverages, alcoholic beverages are never consumed for the sake of eating. Moreover, most people do not [drink alcoholic beverages] with the intent of arousing their desire for food, as evidenced by the fact that people are accustomed to drink [such beverages] every morning without [eating] a meal.12 Therefore, [such beverages] are not considered as secondary except when they are served specifically for food that is yet to be eaten.13 The laws that apply when one steeps a piece of bread in such a beverage are discussed later.14

On Shabbos, one need not recite a blessing on these beverages in any case, because they are covered by the blessing recited over the cup of Kiddush, even if one recites Kiddush over wine [and not over these beverages], as will be explained.15 (The only exception is when one recites Kiddush at night over bread.)16

There are authorities who maintain that like wine, a blessing is required for water and other beverages when they are consumed in the midst of a meal.17 The reason that a rationale had to be given for the recitation of a blessing for wine — that it requires a blessing for itself in certain instances18 — is only because wine stimulates a person’s appetite and thus is a necessity of the meal.19 Other beverages, however, do not arouse the appetite. Hence, [they are not associated directly with the meal] and a blessing is [surely] required for them, even though they are not important like wine.

There are also authorities who require that one recite a blessing over water20 every time one partakes of it, for it can be assumed that he changed his mind each time [he again decided to drink water].21 [The rationale is that,] generally, one drinks water only when thirsty. The person did not know [when he originally drank the water] that he would become thirsty again. Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion.22

If one seeks to remove the possibility of doubt [whether to recite the blessing], he may give a person who is not partaking of the meal [some of the beverage to drink. When] that person recites a blessing over it, he should have the intent that he is [also] fulfilling the obligation [of the one who seeks to drink in the midst of his meal].23 Alternatively, before washing [to partake of the meal], that person who wants to drink should sit in the place where he will partake of the meal and recite a blessing over some water or other beverages, with the intent of drinking all he desires during the meal. (Even if he changes his mind and desires to drink more before the meal, he is not required to recite a second blessing, because this is not considered as changing one’s mind, for he intended to drink afterwards — during the meal — on the basis of this [original] blessing.)24

He should not drink a reviis25[before the meal] so that he will not be required to recite a blessing after the beverages in the manner to be explained.26 [Were he to do so, the blessing recited then] would not cover the obligation for the [blessing over the] beverages he will drink during the meal.27 He should also be careful not to go outside before the meal, because changing one’s place28 requires the recitation of an additional blessing [if one wishes to drink again] upon returning to his place, as will be explained later.29 The [prevailing] custom, however, is to follow the first opinion.22

ג וְיֵין שָׂרָף שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, אִם שׁוֹתֵהוּ כְּדֵי לְעוֹרֵר תַּאֲוַת הַמַּאֲכָל – הֲרֵי הוּא טָפֵל לַסְּעוּדָה וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו.ל,11 וְאִם שׁוֹתֵהוּ כְּדֵי לְחַמֵּם הָאִצְטוֹמְכָא לְעַכֵּל הַמַּאֲכָל – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו לא (כְּמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁבָּאִים לְעַכֵּל),לב לְפִי שֶׁגַּם הַיֵּין שָׂרָף אֵין שְׁתִיָּתוֹ מֵחֲמַת אֲכִילָה לְעוֹלָם כִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין, וְגַם אֵין כַּוָּנַת רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם לְעוֹרֵר בּוֹ תַּאֲוַת הַמַּאֲכָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי רְגִילִים לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּכָל בֹּקֶר אַף בְּלֹא סְעוּדָה,לג,12 לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב טָפֵל אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁבָּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה שֶׁיֹּאכַל עֲדַיִן.לד,13

וְאִם שׁוֹרֶה בּוֹ פַּת (ב) – יִתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן.לה,14

וּבְשַׁבָּת אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בְּכָל עִנְיָן, שֶׁנִּפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ, וַאֲפִלּוּ קִדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן,לו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לז,15 (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קִדֵּשׁ בַּלַּיְלָה עַל הַפַּת).לח,16

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים,לט שֶׁגַּם מַיִם וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים (ג)מ טְעוּנִים בְּרָכָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה כְּמוֹ יַיִן,17 וְלֹא הֻצְרְכוּ לִתֵּן טַעַם לְבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁגּוֹרֵם בְּרָכָה לְעַצְמוֹ מא,18 אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַיַּיִן מַמְשִׁיךְ אָדָם לְתַאֲוַת אֲכִילָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא צֹרֶךְ סְעוּדָה,19 אֲבָל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים שֶׁאֵינָן מְעוֹרְרִים תַּאֲוַת הַמַּאֲכָל – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין כְּיַיִן.מב

וְיֵשׁ מַצְרִיכִים מג עוֹד לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמַּיִם מד,20 בְּכָל פַּעַם וּפַעַם,21 כִּי מִן הַסְּתָם נִמְלַךְ הוּא בְּכָל פַּעַם, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת מַיִם אֶלָּא לִצְמָאוֹ וְלֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיִּצְמָא עוֹד. וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.22

וְהָרוֹצֶה לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַסָּפֵק – יִתֵּן לְאַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל לְבָרֵךְ וְיִתְכַּוֵּן לְפָטְרוֹ,מה,23 אוֹ יֵשֵׁב קֹדֶם נְטִילָה בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָתוֹ וִיבָרֵךְ עַל מְעַט מַיִם אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין עַל דַּעַת לִשְׁתּוֹת כָּל צָרְכּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ סְעוּדָתוֹ מו (וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נִמְלַךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁאֵין זֶה קָרוּי נִמְלָךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת אַחַר כָּךְ בַּסְּעוּדָה עַל סְמַךְ בִּרְכָתוֹ זוֹ).מז,24

וְלֹא יִשְׁתֶּה כְּשִׁעוּר רְבִיעִית,25 שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה,מח עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,מט,26 וְלֹא יִפְטֹר בָּזֶה מַה שֶּׁיִּשְׁתֶּה בְּתוֹךְ סְעוּדָתוֹ.נ,27 וְגַם יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת חוּצָה קֹדֶם סְעוּדָה,נא שֶׁכְּשֶׁמְּשַׁנֶּה מְקוֹמוֹ28 – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר לִמְקוֹמוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן.נב,29 אֲבָל הַמִּנְהָג כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה: נג,22

4 If one recited a blessing over wine, all author­ities agree that he need not recite a blessing on other beverages [consumed afterwards].30 For [reciting a blessing] on wine covers all types of beverages [consumed afterwards], whether during a meal or on other occasions. [The rationale is that] wine is the primary beverage, the foremost31 of all beverages. Therefore, it is of principal importance with regard to the blessing and all other beverages are secondary to it. [This ruling applies,] provided the other beverages were before the person at the time he recited the blessing over the wine (or he intended to drink them).32

Even if the person does not sit down to drink wine,33 but rather partakes of a small amount34 for the sake of a mitzvah, e.g., Kiddush or Havdalah, and [subsequently] drinks a large amount of other beverages, they are covered by the blessing over the wine (if he had them in mind, as will be explained).22

ד בֵּרַךְ עַל יַיִן – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, שֶׁיַּיִן פּוֹטֵר כָּל מִינֵי מַשְׁקִים,נד,30 בֵּין בִּשְׁעַת הַסְּעוּדָה בֵּין בִּשְׁאָר פְּעָמִים,נה לְפִי שֶׁהַיַּיִן הוּא עִקַּר מַשְׁקֶה וְהוּא רֹאשׁ31 לְכָל מִינֵי מַשְׁקִין, לָכֵן הוּא עִקָּר לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה וְכֻלָּן טְפֵלִים אֵלָיו.נו וְהוּא שֶׁהָיוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין לְפָנָיו בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הַיַּיִן נז (אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם).נח,32

וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ קוֹבֵעַ עַצְמוֹ33 לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן, אֶלָּא שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן מְעַט נט,34 לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כְּגוֹן קִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה, וְשׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין הַרְבֵּה אַחַר כָּךְ – נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן ס (אִם הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר): סא,22

5 If one drank wine before a meal35 — even if he did so before sitting down33 [to partake of] the meal — it is not necessary for him to recite a blessing over the wine he will drink within the meal, for it is covered by the blessing recited over the wine before the meal. An exception [to this rule]: One specifically intended not to drink wine during the meal and then changed his mind and decided [to resume drinking]. If, however, he had no specific intent [when he first drank], he is not considered to have changed his mind and made a new decision, because it is common to drink wine during a meal, even during the week,36 to saturate the food in one’s digestive system.37 Therefore when a person recites Havdalah at his table, i.e., close to his meal, in the place where he will eat the meal, it is not necessary for him to recite a blessing on the wine that he will drink during the meal.

There are authorities who maintain that since one does not partake of the wine consumed for Havdalah for the sake of drinking, but rather for the sake of the mitzvah, it does not cover the wine consumed during the meal, unless he recited Havdalah at the table [at which he will eat his meal],38 i.e., he established a setting for himself for a meal at the table, or after he washed his hands [for the meal]. For washing one’s hands marks the beginning of establishing a setting for a meal39 even though one did not yet sit down at the table, and even if one washed and then recited Havdalah in another room40 (in the manner to be explained).41

Weight should be given to their words at the outset. Thus when one recites Havdalah before establishing a setting for a meal, he should have the intent that the blessing [recited over the wine in Havdalah] does not cover the wine he will drink during the meal. After the fact, [if] one did not have this intent, he should not recite a blessing on the wine that he drinks during the meal, because when there is a question concerning blessings established by Rabbinic decree, we rule leniently.

When does the above apply? With regard to the wine of Havdalah, since it is not associated with the meal.42 The wine of Kiddush, by contrast, is associated with the meal, for Kiddush may be recited only in the place where one will eat his meal.43 Hence, all authorities agree that [the blessing over wine for Kiddush] also covers the wine consumed during the meal. [This ruling applies] even when one recites Kiddush before he establishes a setting for the meal although [he drinks] the wine for the sake of the mitzvah [of Kiddush] and not for the sake of [simply] drinking. How much more so does it apply when one recites a blessing over wine before a meal during the week!44 Since [one is drinking] for the sake of drinking,45 it covers the wine that he drinks during the meal, even if he recited a blessing over it before he sat down33 to partake of the meal.46

(The above applies provided one recites the blessing in the same room in which he partakes of the meal. If, however, [he moves] from room to room [even if he remains in the same building], he is required to recite another blessing [over the wine he drinks during the meal] unless he drank an amount that required him to recite the one blessing that encapsulates three (Al hagefen),47 but did not yet recite that blessing. In such an instance, there are authorities who maintain that he is not required to recite another blessing [over the wine he drinks during the meal]. After the fact, one may rely on their words, as stated in sec. 178[:3]. Moreover, even if [one drank in] the same room [as he will eat his meal], if he left the room in the interim and then returned, it is as if he moved from room to room, as will be explained there.)48

When does the above apply? When one did not have any specific intent [when reciting the blessing]. If, however, when one recites the blessing over wine in one room, he has the explicit intent that this blessing cover the wine that he will drink during the meal which he will eat in another room, his intent is effective, even as an initial preference, provided the two rooms are in one building, as will be explained there.48

ה אִם שָׁתָה יַיִן לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,סב,35 אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁקָּבַע עַצְמוֹ33 לַסְּעוּדָה סג – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁנִּפְטַר בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,סד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ תְּחִלָּה לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ.סה אֲבָל בִּסְתָם אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא נִמְלָךְ, כִּי רְגִילוּת הוּא לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בַּסְּעוּדָה (ד) אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֹל סו,36 לִשְׁרוֹת הָאֲכִילָה שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו.סז,37 וְלָכֵן הַמַּבְדִּיל עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ סָמוּךְ לִסְעוּדָתוֹ וּבִמְקוֹם סְעוּדָה סח – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה.סט

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים,ע שֶׁיֵּין הַבְדָּלָה הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ בָּא לִשְׁתִיָּה אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה עא – אֵינוֹ פּוֹטֵר הַיַּיִן שֶׁבַּסְּעוּדָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִבְדִּיל עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ מַמָּשׁ,38 דְּהַיְנוּ אַחַר שֶׁקָּבַע עַצְמוֹ לַסְּעוּדָה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן,עב אוֹ אַחַר שֶׁנָּטַליָדָיו,עג (ה) שֶׁנְּטִילַת יָדַיִם הִיא הַתְחָלַת קְבִיעוּת הַסְּעוּדָה,עד,39 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָשַׁב בַּשֻּׁלְחָן עֲדַיִן, וַאֲפִלּוּ נָטַל יָדָיו וְהִבְדִּיל בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר עה,40 (וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר).עו,41

וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּבְדִּיל קֹדֶם שֶׁקּוֹבֵעַ עַצְמוֹ לִסְעוּדָה – יְכַוֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לִפְטֹר בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה. וּבְדִיעֲבַד שֶׁלֹּא כִּוֵּן לְכָךְ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁסְּפֵק בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל.עז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּיֵין הַבְדָּלָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ שַׁיָּךְ לַסְּעוּדָה,42 אֲבָל יֵין קִדּוּשׁ הוֹאִיל וְהוּא שַׁיָּךְ לַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁאֵין קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָה עח,43 – פּוֹטֵר הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,עט אֲפִלּוּ קִדֵּשׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁקָּבַע עַצְמוֹ לַסְּעוּדָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיַּיִן זֶה אֵינוֹ לִשְׁתִיָּה אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה.פ (ו) וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן יַיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה בְּחֹל44 שֶׁהוּא לִשְׁתִיָּה45 שֶׁפּוֹטֵר הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, אֲפִלּוּ אִם בֵּרַךְ עָלָיו קֹדֶם שֶׁקָּבַע עַצְמוֹ33 לַסְּעוּדָה.פא,46

(וְהוּא שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָה, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ חֶדֶר שֶׁסּוֹעֵד בּוֹ, אֲבָל מֵחֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר פב – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שָׁתָה כְּשִׁעוּר שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב לְבָרֵךְ "בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג'" פג,47 וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ, שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בְּדִיעֲבַד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ח.פד וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ חֶדֶר, אִם יָצָא מִמֶּנּוּ בֵּינְתַיִם וְחָזַר – הֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כְּמֵחֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם).פה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּסְתָם, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הַיַּיִן בְּחֶדֶר זֶה לִפְטֹר בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ אֶת הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁיִּסְעֹד בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר פו – פּוֹטֵר אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה אִם שְׁנֵי הַחֲדָרִים הֵם בְּבַיִת אֶחָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם: פז,48

6 Whenever [the blessing over] wine that one drinks before a meal covers wine that one drinks during a meal, it is not necessary to recite a blessing after the wine at all. This applies even if, before the meal, one drank an amount of wine that would require such a blessing. [The rationale: The wine before the meal] is covered by the Grace after Meals just like the wine he drank during the meal.49 Since they were covered by the same blessing recited before drinking, they are considered a single act of drinking [and, hence, covered by Grace].

When, however, a person recites Havdalah before partaking of a meal50 and had the intent not to cover the wine he would drink during the meal, or he did not intend to drink wine during the meal, he is required to recite a blessing after the wine he drank before the meal, if he drank a measure that requires such a blessing.47 (If he forgot and did not recite this blessing before the meal and remembered before he recited Grace, he must recite the blessing Al hagefen immediately.)51 If he did not remember until after he recited Grace, he need not recite the blessing [Al hagefen], for, after the fact, Grace also covers one’s responsibility fortheone blessing that encapsulates three, [in this instance, the blessing Al hagefen], as will be explained.52

When does the above apply? With regard to the wine of Havdalah,which a person drinks solely because of the mitzvah. When, however, one drinks wine before his meal during the week, he is not required to recite the blessing [Al hagefen] afterwards, even if he has no intent of drinking wine in the midst of the meal. [The rationale:] The wine consumed before the meal comes to stimulate a person’s digestive system [and] arouse his appetite. [Thus,] it is [considered] part of the meal and is covered by Grace like other foods that are served because of the meal. The same law applies to [other] alcoholic beverages.

In contrast, one who drinks other beverages before a meal during the week must recite a blessing after drinking them,53 even if he intended to drink [these beverages] during the meal as well. [The rationale:] The blessing recited before partaking of these beverages before the meal does not cover the beverages he drinks during the meal, for the beverages he drinks during the meal do not require a blessing at all. (If he forgot and did not recite a blessing [after drinking] and only remembered afterwards — even after Grace — he must recite the blessing. For Grace does not cover the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos, even after the fact.)

ו וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיַּיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה פּוֹטֵר אֶת הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה כְּלָל,פח אֲפִלּוּ שָׁתָה לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה כַּשִּׁעוּר, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָר הוּא בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כְּמוֹ הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה פט,49 שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם הֵם שְׁתִיָּה אַחַת,צ כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּפְטְרוּ בִּבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה אַחַת. אֲבָל הַמַּבְדִּיל לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה צא,50 וְכִוֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לִפְטֹר הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין בְּדַעְתּוֹ כְּלָל לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה צב – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה צג אִם שָׁתָה כַּשִּׁעוּר צד,47 (וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה וְנִזְכַּר קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ מִיָּד "מֵעֵין ג'").צה,51 וְאִם לֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן פּוֹטֶרֶת "מֵעֵין ג'" עַל הַיַּיִן בְּדִיעֲבַד,צו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.צז,52

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּיֵין הַבְדָּלָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה,צח אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹתֶה יַיִן לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה בְּחֹל – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בְּדַעְתּוֹ כְּלָל לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, לְפִי שֶׁיַּיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה בָּא לִפְתֹּחַ בְּנֵי מֵעַיִם לְהַמְשִׁיךְ אָדָם לְתַאֲוַת אֲכִילָה, וּמִכְּלַל הַסְּעוּדָה הוּא, לָכֵן נִפְטַר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה.צט וְהוּא הַדִּין לְיֵין שָׂרָף.ק

אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹתֶה (ז) שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה בְּחֹל – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרֵיהֶם,53 וַאֲפִלּוּ דַּעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת גַּם כֵּן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ פּוֹטֵר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה אֶת הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אֵין צְרִיכִים בְּרָכָה כְּלָל קא (וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ וְנִזְכַּר אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֵינָהּ פּוֹטֶרֶת "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד): קב

7 When does the above apply? When one does not have a cup of wine over which to recite the Grace after Meals. If, however, he intends to recite Grace over a cup of wine,54 even as an initial preference, it is not necessary to recite a blessing after partaking of the beverages that one drinks before the meal, because they are covered by the blessing that one will recite after the cup [of wine] over which he recites Grace.55

Nevertheless, one should drink less than a reviis before the meal and, in that way, remove any doubt [about the necessity of making a blessing after drinking]. If one did drink a reviis, he should recite Grace over a cup [of wine] so that he will recite a blessing after partaking of it, thereby covering the beverages he drank before the meal. [In this way,] he will remove the doubt raised by those author­ities who require a blessing [to be recited over] beverages [consumed during a meal] as explained.56 For, according to their words, it is not necessary to recite a blessing after partaking of the beverages one drank before the meal because [reciting the blessing before partaking of] them exempts one from reciting a blessing before partaking of beverages during the meal.57

ז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ כּוֹס לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֲבָל אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל הַכּוֹס54 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ כְּלָל בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַל הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה קג אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים בִּבְרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ אַחַר הַכּוֹס שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.קד,55

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יִשְׁתֶּה פָּחוֹת מֵרְבִיעִית לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,קה וּבָזֶה יִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַסָּפֵק. וְאִם שָׁתָה רְבִיעִית – יִהְיֶה לוֹ כּוֹס לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה לִפְטֹר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁשָּׁתָה לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,קו אִם רוֹצֶה לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִסְּפֵק קז סְבָרַת הַמַּצְרִיכִים בְּרָכָה לְמַשְׁקִין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,קח,56 שֶׁלְּפִי דִּבְרֵיהֶם אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחַר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם פּוֹטְרִים אֶת הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה:57

8 All of the above applies during the week. On Shabbos and festivals, by contrast, when one recites Kiddush on a cup [of wine] — or even on other beverages58 — all authorities agree that it is not necessary to recite a blessing afterwards.59 [The rationale:] Kiddush may be recited only in the place of a meal.43 Therefore, [the wine] is covered by the Grace after Meals, like wine that one drinks before the meal that comes because of the meal.

[The wine of Kiddush] is not comparable to foods that are served because of the meal, [but] after the [main part of the] meal, before Grace. For example, in [the Talmudic]era, before the end of the meal, it was common [for the participants in a meal] to cease partaking of bread and sit down to partake of fruit and beverages. [They would also partake] of all [types of food] that were served then, even foods that are served because of a meal, e.g., types of accompanying foods or vegetables that are eaten for the sake of nourishment and satiation and not as dessert [which is eaten] for the sake of pleasure. Despite that intent, it is required to recite a blessing after partaking of them and they are not covered by Grace, since they were not served during the main part of the meal, [when bread was served], as will be explained in sec. 177[:6]. Any food that comes after [the participants in the meal] have ceased partaking of bread is not considered as secondary to the bread and thus is not covered by its blessings, HaMotzi and Grace.

When, by contrast, foods are served because of the meal when [the participants are still] intending to partake of bread and have not withdrawn their attention from it, even though they have yet to partake of it, these foods are considered secondary to it and are covered by the blessing recited after it. [This logic] does not apply with regard to the blessing recited before them, lest one benefit from this world without reciting a blessing, as stated there.60

ח וְכָל זֶה בְּחֹל, אֲבָל בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו קט לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,59 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא שֶׁל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין,קי,58 לְפִי שֶׁהוּא שַׁיָּךְ לַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁאֵין קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָה,43 וְלָכֵן נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כְּמוֹ יַיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁהוּא בָּא מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה.קיא

וְאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לִדְבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה לְאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִים בִּימֵיהֶם אַחַר גְּמַר הַסְּעוּדָה לִמְשֹׁךְ יְדֵיהֶם מִן הַפַּת וְלִקְבֹּעַ לַאֲכִילַת פֵּרוֹת וְלִשְׁתִיָּה, וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּבִיאִים אָז לִפְנֵיהֶם, אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה, כְּגוֹן מִינֵי לִפְתָּן וּמִינֵי יְרָקוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱכָלִים לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע וְלֹא לְקִנּוּחַ וּלְתַעֲנוּג, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן טְעוּנִים גַּם בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, וְאֵינָן נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא בָּאוּ בְּתוֹךְ עִקַּר הַסְּעוּדָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ז,קיב לְפִי שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁבָּא לְאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר סִלְּקוּ יְדֵיהֶם מִן הַפַּת, אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב טָפֵל לַפַּת לְהִפָּטֵר עִמָּהּ בְּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ, שֶׁהֵן "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֲבָל דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁדַּעְתָּם עַל הַפַּת וְאֵין יְדֵיהֶם מְסֻלָּקוֹת הֵימֶנָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִתְחִילוּ בָּהּ – הֵם טְפֵלִים אֵלֶיהָ לְהִפָּטֵר בְּבִרְכָתָהּ מִבְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה.קיג

אֲבָל לֹא מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, (ח)קיד שֶׁלֹּא לֵהָנוֹת מֵהָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה בִּתְחִלָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם: קטו,60

9 Even when wine is served after [the participants in the meal] ceased partaking of bread, one need not recite a blessing afterwards, for it is covered by the Grace after Meals, even though it is not considered as part of the meal per se. [The rationale:] Since wine satiates the heart, it would have been appropriate to ordain the recitation of three full blessings after partaking of it, as was done for bread. Nevertheless, since [generally] people are not accustomed to serving wine as the basis of a meal, it is sufficient to recite the blessing Al hagefen afterwards.61 When, however, one drinks wine after sitting down for a meal,33 it is considered as if he sat down to drink as well as to eat. [Therefore, the wine] is covered by Grace, even as an initial preference. By contrast, other beverages that are consumed after the [main body of the] meal, when [the partici­pants] have already withdrawn their attention from bread, require that a blessing be recited after partaking of them.62 Further in this text, sec.177[:6], it is explained whether this law concerning [beverages served] after a meal is relevant in these countries.63

(Even in [the Talmudic] era,) it was not necessary to recite a blessing before partaking of wine served after the meal,64 before Grace, because it is covered by the blessing recited over wine recited before the meal:65

a) if the person had the intent to drink wine after the meal when he recited that blessing, or b) on the following days — Shabbos, festivals, a day on which one let blood or entered a bathhouse — even when he did not have a specific intent,66 because it is common practice to make wine a fundamental element of one’s meal on such days.

[This ruling applies] even in places where wine is not so commonly available. On these days, a person is not considered as one who [had decided not to drink and then] changed his mind [and decided to drink again], unless he is certain that he did change his mind.

If, however, one only recited a blessing over wine during the meal, but did not recite a blessing over it before the meal, it does not cover wine he drinks after the meal, unless he explicitly intended to cover it [when he originally recited that blessing. The rationale:] Wine that one drinks during the meal is of an inferior [halachic] status, for one does not partake of it for the sake of drinking per se, but to saturate the food he has eaten. For, [in the Talmudicera,] it was common to drink only a small amount of wine in the midst of the meal in order to saturate [one’s food]. Wine served after the meal, by contrast, [is considered significant, because] one drinks it for the sake of drinking per se. It is not fitting that [the blessing recited for drinking of an inferior halachic status] cover drinking that is significant [and thus of superior halachic status] without one having an explicit intent.67

At present, our practice is not to withdraw our attention from bread until after Grace.68 [Accordingly,] even wine served [before Grace] after the conclusion of the meal is considered as coming to saturate one’s food. Thus it is covered by the blessing recited over wine during the meal.

(Large feasts are an exception to the above. [At such gatherings,] it is common practice to withdraw one’s attention from bread, prepare a table with sweets, and sit down to drink before reciting Grace. [In such a situation,] the wine served is not covered by the blessing one recited over wine in the midst of a meal, unless one explicitly intended to do so.69

There is no need, however, to recite a blessing on other beverages, just as there is no need to recite a blessing on other foods that are served because of the meal, when served after the meal [before Grace]. For the reason explained [above],70 they are covered by the blessing HaMotzi.

In places where it is not common at large feasts to sit down to drink after the meal, but before the recitation of Grace, even though wine is consumed at the end of the meal when sweets are eaten, since the people do not sit down to drink, there is no need to recite another blessing. For this drinking is also considered as necessary for the meal and, [it is assumed that] at the outset, when a person recited the blessing over wine during the meal, he had the intent to cover this wine as well.)

All of the above applies to wine that one drinks after the meal [and before Grace]. One blessing is sufficient for any wine that one drinks during the meal, even if one had no specific intent [when reciting the blessing], unless one knows that [he resolved not to drink anymore and then] changed his mind, [and decided to resume drinking].71

ט וַאֲפִלּוּ יַיִן הַבָּא לִפְנֵיהֶם לְאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר מָשְׁכוּ יְדֵיהֶם מִן הַפַּת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו, שֶׁנִּפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,קטז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב מִכְּלַל הַסְּעוּדָה, לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַיַּיִן סוֹעֵד הַלֵּב – הָיָה רָאוּי לְתַקֵּן לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו שָׁלֹשׁ בְּרָכוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת כְּמוֹ אַחַר הַפַּת, אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עָלָיו דַּי לוֹ בְּ"מֵעֵין ג'",קיז,61 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹתֵהוּ בִּסְעוּדָה שֶׁל קֶבַע, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהִיא קְבִיעוּת לַאֲכִילָה33 – הֲרֵי זוֹ קְבִיעוּת לִשְׁתִיָּה,קיח וְנִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן קיט אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה.קכ

אֲבָל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין אַחַר גְּמַר הַסְּעוּדָה לְאַחַר שֶׁמָּשְׁכוּ יְדֵיהֶם מִן הַפַּת – טְעוּנִים בְּרָכָה לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם קכא,62.

וּלְקַמָּן סִימָן קע"ז קכב יִתְבָּאֵר אִם שַׁיָּךְ בִּמְדִינָתֵנוּ דִּין זֶה שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה.63

(וְאַף בִּימֵיהֶם) לֹא הָיוּ צְרִיכִים לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה64 קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,קכג,65 אִם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ אָז לִשְׁתּוֹת גַּם אַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה,קכד אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בִּסְתָם, אִם הוּא שַׁבָּת אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב קכה אוֹ יוֹם הַקָּזָה אוֹ יוֹם שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַמֶּרְחָץ, שֶׁסְּתָם כָּל אָדָם דַּרְכּוֹ לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָתוֹ עַל הַיַּיִן בְּיָמִים אֵלּוּ,קכו,66 אַף בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין הַיַּיִן מָצוּי כָּל כָּךְ,קכז וְלָכֵן אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא נִמְלָךְ מִן הַסְּתָם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יוֹדֵעַ בְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא נִמְלַךְ.קכח

אֲבָל אִם לֹא בֵּרַךְ עַל יַיִן לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – אֵינוֹ פּוֹטֵר בִּסְתָם אֶת הַיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה,קכט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִתְכַּוֵּן לְפָטְרוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ,קל לְפִי שֶׁהַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה שְׁתִיָּתוֹ גְּרוּעָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּא לִשְׁתִיָּה אֶלָּא לִשְׁרוֹת הָאֲכִילָה שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו,קלא שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ רְגִילִין לִשְׁתּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אֶלָּא מְעַט לִשְׁרוֹת בִּלְבַד,קלב וְהַיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה הוּא בָּא לִשְׁתִיָּה, וְאֵינוֹ בְּדִין שֶׁיִּפְטֹר הַגָּרוּעַ אֶת הֶחָשׁוּב קלג שֶׁלֹּא בְּכַוָּנָה.קלד,67

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ רְגִילִים לִמְשֹׁךְ יָדֵינוּ מִן הַפַּת עַד בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן68 – הֲרֵי גַּם הַיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר גְּמַר הַסְּעוּדָה הוּא בָּא לִשְׁרוֹת, וְנִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת יַיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה.קלה

(רַק (ט) בִּסְעוּדוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת שֶׁרְגִילִים לִמְשֹׁךְ יְדֵיהֶם מִן הַפַּת וְלַעֲרֹךְ הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּמִינֵי מְגָדִים וְלִקְבֹּעַ שְׁתִיָּה קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן קלו – אֵין הַיַּיִן נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְפָטְרוֹ.קלז,69

אֲבָל עַל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁמְּבִיאִים אַחַר גְּמַר הַסְּעוּדָה, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא",קלח מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.קלט,70

אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם לִקְבֹּעַ שְׁתִיָּה אַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בִּסְעוּדוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת, אַף שֶׁשּׁוֹתִין יַיִן בִּגְמַר הַסְּעוּדָה כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלִין מִינֵי מְגָדִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין קוֹבְעִין עַצְמָן לִשְׁתִיָּה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, כִּי גַּם שְׁתִיָּה זוֹ הִיא צֹרֶךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, וּמִתְּחִלָּה הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ גַּם עָלֶיהָ לְפָטְרָהּ בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה).קמ

וְכָל זֶה בַּיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה, אֲבָל כָּל מַה שֶּׁשּׁוֹתֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה דַּי לוֹ בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת בְּכָל עִנְיָן, אֲפִלּוּ בִּסְתָם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא נִמְלַךְ: קמא,71

10 Even when a person’s decision [whether or not to drink more does not depend on his [will alone] and hence,] is unresolved [in his mind, drinking again] is considered a change of mind.72 For example, a person entered a friend’s home where a group of people were assembled to drink. He was given a cup [of wine] and he recited a blessing upon it. Afterwards, he was given a second cup. He is required to recite a blessing on the second cup as well. [The rationale:] When he recited the blessing on the first cup, he did not know if he would be given another, since he had not sat down to drink33 with them. [Indeed,] even if before he finished drinking the first cup, he was already given a second cup of wine while he still had some wine in the first cup, he is required to recite another blessing on the second cup given to him.73

In contrast, when someone sat down [to drink]33 together with those assembled and another cup was brought to him while he still had wine from the first cup, [he need not recite another blessing]. True, he did not know whether more wine would be served at this meal after they had already begun drinking, (nor did [the others assembled] know whether more wine would be brought, as will be explained in sec. 206[:9]).74 Nevertheless, since he sat down [to drink] with those assembled and a fixed setting may be established [to drink] wine, it is considered that, initially, his intent was that [if more cups of wine would be] brought to him, he would drink them as well. [The rationale:] at times, a person sits down to drink wine and then is drawn from drinking one [cup] to drinking another and thus he may drink more than what was prepared originally. Hence, [when he continues drinking], he is not considered to have made a new decision [to drink], for he knew that if more [wine] was brought, he would also be served some [of the additional wine] as well.

If, however, he does not know at all that he will be given [wine], he is considered to have made a new decision [to drink] because of the doubt in his mind. Similarly, at large feasts, if there are people who are unsure whether they will be given cups of wine, those in doubt must recite a blessing over each cup [that they are given].

י וַאֲפִלּוּ הַמְלָכַת סָפֵק שְׁמָהּ הַמְלָכָה,קמב,72 כְּגוֹן מִי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְבֵית חֲבֵרוֹ וְיֵשׁ שָׁם חֲבוּרָה שֶׁמְּסֻבִּין לִשְׁתִיָּה, וְהוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ כּוֹס וּבֵרַךְ עָלָיו, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ כּוֹס אַחֵר – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ עַל הַשֵּׁנִי קמג כִּי כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הָרִאשׁוֹן לֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ אִם יִתְּנוּ לוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ קָבוּעַ עִמָּהֶם לִשְׁתִיָּה.קמד אֲפִלּוּ לֹא שָׁתָה עֲדַיִן כָּל הַכּוֹס שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ תְּחִלָּה, וְהוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ כּוֹס אַחֵר בְּעוֹד שֶׁהָיָה אֶצְלוֹ יַיִן מִכּוֹס הָרִאשׁוֹן – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַכּוֹס הָאַחֵר שֶׁהוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ.קמה,73

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן מִי שֶׁהָיָה קָבוּעַ33 עִם הַמְסֻבִּין קמו וְהֵבִיאוּ לוֹ כּוֹס בְּעוֹד שֶׁהָיָה לְפָנָיו מִכּוֹס הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ עוֹד יַיִן בִּסְעוּדָה זוֹ אַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר הִתְחִילוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת (וְלֹא קמז הָיוּ יוֹדְעִים אִם יָבִיאוּ עוֹד יַיִן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"ו),קמח,74 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֵאַחַר שֶׁהָיָה קָבוּעַ עִם הַמְסֻבִּין, וְיֵשׁ קֶבַע לִשְׁתִיַּת יַיִן קמט שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים אָדָם קוֹבֵעַ עַצְמוֹ עַל הַיַּיִן וְנִגְרָר מִשְּׁתִיָּה לִשְׁתִיָּה קנ וְשׁוֹתֶה יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁהֵכִין בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, הֲרֵי הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה שֶׁאִם יָבִיאוּ לוֹ יוֹתֵר יִשְׁתֶּה מֵהֶם, וְאֵין זֶה נִמְלָךְ, מֵאַחַר שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאִם יָבִיאוּ עוֹד יִתְּנוּ לוֹ גַּם כֵּן.

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ כְּלָל אִם יִתְּנוּ לוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה נִמְלָךְ מִסָּפֵק.קנא וְכֵן בִּסְעוּדוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת שֶׁהַמְסֻבִּים רַבִּים, וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶם אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁמִּסְתַּפְּקִים אִם יַגִּיעַ לָהֶם הַכּוֹס – צְרִיכִים הַמְסֻפָּקִים לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל כּוֹס:

11 If, however, when he recited the blessing on the first cup [of wine], the person had the specific intent that he would include in this blessing all [the cups] that he would [subsequently] be given, he does not have to recite a blessing on the cups [of wine that] he will be given in the future. [This ruling applies] even if he is in doubt whether he will be given any more [wine] at all. His intent is that if he will be given more, he will fulfill his obligation with [the blessing made over] this cup.

Similarly, if one person recited the blessing for all participants in the manner to be explained in sec. 213[:1] and a person who is in doubt [whether or not he will receive wine] has the intent that if he is given wine, he will fulfill his obligation with the blessing recited by that person [who recited the blessing on behalf of all the participants], he need not recite a blessing on the wine that he will be served.75 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is not proper to conduct oneself in this manner, i.e., that one person should recite a blessing on behalf of others in the midst of a meal, because one’s palate is not free,76 and thus the attention [of those present] will not be focused on hearing the blessing from the person reciting it. Moreover, they will not be able to respond Amen so they can fulfill their obligation through his blessing,77 because one may not speak in the midst of eating, lest [the food] enter the windpipe rather than the esophagus and endanger the person.78

Therefore one person may recite a blessing on behalf of all the participants if he says: Savri maranan (“Attention, gentlemen”), i.e., focus your attention on the blessing so that you may fulfill your obligation. [This will enable the participants] to free their palates, take a respite from eating, and focus their attention on hearing the blessing and answering Amen. This is the common practice.

For this reason, the custom has spread universally that when a blessing is recited on wine, e.g., Kiddush or Havdalah, and one person recites the blessing so that all assembled can fulfill their obligation through his blessing, he says Savri maranan [(“Attention, gentlemen”)], and not Bereshus maranan (“With your permission, gentlemen”),79 so as not to make a distinction with regard to the blessing recited on wine whether it is recited outside a meal or over wine that comes during a meal.

Sections 175 and 176 [of the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch] are not extant. Nevertheless, one who seeks to understand the fundamental principles involved can find them in [Seder Birkas HaNehenin in the Alter Rebbe’s] Siddur. There everything is stated and fully explained. What is relevant to sec. 175 [in accord with the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro] can be found in ch. 12, laws 13-21. What is relevant to sec. 176 [in accord with the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro] is found in ch. 4, from law 11 until the end of that chapter.80

יא אֲבָל אִם הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הַכּוֹס הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁיֵּצֵא בְּבִרְכָתוֹ עַל כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּתְּנוּ לוֹ יוֹתֵר, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיָה סָפֵק לוֹ אִם יִתְּנוּ לוֹ כְּלָל, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁאִם יִתְּנוּ לוֹ יוֹתֵר יֵצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס הָאַחֵר שֶׁיּוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ.קנב

וְכֵן אִם בֵּרַךְ אֶחָד לְכֻלָּם עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רי"ג,קנג וְנִתְכַּוֵּן הַמְסֻפָּק שֶׁאִם יִתְּנוּ לוֹ יֵצֵא בְּבִרְכָתוֹ שֶׁל הַמְבָרֵךְ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַכּוֹס שֶׁיּוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ.קנד,75

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה קנה אֵין לִנְהֹג כָּךְ שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ אֶחָד לְכֻלָּם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,קנו מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאֵין בֵּית הַבְּלִיעָה פָּנוּי,קנז,76 וְאֵין דַּעְתָּם לִשְׁמֹעַ הַבְּרָכָה מִפִּי הַמְבָרֵךְ,קנח וְגַם לֹא יוּכְלוּ לַעֲנוֹת אַחֲרָיו אָמֵן קנט שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ בְּבִרְכָתוֹ,קס,77 כִּי אֵין מְשִׂיחִין בַּסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁמָּא יַקְדִּים קָנֶה לְוֶשֶׁט וְנִמְצָא בָּא לִידֵי סַכָּנָה.קסא,78

לְפִיכָךְ, אִם אוֹמֵר לָהֶם: "סַבְרִי מָרָנָן", כְּלוֹמַר תְּנוּ דַּעְתְּכֶם לַבְּרָכָה לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבַתְכֶם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּפַנּוּ בֵּית הַבְּלִיעָה וְיָנִיחוּ אֲכִילָתָם וְיִתְּנוּ דַּעְתָּם לִשְׁמֹעַ הַבְּרָכָה וְיַעֲנוּ אָמֵן – אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְכֻלָּם.קסב וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין.קסג

וּמִטַּעַם זֶה נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל הַיַּיִן, כְּגוֹן בְּקִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה, אִם אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְכֻלָּם לָצֵאת בְּבִרְכָתוֹ – אוֹמֵר "סַבְרִי מָרָנָן",קסד וְלֹא "בִּרְשׁוּת מָרָנָן",קסה,79 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא לַחֲלֹק בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן בֵּין אִם מְבָרְכִין שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הַסְּעוּדָה וּבֵין יַיִן הַבָּא לָהֶם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה: קסו

חָסֵר בַּהֶעְתֵּק סִימָן קע"ה וקע"ו. אַךְ הָרוֹצֶה לַעֲמֹד עַל עִקָּרָן שֶׁל דְּבָרִים, יִמְצָא בַּסִּדּוּר [לְקַמָּן בְּסֵדֶר בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין שֶׁבְּסוֹף הַכֶּרֶךְ], הַכֹּל כָּתוּב וּמְפֹרָשׁ בְּלִי שׁוּם חִסָּרוֹן, דְּהַיְנוּ מַה שֶּׁשַּׁיָּךְ לְסִימָן קע"ה יִמְצָא בְּפֶרֶק י"ב מִסְּעִיף י"ג עַד סְעִיף (י"ט) [כ"א], וּמַה שֶּׁשַּׁיָּךְ לְסִימָן קע"ו יִמְצָא בְּפֶרֶק ד' מִסְּעִיף י"א עַד סוֹף הַפֶּרֶק.80

Footnotes
1.
Berachos 42b.
2.
Ibid. 41b.
3.
Thus facilitating digestion.
4.
See sec. 177:1.
5.
In his Kuntreis Acharon (note 1), the Alter Rebbe cites his sources as the glosses of Ramban and Tosafos to Pesachim 103b, from which it appears that the fundamental purpose is not necessarily to drink the wine, but to recite the blessing over it for ceremonial purposes. Nevertheless, once one recites the blessing, he is obligated to partake of the wine. This approach is supported by Rashi, Eruvin 40b, who states that when a ceremonial blessing is recited over wine, it would be improper, an insult to the wine, as it were, for a person not to partake of the wine after a blessing was recited over it. Rashi’s statement also indicates that the blessing is of primary importance and that drinking the wine is of secondary importance.

Turei Zahav 190:3, however, rules that when partaking of wine in these instances, it is desirable that one drink enough to require a blessing to be recited afterwards. From the ruling of Turei Zahav, it could be understood that it is not only the recitation of the blessing over the wine that is significant, but also actually partaking of it. Nevertheless, this objection is countered by the ruling of Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro, sec. 271:14, which states that it is possible to fulfill the obligation to drink the wine of Kiddush by having several people each sip a small amount. This indicates that it is the recitation of the blessing over the wine and not the drinking of a specific amount that is significant.

The Alter Rebbe then challenges the above position, quoting circumstances where the blessing of Kiddush or Havdalah is recited in the midst of a meal over a cup of wine, and the blessing Borei pri hagafen is not required over that cup (see sec. 299:4). This indicates that it is drinking the wine and not the blessing that is significant.

That perspective is also apparent in Tosafos, Pesachim 103b, s.v. Rav Ashi. There Tosafos states that one is required to recite a blessing after drinking the cup of wine for both Erusin and Nisuin. This ruling indicates that drinking a sufficient measure of wine is part of the essential obligation for the recitation of these ceremonial blessings. If so, the question remains: Why is the blessing before drinking wine singled out for its importance and not the blessing recited after drinking wine? Indeed, the Alter Rebbe concludes that the rationale stated here requires further analysis. See also subsection 3 in this section.
6.
It appears that drinking water on an empty stomach can lead to health complications.
7.
For, as stated beforehand, it aids digestion.
8.
A marginal note appended to the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch resolves a question that could arise. For there is a distinction between fruit that is eaten to facilitate digestion over which a separate blessing is required and beverages that are consumed in order to saturate food internally in order to facilitate digestion over which a separate blessing is not required. The resolution is — as stated above — that a blessing is not recited on beverages that aid in digestion when one drinks them because of the meal.
9.
See subsection 3. See also sec. 177:3; Kuntreis Acharon (note 2) in this section (explained in footnote 14).
10.
Sec. 212:8, 10. Significantly, in his Seder Birkas HaNehenin, the Alter Rebbe does not mention the possibility of reciting the blessing Shehakol on bread.
11.
See sec. 177:4 and the Kuntreis Acharon (note 3) to that section.
12.
In his Seder Birkas HaNehenin, ch. 4, law 10, the Alter Rebbe states that this practice was customary in certain countries to “strengthen the heart.”
13.
In the above source, the Alter Rebbe states that, in his region, it is customary to drink alcoholic beverages in the midst of a meal as part of the meal. Hence, they are covered by the blessing recited over the bread.
14.
See sec. 212:3, see also 168:21. In his Kuntreis Acharon (note 2), the Alter Rebbe cites the ruling of Magen Avraham 168:30, which states that if one eats bread steeped in a beverage, he does not have to recite a blessing over the beverage unless he drinks it separately afterwards. For the beverages are like fruit, concerning which the ruling is that if fruit is eaten on bread, one need not recite a blessing. If he eats that same fruit afterwards, a blessing is required (see sec. 212:3).
15.
See subsection 4.
16.
See sec. 272:11. The question also applies at seudah shelishis, the third Shabbos meal, or when one recited Kiddush and partook of mezonos in one location and then partook of the Shabbos meal in a different place. In neither instance does one begin the meal with a cup of wine, leaving open the question whether to recite a blessing over an alcoholic drink during the meal.
17.
In his Kuntreis Acharon (note 3), the Alter Rebbe cites the source of this ruling as the Halachos Gedolos. He also cites the view of Turei Zahav (174:8) who maintains that were wine not singled out for special prominence, it would be covered by the blessing recited over bread, because it also satisfies a person. Surely, this applies to beer, which is made from grain and is very satisfying. Since water, by contrast, has no nourishing quality, is not covered by the blessing recited over the bread.

In rebuttal, the Alter Rebbe refers to Mordechai (Berachos, sec. 136) who clearly states that “other liquids” require a separate blessing. True, Rabbeinu Asher (ibid., ch. 6:29) does contrast wine, “that nourishes,” with water. However, his mention of water should not be understood to exclude other beverages, merely that wine has a great nourishing value, close to that of bread. Therefore — were it not for wine’s distinct importance — it should have been covered by the blessing recited over the bread. Other beverages, including beer, do not have such nourishing value, and are therefore — according to the second opinion — not covered by the blessing over bread.
18.
See subsection 1.
19.
Thus one might think it does not require its own blessing.
20.
This stringency does not apply with regard to other beverages, for they are consumed for their flavor, not only to satisfy thirst.
21.
I.e., after the person drank once, he did not intend to drink again, for it can be assumed that he drank sufficiently to satisfy his thirst. If he desires to drink again, it is because he became thirsty again. Accordingly, there is room to require another blessing.
22.
Which maintains that non-alcoholic beverages are included in the blessing recited over the bread.
23.
In sec. 167:17, the Alter Rebbe states that, as an initial preference, one should not fulfill his obligation of reciting blessings over items that provide satisfaction by hearing them recited by another person. Only after the fact does he fulfill his obligation in this manner. Nevertheless, in this instance, since he is listening to the blessing only to fulfill a stringency, he may rely on that leniency.
24.
A marginal note appended to the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch cites Pesachim 103b as a source. There, it is explained that a person who — before reciting Grace — decided to stop drinking wine, must recite another blessing over wine that he will drink after Grace. The inference is that, were it not for his decision to stop drinking, reciting Grace alone would not warrant repeating the blessing over the wine drunk later. Similarly in the present instance, when one recited a blessing and drank some beverage before the meal, his blessing remains in effect as long as he has not decided not to drink further.
25.
86 cc. according to Shiurei Torah (a little over 2.9 ounces).
26.
See sec. 6 and Kuntreis Acharon, note 7, there.
27.
If one drank a reviis before the meal and was obligated to recite a blessing afterwards, his drinking before the meal is a self-contained act and not connected with the beverages he drinks afterwards, during the meal. If, by contrast, he drinks less than a reviis, his drinking is incomplete and can therefore be joined to the beverages he drinks later.
28.
I.e., leaving the place where one drank is considered an interruption. See subsection 6 and 178:1.
29.
Sec. 168:1.
30.
Berachos 41b. See also subsection 7 in this section and sec. 204:12, sec. 272:13, and sec. 473:10.
31.
Lit., “the head.”
32.
I.e., even if the other beverages were not present at the time he recited the blessing over the wine, if the person knew they would be served and intended to partake of them, they are covered by that blessing. Moreover, even if he did not know which beverages would be served, as long as he knows that other beverages would be served and he intends to partake of them, they are covered by the blessing recited over the wine. See sec. 206:9, sec. 212:10, and the Alter Rebbe’s Seder Birkas HaNehenin, ch. 1, law 21.
33.
As mentioned in previous sections, here the translation does not fully communicate the intent of the original. קובע עצמו implies sitting down to eat or drink in a significant and prolonged setting.
34.
When stating this law in his Seder Birkas HaNehenin, op. cit., the Alter Rebbe, specifies that this refers to a quantity less than a reviis. This amount of wine does not require that a blessing be recited after partaking of it. Nevertheless, the other beverages are covered by the blessing recited over the wine.

When one recites the blessing Al hagefen after drinking wine, this covers other beverages that one drank at the same sitting (loc. cit.). If, however, the amount of wine that one drank does not warrant reciting Al hagefen, and he drank a larger volume of other beverages, he should recite the blessing Borei nefashos after those drinks.

A common application of the last point: At a Kiddush in Shul, one person recites Kiddush over a glass of wine, and drinks the required amount, while everyone else has a sip. Everyone will then partake of pastry. Some may drink a reviis of other beverages. The others should not recite the blessing Shehakol over those drinks, because those beverages are covered by the blessing of Borei pri hagafen. When they are finished, one who drank a larger amount of wine must incorporate Al hagefen into his recitation of the one blessing that encapsulates three (Al hamichyah). Accordingly, he should not recite Borei nefashos after the other beverages. Those who drank only a minimal amount of wine should recite Al hamichyah after the pastries, but should not include Al hagefen for the wine. They should then recite Borei nefashos after the other beverages.
35.
A marginal note appended to the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch states that this applies even if he partook of the wine incidentally, without sitting down to drink wine.
36.
Kuntreis Acharon (note 4) focuses on the fact that the text does not mention that, during the week, one must drink in the same place where he eats his meal. Immediately thereafter, however, with regard to Havdalah, it states that to be exempt from reciting a blessing over wine during the meal, one must recite Havdalah “at his table, i.e., close to his meal, in the place where he will eat the meal.” Now, as stated in sec. 178:5, 8, there is a difference of opinion whether it is imperative that the blessing recited after partaking of wine be recited in the place where one partook of it. Contingent on that difference of opinion is a second issue: whether a change of location is considered an interruption and hence a new blessing is required if one changes his location and then drinks more wine. According to the opinion that the change of place is significant (the position of Rabbeinu Asher), if one does not recite Havdalah in the place where he will eat his meal, it can be easily understood why the blessing over wine at Havdalah does not cover the wine one drinks in his meal that follows.

The Alter Rebbe, however, does not present this argument, for it is not unanimously accepted. Instead, he resolves the contrast between the two rulings mentioned above on the basis of the concept that Havdalah is a distinct act, not necessarily connected with a meal. Therefore, to associate the wine consumed when reciting Havdalah with the wine consumed during the meal, it is necessary that Havdalah be recited in the place where one will later eat his meal. Wine that one drinks before a meal on a weekday, by contrast, is seen as a preparation for the meal. Therefore one need not repeat the blessing when drinking wine during the meal.
37.
See Berachos 42b.
38.
This opinion is stated in Berachos 42a.
39.
Shabbos 9b. In his Kuntreis Acharon (note 5), the Alter Rebbe states that this is the intent of Tosafos (Berachos 42b). For this reason, there is no obligation to recite a blessing after drinking this wine. True, the rationale, “it is impossible to eat without drinking” (see subsection 2), does not apply in this instance, because one has not yet begun to eat. Nevertheless, one is not required to recite a blessing after this wine, just as one is not obligated to recite a blessing over fruit eaten during the meal.

This reasoning applies after one has washed for the meal, for washing is considered the beginning of the meal (Shabbos, op. cit.; see the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro 232:2). If, however, one recites Havdalah before washing for the meal, he would be obligated to immediately recite the blessing Al hagefen for the wine that he consumed for Havdalah. He would not be allowed to wait until he finishes drinking wine during the meal and fulfill his obligation for the blessing required after partaking of the wine with the Grace after Meals. The rationale is that one should not sit down for a new meal before reciting the blessing required after food or drink from which he has already partaken, since he has already become obligated in the recitation of this blessing. A later Tosafos (Berachos 43a), however, maintains that the blessing over wine recited before washing one’s hands also covers wine drunk afterwards.
40.
But in the same building.
41.
At the end of this subsection.
42.
For as opposed to Kiddush, there is no obligation to eat a meal together with Havdalah.
43.
Pesachim 101a; sec 273:1.
44.
In his Kuntreis Acharon (note 6), the Alter Rebbe states this ruling is based on the ruling of Magen Avraham 174:5 which is derived from the wording in the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro 174:4. This runs contrary to the thinking of Tosafos {Berachos 42b, mentioned in Kuntreis Acharon (note 5)}. Nevertheless, based on the ruling of the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro 174:6, it appears that the question involves only the wine of Havdalah and not other wine.

There is reason to say that if one drinks less than a reviis of wine for Havdalah, he need not recite a blessing over wine that he drinks during the meal. Since he is not obligated to recite a blessing after partaking of the wine he drank for Havdalah, the wine he drinks then can be linked to the wine drunk during the meal.

Nevertheless, the later authorities did not grant such a leniency unless the person either recited Havdalah after washing or after establishing his setting for a meal. They specified these conditions and did not mention the concept of the blessing recited after partaking of wine at all.
45.
I.e., and not for a mitzvah.
46.
As stated at the beginning of this subsection.
47.
I.e., a reviis of wine. See sec. 190:6 and the sources mentioned there.
48.
Sec. 178:1.
49.
As stated in subsection 1 above.
50.
See subsection 5 and Kuntreis Acharon (note 5). The motivating principle is, as stated there and as stated later in this subsection, when reciting Borei pri hagafen for Havdalah, one is doing so for the sake of the mitzvah and not for the sake of drinking.
51.
See Talmud Yerushalmi, Berachos 6:5.
52.
Apparently, the intent is sec. 208. This section is not, however, extant in the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch. See the Alter Rebbe’s Seder Birkas HaNehenin ch. 1, law 17. The explanation depends on the concept that the three blessings that Al hagefen encapsulates are the three blessings of Grace.
53.
In his Kuntreis Acharon (note 7), the Alter Rebbe quotes Magen Avraham 174:14, who raises the question of reciting a blessing after partaking of wine (or other beverages) before the meal. Magen Avraham states in the name of Ma’or HaGadol (Pesachim 24b) that it is not necessary to recite a blessing after other beverages that one drank before a meal, because those beverages are associated with the beverages he drinks during the meal. Since those beverages are covered by Grace, the beverages consumed before the meal are also covered by Grace.

The Alter Rebbe challenges that understanding, maintaining that this logic applies only to wine. The one blessing that encapsulates three is required for wine and that blessing alone — since it is based on Grace — is covered by Grace. The Alter Rebbe cites many other authorities who agree with this understanding.

To further develop this point, the Alter Rebbe quotes a debate among the Rabbinical authorities regarding whether one is required to recite a blessing after partaking of wine before the meal if he does not drink wine during the meal, or whether the wine one drank before the meal is covered by Grace. Rabbeinu Asher rules that one is not required to recite a blessing because he maintains that this wine is covered by Grace. His perspective is not accepted by many authorities, as evidenced by the debate among the authorities whether the Grace after Meals recited at the Pesach Seder covers both the first and second cups of wine consumed at the Seder prior to the meal, or only the second cup that is consumed immediately before the meal. That debate indicates that Rabbeinu Asher’s perspective is far from universally accepted. The Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro (Orach Chayim 174:6) accepts the ruling of the Tur, who follows the perspective of his father Rabbeinu Asher. Nevertheless, since even the ruling concerning wine is not accepted by all, to apply this concept to beverages other than wine would be an extension that is out of place. Indeed, even with regard to wine, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 211:7-8) debates under which circumstances a person who recites Havdalah before a meal is required to recite the blessing Al hagefen and when that blessing is covered by Grace.
54.
See sections 182-183 for details regarding that practice.
55.
This also applies to other beverages aside from wine, for they are also covered by the blessing Al hagefen.
56.
See subsection 3.
57.
According to their words, since the Grace after Meals covers the beverages consumed during the meal, it also covers those consumed before the meal.
58.
For in certain instances, one is permitted to recite Kiddush on beverages other than wine. See sec. 272:10-11.
59.
In sec. 272:13, the Alter Rebbe quotes this ruling, explaining that “Kiddush is one of the necessities of the meal.”
60.
See also sec. 212:7. In his Kuntreis Acharon (note 8), the Alter Rebbe cites the ruling of Magen Avraham 212:4 who maintains that even when a food is eaten for an ancillary purpose, if a blessing is required for it, “lest one benefit from this world without reciting a blessing,” the appropriate blessing for it should be recited. Similarly, in this instance, although “the foods served because of the meal” are considered secondary to the bread, since a blessing is required for them, “lest one benefit from this world without reciting a blessing,” the appropriate blessing for them should be recited.

The Alter Rebbe continues, stating that this ruling might even be accepted by Rama. In his gloss to the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 212:1), Rama rules that when a blessing is being recited over ancillary food only “lest one benefit from this world without reciting a blessing,” that food forfeits its unique blessing. Since it is being eaten only for an ancillary purpose, it is sufficient that the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro be recited over it. Nevertheless, the ancillary nature of the foods mentioned in sec. 212 is far more pronounced than that of “the foods served because of the meal” mentioned here. Hence, it may be said that even Rama would agree here.
61.
Berachos 35b.
62.
A marginal note appended to the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch cites the source as Magen Avraham 174:9. The note continues, stating that Magen Avraham was, however, slightly imprecise in his statements, citing Tosafos (Pesachim 103b), which states that a blessing is not required for wine that is served after the meal because it is considered as being served because of the meal. Nevertheless, since a blessing is required for other foods that are served because of the meal if they are served after the participants withdrew their attention from bread, that rationale is not appropriate.
63.
As stated later in this subsection and in sec. 177:6, at present, social norms have changed and these laws are no longer applicable.
64.
The laws that apply if one did not drink wine before the meal, but partook of it during the meal are detailed later in the subsection.
65.
Berachos 42a.
66.
Ibid. 42b.
67.
Compare to a somewhat analogous ruling in sec. 206:10.
68.
As stated in sec. 177:6.
69.
In his Kuntreis Acharon (note 9), the Alter Rebbe cites his sources as the Tur and Beis Yosef (Orach Chayim 177). He notes that Magen Avraham 177:7 mentions the opinion of Rabbeinu Yonah, who explains that in the Talmudicera, the small tables that were usually placed before each participant in the meal would be removed at this time. Hence, when a second table with other foods was brought, it was considered a different setting. In later eras, it was not customary to remove the table. Hence, the other food is considered as being served at the same setting.

The Alter Rebbe explains that even though the wine is not considered as having been served at a different setting, it is served for a different purpose than the wine served during the meal. The wine served during the meal is intended to saturate one’s food, while the wine served after the meal is served so that the participants will drink for pleasure. Hence, this wine is not covered by the blessing recited over the wine served during the meal.

Although Magen Avraham quotes Rabbeinu Yonah’s comments to Berachos 42a, those statements do not apply with regard to wine. Rabbeinu Yonah speaks about foods. With regard to them, it can be said that as long as the table is not removed, it is not considered as a different setting. With regard to wine, however, since the purposes for which one drinks wine at these times differ, the previous blessing does not apply to what one drinks afterwards.

The Alter Rebbe also mentions the perspective of Rashba (in his gloss to Berachos 42b) who maintains that when people remain after eating in order to converse, their conversation will cause them to become thirsty and they will desire to drink to relieve their thirst. Accordingly, the wine they will then drink is not covered by the blessing recited over the wine during the meal. According to Rashba, wine drunk after a large feast, but without prolonged conversation, is still considered for the intent “of saturating his food” and there is no need to recite another blessing.

The Alter Rebbe explains that this approach is not accepted as halachah. Indeed Rashba offered that rationale in explanation of the phrase, “after the meal,” in the Gemara’s question (ibid.): “Does the blessing over drinks during the meal cover drinks served after the meal?” But Rashba does not focus on that term in the Mishnah (ibid. 41a): “The blessing recited over wine drunk before the meal covers wine that one drinks after the meal.”Instead, as the Gemara (ibid:b) explains, the mishnah refers to a Shabbos meal, when it is common practice to sit down to drink wine after the meal. Hence it is the meal, not the prolonged conversation, that stimulates the desire to drink.
70.
I.e., because in the present age, it is not customary to withdraw one’s attention from bread.
71.
Pesachim 103b. If a person decided to stop drinking, he is required to make another blessing if he decides to drink again. Nevertheless, it is assumed that a person did not make such a decision, but left the matter open in his mind and were he to so desire, he would drink more. In such a situation, the initial blessing suffices.
72.
Ibid.:a. See also sec. 179:1.
73.
See sec. 179:7. There, and in his Seder Birkas HaNehenin, ch. 5, law 8, the Alter Rebbe states that the social norms have changed and, at present, if a person would walk into such a gathering, he could expect to be served many cups of wine. Hence, he is only required to recite a blessing over the first.
74.
In that source, the Alter Rebbe writes: “People’s common practice, when they are occupied in eating or drinking, is to continue doing so and to be drawn from food to food and from drink to drink.” See also sec. 179:7, which offers another reason why an additional blessing is not required. A guest at a house relies on his host and has in mind to partake of everything that he will be served.

It must, however, be noted (see Luach HaTikun) that it has been suggested that this entire parenthetic statement be omitted from the text of the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch.
75.
In sec. 190:8, the Alter Rebbe gives an example of this principle: A person recites Grace over a cup of wine. One of the assembled is unsure whether the cup of blessing will be passed to him or not. He may recite Amen to the blessing made by the person leading Grace with the intent that if the cup is indeed passed to him, he will fulfill his obligation with that blessing.
76.
Berachos 43a. Rashi interprets that statement to mean that the attention of the participants in the meal will not be focused on the person reciting the blessing, but on swallowing their own food.
77.
Although, after the fact, one fulfills his obligation by listening to another person’s blessing even if he does not respond Amen (see sec. 213:4), nevertheless, whenever a person hears a blessing, he is obligated to respond Amen (sec. 215:2).
78.
Taanis 5a.
79.
This phrase is included as part of the introduction to the zimun recited before Grace.
80.
This note, obviously not composed by the Alter Rebbe, is found even in the early editions of the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch.
Sources
א.
משנה ברכות מב, רע"ב. טור ושו"ע ס"א. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"ה ה"ח. סדר ברה"נ פ"ד ה"ח.
ב.
ברכות מא, סע"ב. שו"ע שם.
ג.
רשב"א שם ד"ה אי הכי. רא"ש פסחים פ"י סי' י.
ד.
תוס' ברכות שם ד"ה אי הכי. רא"ש ברכות פ"ו סי' כט.
ה.
לקמן סי' קעז ס"א. וראה גם לעיל סי' קסח סי"ד וסכ"א.
ו.
רבנו יונה ברכות מב, א ד"ה יין. רא"ש פסחים פ"י סי' י. טור ושו"ע ס"ז. מ"א סק"א. וכ"ה בסדר ברה"נ שם.
ז.
גמרא מא, סע"ב.
ח.
רש"י שם ד"ה דגורם.
ט.
רש"י על הרי"ף ברכות שם ד"ה גורם. תוס' ורבנו יונה שם. ט"ז סק"א. מ"א שם. וכ"ה בסדר ברה"נ שם.
י.
רש"י על הרי"ף ורבנו יונה שם. מ"א שם. וכ"ה בסדר ברה"נ שם.
יא.
תוס' שם.
יב.
רש"י שם.
יג.
ראה לבוש ס"א.
יד.
רא"ש ברכות פ"ו סוף סי' כו ופסחים פ"י סי' י. טור ושו"ע ס"ו.
טו.
רמב"ן במלחמות ה' פרק ערבי פסחים (כד, א). תוס' פסחים קג, א ד"ה אנא. ועי' בקונטרס אחרון. ומטעם זה פוטרת בהמ"ז גם יין שלפני המזון אם הוא שייך לסעודה, כדלקמן ס"ו וס"ח. ולקמן ס"ט מבואר טעם נוסף, שגם היין שלאחר הסעודה נפטר בברכת המזון. וראה תהלה לדוד ס"ק ו. העו"ב (ירות"ו) ח"ב ע' 230.
טז.
רש"י לפירוש הרשב"א ברכות מב, א ד"ה אי הכי. ר"י ור"ת בברכות מא, ב בתוס' ד"ה אי הכי. רא"ש ברכות פ"ו סי' כט. הרב רבנו יונה ברכות שם ד"ה ומכאן. רשב"א שם, שכן נהג רש"י ור"ת וגדולי הצרפתים. מרדכי ברכות רמז קלו. סמ"ג מ"ע כז הל' ברכות שבסעודה. סמ"ק ריש סי' קנא. טור ושו"ע ס"ז. וראה גם לעיל סי' קסח סכ"א. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"ה ה"ז. סדר ברה"נ פ"ד ה"ז.
יז.
רשב"א שם. בלוח וסדר ברה"נ שם הוסיף: ולא לשרות המאכל שבמעיו.
יח.
תוס' שם. רא"ש שם. טור ושו"ע ס"ז.
יט.
מ"א סוסק"ט. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ שם. סדר ברה"נ שם.
כ.
הרב רבנו יונה שם. שו"ע שם. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ שם. סדר ברה"נ שם.
כא.
מרדכי שם רמז קלה והגהות מיימוניות הל' ברכות פ"ד אות י בשם ר"י (בתוס' שם ד"ה הלכתא) הובאו במ"א סקי"א.
כב.
סעיף ב.
כג.
הרב רבנו יונה שם ד"ה ורבנו יצחק בשם ר"י הזקן. ארחות חיים הל' סעודה רס"י לה. של"ה שער האותיות דיני ברה"נ כלל ד ס"א. וראה גם לקמן שם. (ולפי זה אתי שפיר מאי שנא לעכל גבי פירות שאינם טפלים לפת מלשרות שמבואר בתוס' שם "הלכך משקין הבאין מחמת הסעודה שבאין בשביל הפת לשרות המאכל ... פת פוטרתן". וכ"ה ברשב"א שם. וראה מה שחילק ביניהם בלבוש סי' קעז ס"ב. דיש לומר דלפי זה דגם לשרות לא פטרו אלא במשקים שבאים מחמת סעודה כמ"ש בשו"ע).
כד.
ראה מ"א שם.
כה.
לקמן ס"ג ובקו"א ס"ק ב. לקמן סי' קעז ס"ד ובקו"א ס"ק ג.
כו.
ר"ת בתוס' שם ד"ה אי הכי. ט"ז סק"י. מ"א סקי"ג.
כז.
ט"ז ומ"א שם.
כח.
מ"א סקי"ב. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ שם. סדר ברה"נ שם.
כט.
לקמן סי' ריב ס"ח וס"י. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ שם. אבל בסדר ברה"נ שם השמיט הלכה זו שיברך על הפת שהכל (בהלכה זו ובהלכה דלקמן שם).
ל.
מ"א סקי"א. וכדלעיל ס"ב ובקו"א ס"ק ב. לקמן סי' קעז ס"ד ובקו"א שם ס"ק ג - לגבי פירות. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"ה ה"י. סדר ברה"נ פ"ד ה"י.
לא.
מטה משה סי' שסג בשם הרש"ל. לבוש סי' קעז סוס"ב. דברי חמודות ברכות פ"ו אות פו. מ"א שם. ט"ז ס"ק י. וכ"ה בלוח ובסדר ברה"נ שם.
לב.
נחלת צבי סי' קעז עה"ג. הבוא באליה רבה שם ס"ק יא. וכדלעיל ס"ב - לגבי פירות וש"נ.
לג.
לחזק הלב (סדר ברה"נ שם).
לד.
מ"א שם. ובסדר ברה"נ שם כתב: בד"א במדינות שאין דרכם לשתות תוך הסעודה אלא בשאר כל היום לחזק הלב ודינו כדין פירות, אבל במדינות אלו שרגילים לשתותו תוך הסעודה אין צריך לברך עליו.
לה.
סי' ריב ס"ג. וראה גם לעי סי' קסח סכ"א וש"נ. ועי' בקונטרס אחרון.
לו.
דברי חמודות ומ"א שם. אליה זוטא ס"ק יא. וכ"ה בלוח ובסדר ברה"נ שם ה"י-יא.
לז.
לקמן ס"ד.
לח.
ראה לקמן סי' ערב סי"א.
לט.
בה"ג ברכות פ"ז (י, ב). הובא ברא"ש ברכות פ"ו סי' כט ובטור ושו"ע ס"ז. בלוח ברה"נ שם ובסדר ברה"נ שם לא הובאה דעה זו.
מ.
בה"ג שם. מרדכי ברכות רמז קלו. תוס' רי"ד ברכות מא, ב ד"א שאלו. לבוש ס"ז. ועי' בקונטרס אחרון.
מא.
ברכות מב, רע"א. לעיל ס"א.
מב.
מרדכי שם. מג"א ס"ק יא.
מג.
מחזור ויטרי סי' עג. הובא בתוס' שם. רא"ש ומרדכי שם. טור ושו"ע שם.
מד.
משא"כ בשאר משקים. ראה מ"א סקי"ג.
מה.
סדר ברכות רמ"מ ד"ה ברכת היין (ג, א). מ"א סקט"ו.
מו.
רא"ש שם. טור ושו"ע שם.
מז.
עי' פסחים קג דמייתי ראיה לשתיה שאחר ברכת המזון שנמלך לשתות קודם ברכת המזון מכלל דאם לא כן לא הוי נמלך ודו"ק. וראה העו"ב (ירות"ו) ח"ב ע' 304.
מח.
ס' הכוונות (ה, ב). הובא בט"ז ס"ק ט ומ"א סקי"ד.
מט.
לקמן ס"ו ובקונטרס אחרון שם ס"ק ז.
נ.
ט"ז סק"ט. עי' במ"ש בסי' קצ ס"ו. וראה גם לקמן סוס"ז. לקמן סי' תעג סי"ז וסי"ח. תוס' ורא"ש שם. ט"ז סק"ד בדעת השו"ע.
נא.
מ"א סוף ס"ק יד.
נב.
סי' קעח ס"א.
נג.
רמ"א ס"ז.
נד.
ר' חייא בברכות דף מא, ב. רא"ש ברכות פ"ו רס"י כו. טור סוף הסי'. שו"ע ס"ב. סי' רח סוסט"ז. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"ה הי"א. סדר ברה"נ פ"א הכ"א. ושם: בין מברכה ראשונה ... ובין מברכה אחרונה נפטרו בברכת על הגפן. וראה גם לקמן ס"ז. סי' רד סי"ב. סי' ערב סי"ג. סי' תעג ס"י. והוא מרבינו יונה ברכות שם ופליגא וד"ה יין גורם. מרדכי ברכות רמז קנ. טור סוף סי' רח בשם אחיו ואביו הרא"ש. שו"ע שם סי' רח סט"ז. רמ"א כאן ס"ב.
נה.
רשב"א ברכות מא, ב ד"ה אי הכי. וראה תוס' ברכות שם ד"ה ויין. טור וב"י סוף הסי'. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ שם.
נו.
תוס' ברכות שם ד"ה אי הכי. רא"ש שם פ"ו סי' כט. מרדכי שם רמז קלו. וראה העו"ב (ירות"ו) ח"ב ע' 282.
נז.
מרדכי שם רמז קנ. ט"ז סק"ב. מ"א סי' רח ס"ק כד. וכ"ה בלוח ובסדר ברה"נ שם.
נח.
אליה רבה ס"ק ח. וכן משמע במ"א סוף ס"ק יא דמדמי ליה לשכר ולא התנה שיהיה היי"ש על השלחן כמ"ש בעז"ק. וכ"מ בהדיא בסי' רו סק"ז. ולקמן שם ס"ט וסי' ריב ס"י. וכ"מ ממ"ש בסי' רעב סוף ס"ק ט. וכ"ה בלוח ובסדר ברה"נ שם. וראה העו"ב (ירות"ו) ח"ב ע' 282.
נט.
שיירי כנסת הגדולה הגב"י אות י. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ שם. וראה משנ"ב שער הציון ס"ק ה. ובסדר ברה"נ שם, דהיינו אפילו: שתה יין פחות משיעור רביעית שאין צריך לברך לאחריו.
ס.
מ"א סוסקי"א. וראה חקרי הלכות ח"ח יב, א.
סא.
אוצ"ל: כמו שנתבאר. ואפשר הכוונה לקמן סי' רו ס"ט וסי' ריב ס"י - לענין עיקר וטפל.
סב.
אפילו לא קבע עצמו על היין. ט"ז סק"ד (וכ"כ הרא"ש בפרק ערבי פסחים סי' ד ואפילו באקראי בעלמא). אליה רבה ס"ק ב. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"ה ה"ח. סדר ברה"נ פ"ד ה"ח.
סג.
ט"ז סי' רצט סק"ו. מ"א סק"ה. וראה לקמן בהמשך הסעיף ובקונטרס אחרון ס"ק ו. ולענין אם צריך שיהי' במקום סעודה, ראה לקמן בסוף הסעיף. ובקו"א ס"ק ד.
סד.
תוס' ברכות מב, ב ד"ה ורב ששת ופסחים ק, ב ד"ה ידי יין. רא"ש שם. טור ושו"ע ס"ד. וראה גם לקמן סי' תעב סט"ו.
סה.
תוס' ורא"ש שם. ט"ז סק"ד בדעת השו"ע.
סו.
תוס' שם. רבינו ירוחם נתיב טז ח"א (קמב, ג). הובא בדרכי משה סק"ב. רא"ש בפרק ערבי פסחים שם.
סז.
ראה ברכות מב, ב.
סח.
היינו לכל הדיעות דלקמן סי' קעח ס"ג. ראה ט"ז סי' רצט סק"ה. ועי' בקונטרס אחרון ס"ק ד.
סט.
רא"ש שם. רשב"א ברכות מב, ב ד"ה איבעיא. הגהות מיימוניות הל' ברכות פ"ד אות ל. טור ודעה הא' שבשו"ע ס"ד וסי' רצט ס"ז. וראה גם לקמן שם סי"ג.
ע.
תוס' ברכות שם. מרדכי שם רמז קמד. דעה הב' בשו"ע שם ושם.
עא.
מ"א סק"ה. וראה העו"ב (ירות"ו) ח"ב ע' 157.
עב.
מ"א סק"ו בדעת התוס' מג, א ד"ה בא להם.
עג.
תוס' שם מב, ב סוף ד"ה ורב ששת. מרדכי שם. וראה לעיל סי' קסו אם הבדלה הוי הפסק בין נט"י לסעודה.
עד.
שבת ט, ב. טור ושו"ע סי' רלב ס"ב - לענין תפלת מנחה. ועי' בקונטרס אחרון - לענין ברכה אחרונה שאין צריך לברך על היין.
עה.
ט"ז סי' רצט סק"ה.
עו.
בסוף הסעיף לענין שתה יין לפני הסעודה בחול.
עז.
ב"י ד"ה ולענין. שו"ע ס"ד. וראה העו"ב (ירות"ו) ח"ב ע' 47 בשוה"ג.
עח.
כדלקמן סי' רעג ס"א וש"נ.
עט.
תוס' ומרדכי שם. טור ושו"ע ס"ד וסי' רעב ס"י. וראה גם לקמן שם סי"ד. וראה תהלה לדוד ס"ק יג.
פ.
ט"ז סק"ה.
פא.
כדלעיל בתחלת הסעיף וש"נ. ועי' בקונטרס אחרון.
פב.
וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"ה ה"ט. סדר ברה"נ פ"ד ה"ט. ושם: אבל אם סועד בחדר אחר.
פג.
בלוח וסדר ברה"נ שם: אלא אם כן שתה כשיעור רביעית. וראה לקמן סי' קצ ס"ו וש"נ.
פד.
סעיף ג וש"נ.
פה.
סעיף א.
פו.
וכ"ה בלוח ובסדר ברה"נ שם. ולהלן שם מבואר דסגי "אם מתחלה כשבירך בחדר זה היה בדעתו לשנות מקומו מחדר לחדר באמצע אכילתו". וראה תהלה לדוד ס"ק ב.
פז.
סעיף א.
פח.
תוס' פסחים ק, ב סד"ה ידי יין. רא"ש שם פ"י סוף סי' ד. טור ושו"ע סי' רצט ס"ח. והיינו כשאין השתיה כדי לפתוח בני המעיים (שדינו יתבאר בסמוך).
פט.
ראה לעיל סוס"א. וש"נ.
צ.
מ"א סי' רצט סקי"א. אליה רבה שם ס"ק טז.
צא.
היינו קודם נט"י, כמבואר בקונטרס אחרון ס"ק ה.
צב.
כדלעיל ס"ה.
צג.
תוס' שם. ב"ח ד"ה ומ"ש רבנו וכן יין. שיירי כנסת הגדולה הגב"י ס"ק ג. עולת תמיד ס"ק ד. אליה רבה ס"ק ה. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"ה הי"ד. סדר ברה"נ פ"ד הי"ב. ושם: הואיל ואינו מתכוין לפתוח תאות המאכל אלא למצוה בלבד.
צד.
ראה לקמן סי' קצ ס"ו וש"נ.
צה.
ראה ירושלמי ברכות פ"ו ה"ה. הובא בב"י סוס"י רח.
צו.
וכ"ה בלוח וסדר ברה"נ שם.
צז.
בסי' רח, אבל סי' זה בשוע"ר לא הגיע לידינו. וראה לוח ברה"נ פ"א הט"ו. סדר ברה"נ פ"א הי"ז.
צח.
מ"א סי' רצט סקי"א. וראה גם מ"א כאן סק"י.
צט.
רא"ש פרק ערבי פסחים סוף סי' כד. טור סו"ס ער"ב. שו"ע ס"ו. מ"א סק"ט. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"ה הי"ג ובפ"א הט"ז. סדר ברה"נ פ"ד הי"א ובפ"א הי"ז. וראה העו"ב (ירות"ו) ח"ב ע' 159.
ק.
ט"ז סי' קעז סק"ד.
קא.
כדלעיל סוף ס"ג. ועי' בקונטרס אחרון. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ שם. סדר ברה"נ שם. וראה גם לקמן סי' תעג סעי' יז-ח.
קב.
ראה ט"ז סק"ט וסי' רח סקי"ח. מ"א ס"ק יד. וכ"ה בסדר ברה"נ פ"א הי"ז. וראה גם לוח ברה"נ פ"א הי"ז - לענין על המחיה.
קג.
וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"ה הי"ד. סדר ברה"נ פ"ד הי"ב - לענין יין הבדלה. וראה בדי השלחן סי' ס ס"ק טו.
קד.
מ"א סוף סקי"ד ע"פ רמב"ן במלחמות ה' פסחים (כד, ב). ר"ן שם. תשב"ץ סי' שיח. וראה גם לקמן סי' ערב סי"ג. סי' תעג ס"י. סי' תעד ס"ג. והיין פוטר שאר משקין (גם מברכה אחרונה) כדלעיל ס"ד וש"נ.
קה.
מ"א שם. וכדלעיל סוף ס"ג.
קו.
מ"א שם. וראה גם לקמן סי' ערב סי"ג.
קז.
כ"ה לשון הרא"ש וטור ושו"ע ס"ז.
קח.
לעיל סעיף ג.
קט.
רא"ש פסחים פ"י סוף סי' ד. טור ושו"ע סי' ערב ס"י. וכ"ה לקמן שם סי"ג. ושם: בין של לילה בין של יום. סי' תעג ס"י. לוח ברה"נ פ"ה הי"ד. סדר ברה"נ פ"ד הי"ב.
קי.
ראה גם לקמן שם.
קיא.
טור סי' רצט בשם הרא"ש. ומ"א שם סקי"א.
קיב.
ס"ו וש"נ.
קיג.
רא"ש שם סוף סי' כד.
קיד.
עי' בקונטרס אחרון.
קטו.
לקמן סי' ריב ס"ז (הנזכר בקונטרס אחרון).
קטז.
תוס' פסחים קג, ב ד"ה אנא. רשב"א הובא במ"א ס"ק ט.
קיז.
גמרא לה, ב.
קיח.
ראה עד"ז לקמן סי' ריג ס"א, שמתוך שמועלת קביעות לפת מועלת גם לשאר דברים.
קיט.
רבינו יונה ברכות מא, ב ד"ה מיהו. רשב"א ברכות מא, ב ד"ה אי הכי. מ"א סק"ט. וראה לעיל ס"א טעם נוסף שבהמ"ז פוטרת גם יין שבתוך הסעודה ושלפני הסעודה (כששייך לסעודה). וראה העו"ב (ירות"ו) ח"ב ע' 238. ולענין תמרים שאחר הסעודה ראה לוח ברה"נ פ"א סוף הט"ז וש"נ.
קכ.
משא"כ ביין שלפני הסעודה מועיל רק בדיעבד, כדלעיל ס"ו.
קכא.
מ"א שם (ואף שלא נתכוין המ"א במה שביאר בכוונת התוס' פסחים קג, ב ד"ה אנא: ואפילו יין דלאחר הסעודה נראה שאין צריך לברך אחריו דלעולם חשוב מחמת הסעודה והא דקאמר דברים הבאים אחר הסעודה צריכין ברכה לפניהם ואחריהם היינו חוץ מיין. עי' במ"ש המ"א סי' רח ס"ק כד. הרי הרא"ש ברכות פ"ו סי' כו וכט ומרדכי ברכות רמז קלה-ו לא ס"ל הכי אלא, שגם מים ושאר משקים נקראים באים מחמת הסעודה, ומהני דוקא כשבאין בתוך הסעודה).
קכב.
ס"ו.
קכג.
משנה ברכות מב, א. ט"ז סק"ד. מ"א סק"ג.
קכד.
רא"ש ברכות פ"ו סי' לב. אליה רבה ס"ק ד.
קכה.
ר' יוחנן וריב"ל שם מב, ב. רמב"ם הל' ברכות פ"ד הי"ב. טור.
קכו.
הגאונים. הובא ברבנו יונה שם ד"ה לא שנו. וברא"ש שם (ושעפ"י דברי הגאונים הוגה כן בקצת ספרים ובגמ' נוסח שלנו). רמב"ם שם.
קכז.
השגות הראב"ד לבעל המאור ברכות שם. הובא ברא"ש שם ובטור.
קכח.
אביי ברכות שם. רא"ש שם.
קכט.
רב כהנא, רב ששת, רב הונא, רב יהודה וכל תלמידי דרב שם מב, ב. רי"ף ברכות ל, ב. תוס' שם מב, ב ד"ה ורב ששת. רמב"ם שם. רא"ש שם. טור. ט"ז ומ"א שם.
קל.
פסקי ריא"ז ברכות פ"ו ה"ד ס"ח. הובא בשלטי גבורים ברכות (ל, ב אות ג). ד"מ אות ג.
קלא.
ברכות שם.
קלב.
רש"י שם ד"ה אם.
קלג.
תוס' שם. רא"ש פסחים פ"י סי' ד. ט"ז ומ"א שם.
קלד.
ראה עד"ז לקמן סי' רו ס"י וש"נ.
קלה.
תוס' שם. הרב רבינו יונה ברכות שם סד"ה ורב אשי. מרדכי ברכות סי' קלח. מ"א שם.
קלו.
טור סי' קעז. ב"י שם סד"ה אמר. לבוש שם ס"ב. מ"א שם סק"ז. ועי' בקונטרס אחרון.
קלז.
עי' הגהות מיימוניות הל' ברכות פ"ד אות ל בשם ברכות מהר"ם ד"ה בירך על היין.
קלח.
מ"א שם.
קלט.
בקו"א ס"ק ט ולקמן סי' קעז ס"ז.
קמ.
פסקי ריא"ז שם הובא בשלטי גבורים שם.
קמא.
פסחים קג, ב. טור ושו"ע ס"ה.
קמב.
גמרא שם קג, סע"א, לפירוש רשב"ם שם ד"ה לא הוי. חולין קז, ב. והרב רבנו יונה ברכות פ"ח (מב, א) ד"ה והשמש. וראה גם טור ושו"ע סי' קסט ס"ג - לענין שמש שמושיטין לו כוס יין. וראה גם לקמן סי' קעט ס"א.
קמג.
תשב"ץ סי' ש. הובא בכל בו סוף סי' כד. רמ"א ס"ה. מ"א סק"ז. שו"ע סי' קעט ס"ד. וראה גם לקמן סי' קעט ס"ז - גם לגבי פירות. וכ"ה בלוח ברה"נ פ"ז ה"ח. סדר ברה"נ פ"ה ה"ח.
קמד.
ט"ז שם סק"ג.
קמה.
מ"א סי' קעט סק"ו. וכ"ה לקמן שם ס"ז. לוח וסדר ברה"נ שם. ושם: ועכשיו שהמנהג הוא שמושיטים כוסות הרבה למי שנכנס במסיבה הקבועים לשתיה א"צ לברך אלא על כוס הראשון. וראה תהלה לדוד סי' רו ס"ק ד.
קמו.
ט"ז שם.
קמז.
בלוח התיקון לדפו"ר: מתיבת ולא עד מכל מקום מיותר.
קמח.
ס"ט.
קמט.
כדלקמן סי' ריג ס"א.
קנ.
כדלקמן סי' רו שם.
קנא.
תוס' פסחים קג, א סוף ד"ה לא. אגודה פרק ערבי פסחים סי' עה. רמ"א ס"ה. שו"ע סי' קצ ס"ה. וכ"ה לקמן שם ס"ח - לענין כוס בהמ"ז שכל המסובים יוצאים בברכת המברך.
קנב.
מ"א סי' קסט סק"ז. וראה גם סדר ברכות רמ"מ ד"ה ראיתי מעשה.
קנג.
סעיף א.
קנד.
מ"א סי' קצ סק"ז. וראה גם לקמן סי' קצ סוס"ח.
קנה.
ראה משנ"ב שער הציון ס"ק נ.
קנו.
משנה ברכות מב, רע"ב. טור ושו"ע ס"ח.
קנז.
גמרא מג, א.
קנח.
רש"י שם ד"ה הואיל. מרדכי שם רמז קמה.
קנט.
ירושלמי פ"ו ה"ו. רמב"ם פ"ד הי"ב. פ"ז ה"ו. רבנו יונה ברכות שם ד"ה בא. רא"ש שם סי' לד. טור שו"ע ורמ"א ס"ח.
קס.
ראה לקמן סי' ריג ס"ד. וראה רא"ש שם.
קסא.
תענית ה, א. שו"ע שם.
קסב.
רבי יוסף טוב עלם הובא במחזור ויטרי סי' פ. שבלי הלקט סי' קמ. תוס' ברכות מג, א ד"ה הואיל. רמ"א ס"ח.
קסג.
דרכי משה ס"ק ז. רמ"א שם.
קסד.
ומנהג חב"ד לומר סברי מרנן אף בקידוש על הפת ואף ביחיד (ס' המנהגים - חב"ד ע' 28 וש"נ).
קסה.
כדלעיל סי' קסז סי"ט.
קסו.
מחזור ויטרי ושבלי הלקט שם. עטרת זקנים ס"ק ג. וראה העו"ב (ירות"ו) ח"ב ע' 164.
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