SECTION 167 The Place and Time of Breaking Bread; Who Breaks Bread. (1–23)

קסז מְקוֹם וּזְמַן הַבְּצִיעָה, וּמִי הוּא הַבּוֹצֵעַ א, וּבוֹ כ"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 It1 is a positive commandment2 of Scriptural origin to bless G‑d after eating sustaining food, as it is written:3 “When you have eaten and are satiated, you shall bless G‑d, your L‑rd….” According to Rabbinic Law, one should also recite a blessing before eating or drinking anything. Our Sages declared:4 If one recites a blessing when he is satisfied, how much more so should he do so when he is hungry! One who benefits from this world without reciting a blessing is like one who benefits from consecrated articles, as it is written:5 “The earth and all that it contains… are G‑d’s.”

The blessing one recites over any particular [type of] food or drink is inclusive of several types of [similar foods].6 For example, the blessing Borei pri haadamah ([blessing G‑d] “…Who created the fruit of the earth”) is recited over all types of produce that grow from the earth.7 [The blessing] Borei pri haetz ([blessing G‑d] “…Who created the fruit of the trees”),is recited over all fruit[that grows on] trees.8 Wine and bread, are exceptions; special blessings were ordained for them because of their unique importance.

Wine was removed from the category of fruits9 produced by trees and it was ordained that the blessing Borei pri hagafen ([blessing G‑d] “…Who created the fruit of the vine”)be recited over it, because of its singular importance: it brings joy to man’s heart,10 as it is written,11 “Wine that gladdens the heart of man.”

[Similarly,] bread was taken out of the category of the produce of the earth and it was ordained that the blessing HaMotzi lechem min haaretz ([blessing G‑d] “…Who brought forth bread from the earth”) be recited over it, because of its importance, for it satiates man’s heart, as it is written, “bread that sustains the heart of man.”

א מִצְוַתא,1 עֲשֵׂה מִן הַתּוֹרָהב,2 לְבָרֵךְג אֶת ה' אַחַר אֲכִילַת מָזוֹן,ד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרה,3 "וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבֵרַכְתָּ אֶת ה' וְגוֹ'". וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵי כָּל אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה,ו אָמְרוּ:ז,4 אִם כְּשֶׁהוּא שָׂבֵעַ מְבָרֵךְ – כְּשֶׁהוּא רָעֵב לֹא כָּל שֶׁכֵּן? וְכָל הַנֶּהֱנֶה מֵהָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה – כְּאִלּוּ נֶהֱנֶה מִקָּדְשֵׁי שָׁמַיִם,ח שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרט,5 "לַה' הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ".4

וְעַל כָּל אֹכֶל וּמַשְׁקֶה מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּרָכָה כּוֹלֶלֶת לְכַמָּה מִינִים,י,6 כְּמוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" לְכָל מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ,יא,7 וּ"בוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ" לְכָליב פֵּרוֹת הָעֵץ.יג,8 חוּץ מִן הַיַּיִן וְהַפַּת,יד שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ חֲשִׁיבוּתָן קָבְעוּ לָהֶן בְּרָכָה לְעַצְמָן,טו שֶׁהַיַּיִן הוֹצִיאוּהוּ מִכְּלַל פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן9 לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", מִפְּנֵי חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ שֶׁמְּשַׂמֵּחַ אֶת הַלֵּב,טז,10 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַריז,11 "וְיַיִן יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ", וְהַפַּת הוֹצִיאוּ מִכְּלַל פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ", מִפְּנֵי חֲשִׁיבוּת הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁסּוֹעֵד הַלֵּב,יח,10 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַריט,11 "וְלֶחֶם לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ יִסְעָד":

2 As an expression of respect for the [HaMotzi] blessing, the piece of bread over which the blessing is recited should not be sliced from the soft portion of the bread, but rather, from the best place of the loaf, the place where it baked most thoroughly12 and became completely firm from baking. This is the choicest portion of the loaf.

Thus, if a slice of bread was brought to a person, he should not break off a piece [over which to recite the blessing] from the soft middle portion. Instead, he should break off a piece from the crust, which is the choice portion of the bread in a whole loaf.

Other authorities maintain that one should break off a piece from the place where the loaf began to form its crust and first becomes fully baked when it is baked in the oven. In our ovens, where the bread is placed on the floor of the oven, some say that the top portion of the loaf is the first portion to be fully baked, due to the heated air of the oven. Others say that the bottom of the loaf is fully baked first, because [that portion of the bread comes in contact with] the heat of the oven’s floor upon which the fire burns.13

Although primarily the halachah follows the latter view,14 in order to satisfy both opinions, one should break off a piece from the side of the loaf, cutting from the top and also a bit from the bottom. This applied even to the ovens of [the Talmudicera] in which the fire would burn on the bottom of the oven while the bread was baking, stuck to the walls of the oven, as explained in sec. 254[:6, 9].15

One should cut the loaf on the side opposite the side that burst open, because this side started to bake first, causing the dough to shift to the other side until that side burst open.

ב וּכְבוֹד הַבְּרָכָה הִיא לִבְצֹעַ פְּרוּסַת הַבְּרָכָה בַּמָּקוֹם הַיָּפֶה שֶׁבַּפַּת,כ וְהוּא מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱפָה יָפֶהכא,12 וְנִתְקַשָּׁה יָפֶה הֵיטֵב מֵאֲפִיָּה, שֶׁהוּא מֻבְחָר שֶׁבַּפַּת,כב וְלֹא מִמָּקוֹם הָרַךְ,כג כְּגוֹן אִם הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו פַּת פְּרוּסָה – לֹא יִבְצַע מֵאֶמְצָעִיתָהּ שֶׁהוּא רַךְ, אֶלָּא יִבְצַע מִלְּמַעְלָה שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם הַמֻּבְחָר שֶׁבַּפַּת בְּפַת שָׁלֵם.כד

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִבְצֹעַ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁמַּתְחִיל לִקְרֹם וּלְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל תְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁנֶּאֱפֵת הַפַּת בַּתַּנּוּר. וּבַתַּנּוּרִים שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁמּוֹשִׁיבִין הַפַּת עַל שׁוּלֵי הַתַּנּוּר – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכו שֶׁצַּד הָעֶלְיוֹן מַתְחִיל לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל תְּחִלָּה מֵחֹם אֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכז שֶׁצַּד הַתַּחְתּוֹן מִתְבַּשֵּׁל תְּחִלָּה מֵחֹם שׁוּלֵי הַתַּנּוּר, שֶׁהָיְתָה אֵשׁ בּוֹעֶרֶת עָלָיו.13 וְלָצֵאת יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם – יֵשׁ לִבְצֹעַ מִצִּדֵּי הַפַּת, וְלַחְתֹּךְ מִצַּד הָעֶלְיוֹן וּמְעַט מִצַּד הַתַּחְתּוֹן,כח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא אַחֲרוֹנָה,14 אֲפִלּוּ בַּתַּנּוּרִים שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶם שֶׁהָיְתָה אֵשׁ בּוֹעֶרֶת בְּשׁוּלֵי הַתַּנּוּר בִּשְׁעַת אֲפִיַּת הַפַּת שֶׁהָיְתָה מְדֻבֶּקֶת בְּדַפְנוֹתָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ד.כט,15

וְיִבְצַע בַּצַּד שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד הַמִּתְבַּקֵּעַ, כִּי זֶה הַצַּד הִתְחִיל לֵאָפוֹת וְנִדְחֲקָה הָעִסָּה עַד שֶׁנִּתְבַּקַּע הַצַּד שֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ:ל

3 The optimum way of performing this mitzvah is to recite the blessing on the loaf of bread while it is whole16 and not to slice17 it first and then recite the blessing. The above applies when a whole loaf was brought before the person reciting the blessing. Even when [only] a [large] piece cut from a loaf was brought to the person, the optimum way of performing this mitzvah is to recite the blessing over it while it is still a large piece, and not to slice it further, until after the blessing.

The blessing must be completed while the loaf is still whole orwhile the piece is still large. [Moreover,] even after one has completed the blessing, if other people fulfill their obligation [to recite HaMotzi] with his blessing,18 he should not slice the loaf until most of the people responding Amen have concluded their response.19 For responding Amen isalso part of the blessing.20 Nevertheless, it is not necessary to wait for the few who draw out their responsemore than necessary, since anyone who extends his recitation of Amen more than necessary is certainly acting in error.21

Before beginning the blessing, it is desirable to make a slight cut with a knife where one will slice the piece of bread from the loaf to [minimize] the delay caused by cutting, so that it not be considered an interruption between the recitation of the blessing and eating. He should not separate the slice from the loaf until he concludes the entire blessing. Making a small cut of this type does not cause the bread to be considered as sliced,22 as long as the entire loaf will [not break off, but instead,] be lifted up when the sliced portion is lifted. One should not slice more than this amount. For if he will slice [the loaf] in a manner that when he grasps the piece, the entire loaf will not be lifted up with it — even though were he to grasp the loaf, the piece would be lifted up with it — it is considered as sliced in all contexts.

With this in mind, on Shabbos and festivals, one should not cut the bread at all until after the recitation of the blessing,23 for perhaps his hand will slip and he will cut more than this measure, causing him to break bread on a sliced [loaf], and it is obligatory on Shabbos [and festivals to recite the blessing over] two whole loaves.24 One need not be concerned that the [ensuing] delay in cutting [the bread causes] an interruption between the recitation of the blessing and eating, because merely waiting without speaking is not considered an interruption. It is only that during the week, one should conduct himself in the above manner, [i.e., making a small cut first,] as the most desirable course of action. Nevertheless, if one forgot on Shabbos [and festivals] and sliced the bread as he does during the week [before making the blessing], he did not forfeit the [mitzvah to use] two loaves.25 As long as the entire loaf will be picked up when he grasps the sliced piece, the loaf is considered whole in all contexts.

Even during the week, [when partaking of] a thin cake [of bread], it is not necessary to slice it before reciting the blessing, since there will not be a delay in breaking off a piece after having recited the blessing.

ג מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַפַּת כְּשֶׁהִיא שְׁלֵמָה,לא,16 וְלֹא לְפָרְסָהּ תְּחִלָּה17 וְאַחַר כָּךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ אִם הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁלֵמָה. וְאַף אִם הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו פְּרוּסָה – מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ כָּךְ כְּשֶׁהִיא פְּרוּסָה גְּדוֹלָה, וְלֹא יִפְרֹס מִמֶּנָּה עַד לְאַחַר הַבְּרָכָה.לב

וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁתִּכְלֶה כָּל הַבְּרָכָה בְּעוֹד שֶׁהִיא שְׁלֵמָהלג אוֹ פְּרוּסָה גְּדוֹלָה.לד וְגַם אַחַר שֶׁגָּמַר הַבְּרָכָה – לֹא יִבְצַע עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה עֲנִיַּת "אָמֵן" מִפִּי רֹב הָעוֹנִיםלה,19 אִם יוֹצְאִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם בְּבִרְכָתוֹ,לו,18 לְפִי שֶׁגַּם עֲנִיַּת "אָמֵן" מִכְּלַל הַבְּרָכָה הִיא.לז,20 אֲבָל הַמִּעוּט הַמַּאֲרִיכִים יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין עֲלֵיהֶם, שֶׁכָּל הַמַּאֲרִיךְ בְּ"אָמֵן" יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא טוֹעֶה.לח,21

וְטוֹב לַחְתֹּךְ מְעַט בְּסַכִּין פְּרוּסַת הַבְּצִיעָה מִן הַלֶּחֶם קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּתְחִיל לְבָרֵךְ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיק בִּשְׁהִיַּת הַחִתּוּךְ בֵּין בְּרָכָה לַאֲכִילָה, וְאֵינוֹ מַפְרִידָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד אַחַר שֶׁתִּכְלֶה כָּל הַבְּרָכָה.לט וְאֵין הַלֶּחֶם חָשׁוּב כְּפָרוּס עַל יְדֵי חֲתָךְ מוּעָט כָּזֶה,22 אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם יֹאחַז בַּפְּרוּסָה יַעֲלֶה שְׁאָר הַכִּכָּר עִמָּהּ. וְלֹא יַחְתֹּךְ יוֹתֵר מִכַּשִּׁעוּר הַזֶּה, שֶׁאִם יַחְתֹּךְ יוֹתֵר, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם יֹאחַז בַּפְּרוּסָה לֹא יַעֲלֶה שְׁאָר הַכִּכָּר עִמָּהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם יֹאחַז בַּכִּכָּר תַּעֲלֶה הַפְּרוּסָה עִמָּהּ – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּפָרוּס לְכָל דָּבָר.מ

לְפִיכָךְ, בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב אֵין לַחְתֹּךְ כְּלָל בַּלֶּחֶם עַד לְאַחַר הַבְּרָכָה,23 כִּי שֶׁמָּא תִּשָּׁמֵט יָדוֹ וְיַחְתֹּךְ יוֹתֵר מִכַּשִּׁעוּר הַזֶּה, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁבָּצַע עַל פְּרוּסָה,מא וּבְשַׁבָּת צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה שָׁלֵם.מב,24 וְאֵין לָחֹשׁ לְהֶפְסֵק שְׁהִיַּת הַחִתּוּךְ בֵּין בְּרָכָה לַאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהַשְּׁהִיָּה בִּלְבַדָּהּ בְּלֹא דִּבּוּר – אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק,מג אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּחֹל עוֹשִׂים כֵּן עַל צַד הַיּוֹתֵר טוֹב. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם שָׁכַח וְחָתַךְ בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ בְּחֹל – לֹא הִפְסִיד הַלֶּחֶם מִשְׁנֶה,מד,25 שֶׁכָּל שֶׁאוֹחֵז בַּפְּרוּסָה וּשְׁאָר הַכִּכָּר עוֹלֶה עִמּוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשָׁלֵם לְכָל דָּבָר.מה

וְעוּגָה דַּקָּה גַּם בְּחֹל אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחְתֹּךְ בָּהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין שְׁהוּת בִּשְׁבִירָתָהּ אַחַר הַבְּרָכָה:מו

4 Among the guidelines of proper conduct is not to cut off a [very] small piece of bread, because then one appears miserly. Nor, should he cut off too large a slice, i.e., one larger than an egg, during the week, because then he appears like a glutton. On Shabbos, however, it is a mitzvah to cut off a large piece, sufficient to last throughout the entire meal.26 One need not be concerned about [appearing] gluttonous, as explained in sec. 274[:3].27

All the above applies when one eats alone. If one eats together with the members of his household or with guests, the optimum manner of performing the mitzvah is to cut a piece of bread large enough for him to distribute [a slice] to each of those who fulfill their obligation with his blessing, instead of [having to slice] the remainder of the loaf [for them].

With regard to the measure of the piece of bread over which the blessing HaMotzi is recited, whether for the one breaking bread or for all those at the table: Some authorities maintain28 that it should not be less than an olive-sized portion29 and that it should be eaten at one time.30 Others maintain that it is not necessary that it be the size of an olive, for even the smallest sized piece of bread requires having the blessing HaMotzi recitedover it.31 It is [therefore] sufficient [according to this opinion] that the piece over which the blessing HaMotzi is recited be half the size of an olive. [This measure is required] lest one appear stingy. This is the common practice.

ד מֵהִלְכוֹת דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ, שֶׁלֹּא לִבְצֹעַ פְּרוּסָה קְטַנָּה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּצַר עַיִן, וְלֹא גְּדוֹלָה יוֹתֵר מִכַּבֵּיצָהמז בְּחֹל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּרַעַבְתָּן. אֲבָל בְּשַׁבָּת מִצְוָה לִבְצֹעַ פְּרוּסָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁתַּסְפִּיק לוֹ לְכָל הַסְּעוּדָה,מח,26 וְאֵין לָחֹשׁ לְרַעַבְתָּנוּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"ד.מט,27

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל לְבַדּוֹ, אֲבָל אִם אוֹכֵל עִם בְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ אוֹ אוֹרְחִים – מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לִבְצֹעַ פְּרוּסָה גְּדוֹלָה כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁיִּתֵּן לְכָל הַמְסֻבִּים הַיּוֹצְאִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם בְּבִרְכָתוֹ מִפְּרוּסָה זוֹ שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עָלֶיהָ,נ וְלֹא מֵהַלֶּחֶם הַנִּשְׁאָר מִמֶּנָּה.נא

וְשִׁעוּר פְּרוּסַת "הַמּוֹצִיא", בֵּין לַבּוֹצֵעַ בֵּין לְכָל אֶחָד מֵהַמְסֻבִּין – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנב,28 שֶׁהוּא לֹא פָּחוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת,29 וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ כֻּלּוֹ בְּבַת אַחַת.נג,30 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנד שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ כַּזַּיִת, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא",נה,31 וְדַי שֶׁתְּהֵא פְּרוּסַת "הַמּוֹצִיא" כַּחֲצִי זַיִת,נו שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּצַר עַיִן. וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין:

5 All of the blessings are recited using the past tense and not the present,32 for [G‑d] has already brought forth from the earth the bread from which the person desires to benefit, and He has already created the fruit or the food [on which the blessing is being recited]. The blessings use the word borei [which could connote the present tense] and not the word shebara [which is obviously past tense], because Borei also connotes the past tense, as in the verse:33 “He Who created the heavens.” Therefore, the blessing is recited using the wording of the verse. Similarly, HaMotzi also connotes the past tense, as in the verse:34 “Who (borei) brought forth (HaMotzi) water for you from the flint stone.”

True, there is room for error and one might say that HaMotzi does not connote the past tense, as reflected by the verse:35 “Who is taking you out (hamotzi) from the burden of the Egyptians,” although He had not yet taken them [i.e., the Jewish people,] out at that time. Nevertheless, [this hypothesis can be refuted] for, it is possible to say that the intent of the verse is [a promise]: “When you leave Egypt, I will perform [miracles] for you so that you will know that I am G‑d your L‑rd Who brought you out….” Thus HaMotzi also connotes the past tense.

True, it would have been more appropriate [for the blessing] to read motzi lechem which is more clearly a usage of the past tense, as indicated by the verse:36 “The G‑d Who took them out (motzi’am) from Egypt” [uttered by Bilaam], since Bilaam’s prophecy was recited after the Jews left Egypt. Nevertheless, we use the word Ha­Motzi [and not motzi] in the blessing, lest one fuse the letters mem in the words haolam (“the earth”) and motzi.37For if a separation was not made between them, one [mem] would be swallowed.

[True, the blessing does include] the words lechem min in which [two mems] are joined together. That is done, however, because [the blessing is using] the wording of the verse:38 “You make grass grow for cattle… to produce bread from (lechem min) the earth.” For all the blessings and prayers use the wording of Scripture whenever possible.39 One must be careful to pause slightly between the words lechem and min and, similarly, in any other instance where the same letters appear consecutively in blessings.

ה כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת כֻּלָּן מְבָרְכִים אוֹתָן בִּלְשׁוֹן עָבָר, וְלֹא בִּלְשׁוֹן הֹוֶה,נז,32 שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר הוֹצִיא מִן הָאָרֶץ לֶחֶם זֶה שֶׁהוּא בָּא לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ,נח וּכְבָר בָּרָא פְּרִי זֶה אוֹ מָזוֹן זֶה. וּמַה שֶּׁמְּבָרְכִין "בּוֹרֵא" וְלֹא "שֶׁבָּרָא",נט הוּא, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁ"בּוֹרֵא" הוּא מַשְׁמַע גַּם כֵּן לְשׁוֹן עָבָר,ס כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּבסא,33 "בּוֹרֵא הַשָּׁמַיִם", לָכֵן מְבָרְכִין בִּלְשׁוֹן הַפָּסוּק.סב וְכֵן "הַמּוֹצִיא" מַשְׁמַע גַּם כֵּן לְשׁוֹן עָבָר,סג כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּבסד,34 "הַמּוֹצִיא לְךָ מַיִם מִצּוּר הַחַלָּמִישׁ".

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מָקוֹם לִטְעוֹת וְלוֹמַר שֶׁ"הַמּוֹצִיא" אֵינוֹ מוֹרֶה לָשׁוֹן עָבָר,סה כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּבסו,35 "הַמּוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מִתַּחַת סִבְלוֹת מִצְרָיִם", וַעֲדַיִן לֹא הוֹצִיאָם אָז.סז וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹמַר שֶׁכַּוָּנַת הַכָּתוּב: שֶׁכְּשֶׁתֵּצְאוּ אֶעֱשֶׂה לָכֶם שֶׁתֵּדְעוּ "כִּי אֲנִי ה' אֱלֹהֵיכֶם" הוּא "הַמּוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם", וּלְשׁוֹן עָבָר הוּא,סח מִכָּל מָקוֹם, הָיָה רָאוּי יוֹתֵר לוֹמַר "מוֹצִיא לֶחֶם", שֶׁהוּא לָשׁוֹן מְבֹרָר עַל הֶעָבָר,סט כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּבע,36 "אֵל מוֹצִיאָם מִמִּצְרָיִם", וּכְשֶׁנֶּאֶמְרָה פָּרָשַׁת בִּלְעָם כְּבָר יָצְאוּעא – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מְבָרְכִין "הַמּוֹצִיא",עב כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא לְעָרֵב הָאוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁהֵם מֵ"ם שֶׁל "הָעוֹלָם" וּמֵ"ם שֶׁל "מוֹצִיא",עג,37 שֶׁאִם לֹא יִתְּנוּ רֶוַח בֵּינֵיהֶם – תִּבָּלַע אַחַת מֵהֶן.עד

וּמַה שֶּׁאוֹמְרִים "לֶחֶם מִן" אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ עִרְבּוּב אוֹתִיּוֹת, הוּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן הַפָּסוּק:עה,38 "מַצְמִיחַ חָצִיר לַבְּהֵמָה וְגוֹ' לְהוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ",עו שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת וְהַתְּפִלּוֹת תָּפְשׂוּ לְשׁוֹן הַכָּתוּב בְּכָל מַה דְּאֶפְשָׁר.39 וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לִתֵּן רֶוַח בֵּין "לֶחֶם" וּבֵין "מִן",עז וְכֵן בֵּין שְׁאָר ב' אוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁשָּׁווֹת בַּבְּרָכוֹת:עח

6 The blessing HaMotzi should not be recited before one holds the bread in his hand, just as the blessing for the performance of other mitzvos is recited directly before their observance, i.e., when the mitzvah is already at hand to perform and not beforehand, as explained in sec. 25[:17].40 (If he recited the blessing and then picked up the bread, he is not required to repeat the blessing. If, however, [the bread was not in front of him when] he recited the blessing, but was only brought afterward, he must recite the blessing again, as stated in sec. 206[:9].)41

ו אֵין לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְפֹּס הַלֶּחֶם בְּיָדוֹ,עט כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הַמִּצְוֹת אֶלָּא סָמוּךְ לַעֲשִׂיָּתָן,פ כְּשֶׁהַמִּצְוָה מְזֻמֶּנֶת בְּיָדוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּפא וְלֹא קֹדֶם לָכֵן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן כ"הפב,40 (וְאִם בֵּרַךְ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נְטָלוֹ בְּיָדוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ. אֲבָל אִם בֵּרַךְ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֱבִיאוּהוּ לְפָנָיו – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"ו):פג,41

7 One must hold the bread in his right hand [when reciting the blessing]. For whenever one recites a blessing over an entity, he must hold it in his right hand at that time.42 It is preferable that he place both hands on the bread, for his ten fingers correspond to the ten mitzvos involved in [the production of] bread: a) [the prohibition]:43 “Do not plow with an ox and a donkey”; b) [the prohibition against] sowing mixed species;44 c) [the mitzvah to leave] leket;45 d) [the prohibition against taking] shichechah;46 e) [the mitzvah to leave] peah;47 f) [the mitzvah of bringing] first fruits;48 g) [the mitzvah of] separating terumos;49 h) [the mitzvah of separating] the first tithe;50 i) [the mitzvah of separating] the second tithe;51 and j) [the mitzvah of separating] challah.52

Consequently, there are ten words in the blessing HaMotzi, ten words in the verse: “You make grass grow for cattle…,53 ten words in the verse:54 “The eyes of all look expectantly,...” and ten words in the verse:55 “A land of wheat…”

ז צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּתְפֹּס הַלֶּחֶם בִּימִינוֹ, שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עָלָיו – צָרִיךְ לֶאֱחֹז בְּיָמִין בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּרָכָה.פד,42 וְטוֹב שֶׁיִּתֵּן עָלָיו שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן י' אֶצְבָּעוֹת כְּנֶגֶד י' מִצְוֹת הַתְּלוּיוֹת בַּפַּת:פה "לֹא תַחֲרֹשׁ בְּשׁוֹר וּבַחֲמֹר",43 זְרִיעַת כִּלְאַיִם,44 לֶקֶט45 שִׁכְחָה46 וּפֵאָה,47 בִּכּוּרִים,48 תְּרוּמוֹת,פו,49 מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן50 וְשֵׁנִי,51 וְחַלָּה.52 וּלְכָךְ יֵשׁ י' תֵּבוֹת בְּבִרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא",פז וְי' תֵּבוֹת בַּפָּסוּק:פח,53 "מַצְמִיחַ חָצִיר לַבְּהֵמָה", וְי' תֵּבוֹת בַּפָּסוּק:פט,54 "עֵינֵי כֹל אֵלֶיךָ יְשַׂבֵּרוּ", וְי' תֵּבוֹת בַּפָּסוּקצ,55 "אֶרֶץ חִטָּה" כוּ':

8 A person should not begin reciting the blessing until salt or relish — to season the slice of bread over which the blessing is recited — is brought to him,56 so that the bread will be eaten with flavor. [This is an expression of] respect for the blessing. [This requirement applies] even if there will be a delay until [these items] are brought to him.

If many people are eating together, one must wait until [salt or relish] is brought before each one,57 for they fulfill their obligation with the blessing [that the head of the family] recites and they must taste the bread directly after his blessing,58 as will be explained.59

If the bread is made from fine flour, it is flavored with spices or with salt as our bread is, or the person desires to eat plain bread,he need not wait for [salt or relish]. If, however, he desires to wait, he has license to do so. He need not be concerned with the interruption made between washing and reciting the blessing HaMotzi, since [he is waiting for something] necessary for the meal,60 even if it is not necessary for the blessing HaMotzi.

Nevertheless, it is customary to place salt on the table [before the recitation of the blessing HaMotzi, even when the bread does not require it. The rationale is that] the table is comparable to the altar [of the Beis HaMikdash]61 and our food, to a sacrifice, and it is written:62 “On all your sacrifices offer salt.” [Moreover,] when Jews sit at the table and wait for each other to wash their hands, they are [idle], without mitzvos. [Hence,] the Satan makes accusations against them and the “covenant of salt”63 protects them. Therefore, it is a mitzvah to place it on the table even if one does not partake of it. According to Kabbalah, one should dip the piece of bread [over which the blessing HaMotzi was recited] in salt three times.64

Since the table is comparable to the altar, it is proper not to kill a louse on it. (There is no concern, however, about [removing] a louse and casting it on a table. For the holiness of a synagogue is more severe [than the holiness of a table], as evidenced by the prohibition against eating in it, and yet, it is permitted to cast a louse in a synagogue except during the time of the Shemoneh Esreh prayer, as stated in sec. 97[:3].

ח לֹא יַתְחִיל לְבָרֵךְ עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו מֶלַח אוֹ לִפְתָּןצא לְלַפֵּת בּוֹ פְּרוּסָה שֶׁל בְּרָכָה,צב,56 כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא נֶאֱכֶלֶת בְּטַעַם מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַבְּרָכָה,צג וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יִתְאַחֵר הַדָּבָר עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ. וְאִם הַמְסֻבִּין רַבִּים – צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לִפְנֵי כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד,צד,57 שֶׁהֵם יוֹצְאִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם בְּבִרְכָתוֹ, וּצְרִיכִים לִטְעֹם מִיָּד אַחַר בִּרְכָתוֹ,58 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.צה,59

וְאִם הִיא פַּת נְקִיָּה,צו אוֹ מְתֻבֶּלֶת בְּתַבְלִין אוֹ בְּמֶלַח כְּעֵין שֶׁלָּנוּ,צז אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לֶאֱכֹל פַּת חֲרֵבָהצח – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין. וְאִם רוֹצֶה לְהַמְתִּין – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ,צט וְאֵין לָחֹשׁ לְהֶפְסֵק בֵּין נְטִילָה לְ"הַמּוֹצִיא", כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַסְּעוּדָה60 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא".ק

מִכָּל מָקוֹם, נָהֲגוּ לְהַנִּיחַ מֶלַח עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן,קא לְפִי שֶׁהַשֻּׁלְחָן דּוֹמֶה לְמִזְבֵּחַקב,61 וְהָאֲכִילָה כְּקָרְבָּן, וְנֶאֱמַרקג,62 "עַל כָּל קָרְבָּנְךָ תַּקְרִיב מֶלַח". וּכְשֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל יוֹשְׁבִים עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן וּמַמְתִּינִים זֶה עַל זֶה עַד שֶׁיִּטְּלוּ יְדֵיהֶם וְהֵם בְּלֹא מִצְוֹת – הַשָּׂטָן מְקַטְרֵג עֲלֵיהֶם, וּ"בְרִית מֶלַח"63 מֵגֵן עֲלֵיהֶם,קד לָכֵן מִצְוָה לְהַנִּיחוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֲפִלּוּ לֹא יֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ.קה וְעַל פִּי הַקַּבָּלָהקו יֵשׁ לִטְבֹּל פְּרוּסַת הַבְּצִיעָה בַּמֶּלַחקז ג' פְּעָמִים.קח,64

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהַשֻּׁלְחָן דּוֹמֶה לְמִזְבֵּחַ – טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לַהֲרֹג עָלָיו כִּנָּהקט (אֲבָל לִזְרֹק עָלָיו כִּנָּה אֵין לָחֹשׁ, שֶׁהֲרֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁקְּדֻשָּׁתוֹ חֲמוּרָה שֶׁאָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל בּוֹ,קי וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן יָכוֹל לִזְרֹק בּוֹ כִּנָּה שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הַתְּפִלָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁ[נִּ]תְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן צ"ז):קיא

9 After reciting the blessing HaMotzi, one should immediately partake [of the bread].65 He should not speak between the blessing and eating. If one does speak, he must recite the blessing again, unless his words concern the matter over which he recited the blessing, e.g., “bring salt” or “bring relish.” Even though our bread does not require salt,66 nevertheless, since the person desires to eat [his bread] dipped in salt, these words are considered as concerning the meal. This is also true if he says, “Give so-and-so to eat.”

Even if one says, “Give food to the animal,” it is considered as necessary for the meal; it is not an interruption. [The rationale is] that it is forbidden to eat before one feeds his animal, as implied by [the order of] the verse:67 “I will provide grass in your fields for your cattle,” and only afterwards, “and you shall eat and be satisfied.” When it comes to drinking, by contrast, a person is given precedence [over his animals], as indicated by Rivkah’s statement:68 “Drink, and I will also draw [water] for your camels.”69 Similarly, there is an authority who allows a person to partake of a [light] snack that does not satiate [him] before giving food to his animal. Nevertheless, since the statement, [“Give food to the animals,”] is necessary for the meal, even though it is not necessary for eating the piece of bread over which the blessing HaMotzi was recited,70 it is not considered an interruption, after the fact.

As an initial preference, however, it is forbidden to speak at this time, even concerning something necessary for the piece of bread over which the blessing HaMotzi was recited. [This prohibition also applies] while one is chewing the bread, until he swallows it. If, while chewing, one speaks about a matter that does not concern the necessities of the meal, it is possible that he is required to recite the blessing HaMotzi again. For the blessing was ordained solely [in appreciation of food that is] swallowed, not merely chewed. For one who chews [food] but does not swallow it is not required to recite a blessing, as stated in sec. 210.71

[After reciting the blessing,] one must also be careful not to walk from one place to another until he swallows [the bread], for walking from one place to another is considered an interruption, unless it is necessary to do so for the sake of eating. In such an instance, if it is impossible to do otherwise, this is permissible even as an initial preference; for example, one could not recite a blessing in the place where he was intending to eat, because that place was not clean.72 Since it is impossible for him to eat in another manner,73 [moving] is considered as acting after the fact. [The above leniency is granted,] provided both places are in one building, as stated in sec. 178[:1].74

ט וְאַחַר הַבְּרָכָה יֹאכַל מִיָּד,65 וְלֹא יָשִׂיחַ בֵּין בְּרָכָה לַאֲכִילָה. וְאִם שָׂח – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ,קיב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה הַשִּׂיחָה בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁהֵם מֵעִנְיְנֵי הַדָּבָר שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עָלָיו,56 כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר: הָבִיאוּ מֶלַח אוֹ לִפְתָּן.קיג וַאֲפִלּוּ פַּת שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ מֶלַח,קיד,66 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא חָפֵץ לֶאֱכֹל עַל יְדֵי טִבּוּל בְּמֶלַח – הֲרֵי זֶה מֵעִנְיְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה.קטו וְכֵן אִם אָמַר: תְּנוּ לִפְלוֹנִי לֶאֱכֹל.קטז

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אָמַר: תְּנוּ מַאֲכָל לַבְּהֵמָהקיז – צֹרֶךְ הַסְּעוּדָה הוּא וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב הֶפְסֵק, לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתֵּן לִבְהֶמְתּוֹ,56 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקיח,67 "וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ", וְאַחַר כָּךְ: "וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ".קיט אֲבָל לִשְׁתּוֹת – אָדָם קוֹדֵם,קכ כְּמוֹ שֶׁמָּצִינוּ בְּרִבְקָה שֶׁאָמְרָה:קכא,68 "שְׁתֵה וְגַם גְּמַלֶּיךָ אַשְׁקֶה".69 וְכֵן אֲכִילַת עֲרַאי וְאֵין בָּהּ כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה – יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּתִּירקכב קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתֵּן לִבְהֶמְתּוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא צֹרֶךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צֹרֶךְ אֲכִילַת פְּרוּסָה שֶׁל בְּרָכָה70 – אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב הֶפְסֵקקכג בְּדִיעֲבַד.

אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לְהָשִׂיחַ אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ פְּרוּסָה שֶׁל בְּרָכָה,קכד וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹדוֹ לוֹעֵס, עַד שֶׁיִּבְלַע.קכה וְאִם שָׂח בְּעוֹדוֹ לוֹעֵס בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵעִנְיַן צָרְכֵי הַסְּעוּדָה – אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ,קכו שֶׁהֲרֵי הַבְּרָכָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא עַל הַבְּלִיעָה וְלֹא עַל הַלְּעִיסָה, שֶׁהַלּוֹעֵס וְאֵינוֹ בּוֹלֵעַ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר סִימָן ר"י.קכז,71

וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר גַּם כֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לֵילֵךְ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם עַד שֶׁיִּבְלַע, כִּי הֲלִיכָה מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק.קכח אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ הָאֲכִילָה, שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְבָרֵךְ בִּמְקוֹם אֲכִילָתוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקִי,קכט,72 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר73 – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּדִיעֲבַד. וְהוּא שֶׁב' הַמְּקוֹמוֹת הֵם בְּבַיִת אֶחָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ח:קל,74

10 Even after the person who recited the blessing partook [of bread], if one of the people at the table [who intended to fulfill his obligation by listening to that person’s blessing] spoke about a matter that did not concern the meal, the speaker must recite the blessing again himself. For his listening to the blessing from the person who recites it is not of greater [halachic]power than that person’s recitation of the blessing itself. [Just as one who] speaks between the recitation of the blessing and eating would have to recite the blessing again, because he made an interruption between the two activities, so too, one who interrupted between listening [to the blessing] and eating [must recite the blessing again], for listening is equivalent to reciting the blessing.75

Similarly, if many people perform a mitzvah and one person recites the blessing on behalf of them all, if one of the listeners made an interruption between listening to the blessing and performing the mitzvah, he must recite the blessing again himself [before performing the mitzvah. The fact that] the person who recited the blessing performed the mitzvah directly after his blessing is of no consequence with regard to the person who made the interruption.

Nevertheless, when one of the people partaking of the meal was washing his hands when the person breaking bread recited the blessing, he fulfills his obligation if he listened to the blessing HaMotzi [with the intent of fulfilling his obligation] and then recited the blessing Al netilas yadayim. He need not recite the blessing HaMotzi again, for the blessing Al netilas yadayim is not considered an interruption between the blessing HaMotzi and eating, because it is necessary for the meal.76

י וַאֲפִלּוּ אַחַר שֶׁטָּעַם הַמְבָרֵךְ, אִם שָׂח אֶחָד מֵהַמְסֻבִּין קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְעֹם – צָרִיךְ הַמֵּשִׂיחַ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ, אִם שָׂח בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵעִנְיַן צָרְכֵי סְעוּדָה,קלא,19 כִּי לֹא תְּהֵא שְׁמִיעָתוֹ הַבְּרָכָה מֵהַמְבָרֵךְ19 גְּדוֹלָה מֵהַמְבָרֵךְ עַצְמוֹ וְהָיָה מֵשִׂיחַ בֵּין בְּרָכָה לַאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהָיָה צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהִפְסִיק בֵּין בְּרָכָה לַאֲכִילָה, וְאַף זֶה הִפְסִיק בֵּין שְׁמִיעָה לַאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהַשּׁוֹמֵעַ כִּמְבָרֵךְ.קלב,75

וְכֵן רַבִּים שֶׁעוֹשִׂים מִצְוָה אַחַת וְאֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְכֻלָּם,קלג אִם הִפְסִיק אֶחָד מֵהֶם בֵּין שְׁמִיעַת הַבְּרָכָה לַעֲשִׂיַּת הַמִּצְוָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמְבָרֵךְ כְּבָר עָשָׂה הַמִּצְוָה תֵּכֶף לְבִרְכָתוֹ – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל לָזֶה שֶׁהִפְסִיק בֵּינְתַיִם, וְצָרִיךְ הוּא לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ.קלד

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַבּוֹצֵעַ הָיָה מְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" הָיָה אֶחָד מֵהַמְסֻבִּין נוֹטֵל יָדָיו וְכִוֵּן לְבִרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִגֵּב יָדָיו וּבֵרַךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" – יוֹצֵא בְּבִרְכַּת הַבּוֹצֵעַ, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא", שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק בֵּין "הַמּוֹצִיא" לַאֲכִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא צֹרֶךְ הַסְּעוּדָה:קלה,76

11 [The following laws apply when a person] forgot and ate without reciting the blessing HaMotzi:If he remembers in the midst of the meal, he should recite the blessing [HaMotzi] on [the bread] he will eat from this time onward. If he did not remember until after he concluded his meal, he should not recite a blessing on what he ate previously.77 For the blessings recited over deriving satisfaction (Birchos HaNehenin) resemble the blessings recited for the performance of mitzvos (Birchos HaMitzvos), which should be recited only before the performance of the mitzvah and not afterwards, unless it is a mitzvah for which the blessing may not be recited before its performance, as explained in sec. 158[:16].78

There is an authority who makes a distinction between Birchos HaNehenin and Birchos HaMitzvos, stating that one may recite a blessing [for Birchos HaNehenin, such as for food] after [eating] if he did not recite a blessing beforehand. Although fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion, it is proper to give weight to the second opinion with regard to Birchos HaNehenin, for it is possible to eat a little more and recite a blessing beforehand, thereby satisfying both views.

יא שָׁכַח וְאָכַל וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא", אִם נִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – מְבָרֵךְ עַל מַה שֶּׁיֹּאכַל מֵעַתָּה. וְאִם לֹא נִזְכַּר עַד שֶׁגָּמַר סְעוּדָתוֹ – אֵין מְבָרֵךְ עַל מַה שֶּׁאָכַל,קלו,77 שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין דּוֹמָה לְבִרְכַּת הַמִּצְוֹת, שֶׁאֵין מְבָרְכִים אֶלָּא עוֹבֵר לַעֲשִׂיָּתָן וְלֹא אַחַר כָּךְ,קלז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִיא מִצְוָה שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ עוֹבֵר לַעֲשִׂיָּתָן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קנ"ח.קלח,78

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁחִלֵּקקלט בֵּין בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין לְבֵין בִּרְכַּת הַמִּצְוֹת, שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ אַחַר כָּךְ אִם לֹא בֵּרַךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,קמ טוֹב לָחֹשׁ לִדְבָרָיו בְּבִרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין, שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל עוֹד מְעַט וִיבָרֵךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה, וְיוֹצֵא לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל:קמא

12 If a person is unsure whether he recited the blessing HaMotzi or not, he should not recite the blessing again. [The rationale is that] the blessing HaMotzi is of Rabbinic origin and whenever there is a doubt regarding a Rabbinic ordinance, the lenient approach should be followed. Should he want to be stringent with himself],79 his only alternative is to cease eating. He may not recite the blessing [and eat some more bread], so as not to raise the possibility of reciting a blessing in vain.80

יב אִם הוּא מְסֻפָּק אִם בֵּרַךְ בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" אִם לָאו – אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וּמְבָרֵךְ,קמב כִּי בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםקמג וּסְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל. וְאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְהַחְמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל,קמד,79 אֲבָל לֹא לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁלֹּא לִכָּנֵס לִסְפֵק בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה:קמה,80

13 If instead of reciting the blessing HaMotzi [before the meal], a person recited the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro (“…that everything was created by His word”)81 or B’rich Rachmana Malka (d’alma)82 Marei d’hai pita (“Blessed is the Merciful One, King of the world, Master of this bread”),83 he fulfills his obligation.84 [This ruling applies] even if he did not mention bread at all in the blessing, but merely said …Marei d’hai (“…Master of this”) while the bread was still placed before him. He is not considered as having deviated from the wording ordained by our Sages,85 because he recited a blessing over the bread that he ate and mentioned G‑d’s name and His Sovereignty in his blessing. For Rachmana is the name of G‑d used in Babylon, (although the Targum [to the Tanach]86 uses that term as meaning “the Merciful One”).

יג אִם בִּמְקוֹם בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" בֵּרַךְ "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ",קמו,81 אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר "בְּרִיךְ רַחֲמָנָא מַלְכָּאקמז (דְּעָלְמָאקמח,82) מָרֵיהּ דְּהַאי פִּתָּא",83 וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִזְכִּיר שֵׁם הַפַּת כְּלָל, שֶׁאָמַר "מָרֵיהּ דְּהַאי",קמט וְהָיְתָה הַפַּת מֻנַּחַת לְפָנָיו – יָצָא,84 וְאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא "מְשַׁנֶּה מִמַּטְבֵּעַ שֶׁטָּבְעוּ חֲכָמִים",קנ,85 כֵּיוָן שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הַפַּת שֶׁאוֹכֵל וְהִזְכִּיר שֵׁם וּמַלְכוּת בְּבִרְכָתוֹ, כִּי "רַחֲמָנָא" הוּא שֵׁם הקנא בְּבָבֶל (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבַּתַּרְגּוּםקנב,86 הוּא כִּנּוּי שֶׁל "רַחוּם"):קנג

14 When many people come together to share a meal, one person should recite the blessing HaMotzi on behalf of all of them.87 The others should focus their attention, listen and respond Amen. The one reciting the blessing should also focus his intent on the Amen that they will respond.88

Even if there are only two people — in which instance, they would recite the Grace after Meals individually89 — one of them should recite the blessing HaMotzi [and the other should fulfill his obligation by listening. The reason for the distinction between HaMotzi and Grace:] At the end of the meal, [the participants] are parting ways. Therefore, they cannot be joined together in one blessing except through a zimun which involves and [joins together] three individuals. At the beginning of the meal, by contrast, they are coming together and focusing their intent on eating as one unit.90

יד רַבִּים שֶׁנִּתְוַעֲדוּ לֶאֱכֹל – אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְכֻלָּם,קנד,87 וְהַשְּׁאָר יְכַוְּנוּ לִבָּם לִשְׁמֹעַ וְיַעֲנוּ "אָמֵן", וְהַמְבָרֵךְ יְכַוֵּן לָ"אָמֵן" שֶׁאוֹמְרִים.קנה,88 וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם שְׁנַיִם לְבַד, שֶׁבְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כָּל אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹקנו,89 – אֶחָד מֵהֶם מְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא",קנז לְפִי שֶׁבְּסוֹף הַסְּעוּדָה הֵם מִתְפָּרְדִים זֶה מִזֶּה, לְפִיכָךְ אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין לִבְרָכָה אַחַת אֶלָּא בְּזִמּוּן שְׁלֹשָׁה, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּתְחִלַּת הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁהֵם מִתְחַבְּרִים וְקוֹבְעִים עַצְמָן לֶאֱכֹל יַחַד:קנח,90

15 When does the above apply? When they [all] reclined on couches; this indicated that they established a common setting.91 For this was the custom [in the Talmudicera], when people would come together to eat as a single group, each of them would recline on his own couch. If they were guests at someone’s house,92 they would not establish a common setting unless they would recline.93 For it was the practice to place the food on small tables that were situated before each individual. The people would not know whether they would be establishing a common setting until they all reclined together. If, however, they would sit on couches together without reclining, it was not indicative that they were establishing a common setting and every person would recite a blessing individually.

When, by contrast, the head of a household [ate] together with the members of his household, even if they sat together without reclining, they were considered as having established a common setting, since all members of a person’s household are drawn after him. One individual would recite the blessing for all of them.

Even when members of a group who were not members of the same household said: “Let us eat here” or “[Let us eat] in this-and-this place,” since they designated a [specific] place where they would eat, they are considered to have established a common setting, even though they did not recline. [Our Sages’] statement that reclining is required applies only when the group sat down unexpectedly, without first saying that they intended to eat together in this place.

In the present era, when we are not accustomed [to eat] while reclining, our sitting at one table94 or without a table, around one tablecloth95 is considered as establishing a common setting. [This holds true] even for a group [that does not come from one household, for in our time, sitting down together is the same] as reclining together was in the [Talmudic] era. If, however, the people do not sit at one table or around one tablecloth, they are not considered as having established a common setting, even though a place was prepared for [all the individuals. This ruling applies] even to the head of a household and his household.

A waiter fulfills his obligation by listening to the blessing recited by the one who breaks bread. Even though he does not have a fixed place to sit, but rather stands and serves, eating without a fixed place [he, too, is considered as sharing in the meal]. Although he continuously comes and goes in the middle of his eating, [he fulfills his obligation by listening to the blessing,] for this is his ordinary routine. He participates in a meal in this manner — standing, serving, and eating.96

טו בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהֵסֵבוּ עַל הַמִּטּוֹתקנט שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ קֶבַע,91 שֶׁכֵּן הָיָה מִנְהָגָם כְּשֶׁמִּתְחַבְּרִים לֶאֱכֹל בַּחֲבוּרָה אַחַת הָיָה כָּל אֶחָד מֵסֵב עַל מִטָּתוֹ, וְלֹא הָיָה קוֹבֵעַ סְעוּדָה בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּהקס אִם הֵם אוֹרְחִים הַסּוֹעֲדִים אֵצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת,קסא,92 שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לָתֵת לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָנוֹת הַקְּטַנִּים אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד, וְאֵינָם יוֹדְעִים קְבִיעוּתָם עַד שֶׁהֵסֵבוּ יַחַד.93 אֲבָל אִם יוֹשְׁבִין בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה עַל הַמִּטּוֹת – עֲדַיִן אֵינָן קְבוּעִים יַחַד,קסב וְכָל אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ.

אֲבָל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת עִם בְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּשְׁבוּ בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה – הֲרֵי הֵם קְבוּעִים בְּיַחַד,קסג לְפִי שֶׁכָּל בְּנֵי הַבַּיִת נִגְרָרִים אַחַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת,קסד וְאֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְכֻלָּם.

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה שֶׁאֵינָם בַּעַל הַבַּיִת עִם בְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ, אִם אָמְרוּ: נֹאכַל כָּאן אוֹ בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי,קסה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵכִינוּ מָקוֹם לַאֲכִילָתָם – הֲרֵי נִקְבְּעוּ יַחַד אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הֵסֵבוּ, וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁצְּרִיכִין הֲסִבָּה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיָּשְׁבוּ פִּתְאוֹם בְּלִי שׁוּם אֲמִירָה תְּחִלָּה לֶאֱכֹל יַחַד בְּמָקוֹם זֶה.קסו

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ רְגִילִין בַּהֲסִבָּה, הֲרֵי יְשִׁיבָתֵנוּ בְּשֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד,קסז,94 אוֹ בְּלֹא שֻׁלְחָן בְּמַפָּה אַחַתקסח,95 – חֲשׁוּבָה קְבִיעוּת אֲפִלּוּ לִבְנֵי חֲבוּרָה, כְּמוֹ הֲסִבָּה בִּימֵיהֶם.קסט אֲבָל אִם אֵינָם יוֹשְׁבִין עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד אוֹ מַפָּה אַחַת – אֵינָן קְבוּעִים יַחַד, אֲפִלּוּ הֵכִינוּ מָקוֹם לַאֲכִילָתָם, וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת עִם בְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ.קע

וְהַשַּׁמָּשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָבוּעַ בִּישִׁיבָה אֵצֶל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, אֶלָּא עוֹמֵד וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ וְאוֹכֵל בְּלֹא קֶבַע, שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ וּבָא תָּמִיד בְּאֶמְצַע אֲכִילָתוֹ – יוֹצֵא בְּבִרְכַּת הַבּוֹצֵעַ,קעא לְפִי שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ בְּכָךְ, וְזוֹ הִיא קְבִיעוּתוֹ, לַעֲמוֹד לְשָׁרֵת וְלֶאֱכֹל:קעב,96

16 When does the statement that [for a group to be considered as sharing a meal], they must eat at one table or around one tablecloth, apply? [When they eat] in a building. In a field, by contrast, it is sufficient to designate a place [for the meal], saying: “Let us eat here” or “[let us eat] in such-and-such a place.” Even if each of them was riding on his own animal and ate from his own loaf of bread, since they [paused their journey and] stopped in one place, they are considered to have established a common setting, even when they did not descend from their animals.

If, however, they were proceeding [on their way], eating [as they went], they are not considered to have established a common setting, even though they said: “Let us eat together.” [This ruling applies] even if they were walking [together] on foot and eating from one loaf of bread. If, however, they were traveling together in a single boat and said: “Let us eat,” this statement causes it to be considered as if they have established a common setting, even if each of them ate from his own loaf of bread and even if they were not eating around a single tablecloth.

If they were riding in a wagon, it is unclear whether this is considered comparable to riding on an animal, for a wagon is also progressing, in contrast to a ship which is not considered as progressing [on its own]. It is only the water below that is moving; it is at rest on that water.97 Alternatively, [it could be argued] that since they are sitting in one wagon, they are considered as joined together [even if they do not explicitly say: “Let us eat”]. In contrast, when they are riding, even though they are sitting, each one of them is riding independently.

If people were eating in a field while scattered and separate, even if they were all eating from the same loaf of bread at the same time, since they did not fix a particular place to sit down and eat together, but instead, ate in scattered places, they are not joined into a single group.

טז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד אוֹ מַפָּה אַחַתקעג? בַּבַּיִת, אֲבָל בַּשָּׂדֶה דַּי בַּהֲכָנַת מָקוֹם, שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ: נֹאכַל כָּאן אוֹ בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי.קעד,93 וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כָּל אֶחָד רוֹכֵב עַל בְּהֶמְתּוֹ וְאוֹכֵל מִכִּכָּרוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָמְדוּ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד – נִקְבְּעוּ יַחַד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָרְדוּ מֵהַבְּהֵמוֹת.קעה

אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ הוֹלְכִין וְאוֹכְלִים – לֹא נִקְבְּעוּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמְרוּ: נֹאכַל יַחַד,קעו וַאֲפִלּוּ מְהַלְּכִין בְּרַגְלֵיהֶם וְאוֹכְלִים מִכִּכָּר אֶחָד. אֲבָל אִם הוֹלְכִים בִּסְפִינָה אַחַת וְאָמְרוּ: נֹאכַל – נִקְבְּעוּ בַּאֲמִירָה זוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ כָּל אֶחָד אוֹכֵל מִכִּכָּרוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא עַל מַפָּה אַחַת.

אֲבָל אִם יוֹשְׁבִים בַּעֲגָלָה – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּקקעז אִם דִּינָם כְּרוֹכְבִים עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֵמָה, שֶׁהָעֲגָלָה גַּם כֵּן מְהַלֶּכֶת, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּסְפִינָה שֶׁהִיא אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה מְהַלֶּכֶת, אֶלָּא הַמַּיִם הוֹלְכִים תַּחְתֶּיהָ וְהִיא נָחָה לְעוֹלָם עַל אוֹתָם הַמַּיִם.קעח,97 אוֹ אֶפְשָׁר: כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם יוֹשְׁבִים בַּעֲגָלָה אַחַת – מִצְטָרְפִין, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּרוֹכְבִים, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהֵם יוֹשְׁבִים – הֲרֵי כָּל אֶחָד הוּא רוֹכֵב בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.

וְאִם הָיוּ אוֹכְלִים בַּשָּׂדֶה מְפֻזָּרִים וּמְפֹרָדִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹכְלִין כֻּלָּם בְּשָׁעָה אַחַת וּמִכִּכָּר אֶחָד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא קָבְעוּ מָקוֹם וְאוֹכְלִין מְפֻזָּרִין – אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין:קעט

17 Whenever people are not joined together because they did not establish a common setting and each one of them is [required to] recite the blessing [HaMotzi] individually, if one person recited the blessing on behalf of all of them — although he intended to fulfill the obligation incumbent on them and they intended to fulfill their obligation [with his blessing] — they do not fulfill their obligation. [The rationale is that] the blessings recited over receiving benefit (Birchos HaNehenin) do not resemble the blessings recited over the mitzvos (Birchos HaMitzvos).98 In the latter instance, anyone who is obligated in the mitzvah can fulfill the other person’s obligation [for the recitation of the blessing].99 With regard to Birchos HaNehenin, by contrast, it is appropriate for the person who derived the benefit to recite the blessing. Another person cannot fulfill a person’s obligation to recite a blessing unless they established a common setting to partake of a food or beverage over which it is common practice to establish a common setting, e.g., bread or wine. [In that instance,] the common setting joins them together, causing them to be considered as a single entity, [requiring only] one blessing for all.100

[According to this view,] should they sit down [to eat together] but their sitting down is not effective [in creating a common setting where one person’s blessing can fulfill the other’s obligation as an initial preference], if one person recited a blessing on behalf of everyone, they all fulfill their obligation after the fact, as explained in sec. 193[:1]101 and sec. 213[:2].102 To cite [two] examples [of this ruling]: the recitation of the Grace after Meals when less than three [people] participate in the meal and the blessing recited after fruit.

Other authorities maintain that in all situations,103 [the listeners] fulfill their obligation after the fact. Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion.

יז כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִצְטָרְפִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נִקְבְּעוּ יַחַד וְכָל אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ, אִם בֵּרַךְ אֶחָד לְכֻלָּם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהוֹצִיאָם יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם וְהֵם נִתְכַּוְּנוּ לָצֵאת – לֹא יָצְאוּ,קפ שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין אֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לְבִרְכַּת הַמִּצְוֹתקפא,98 שֶׁכָּל הַמְּחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָר מוֹצִיא חֲבֵרוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,קפב,99 אֲבָל בְּבִרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין מִי שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה הוּא רָאוּי שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ, וְאֵין אֶחָד פּוֹטֵר חֲבֵרוֹ בְּבִרְכָתוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִקְבְּעוּ יַחַד עַל דָּבָר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִקְבֹּעַ עָלָיו, כְּגוֹן פַּת וְיַיִן, שֶׁקְּבִיעוּתָם מְצָרַפְתָּן לִהְיוֹתָם נֶחְשָׁבִים כְּגוּף אֶחָד לִבְרָכָה אַחַת לְכֻלָּם.קפג,100

אֲבָל אִם נִקְבְּעוּ יַחַד אֶלָּא שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין קְבִיעוּתָם מוֹעֶלֶת, כְּגוֹן בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּפָחוֹת מִג',קפד אוֹ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁל פֵּרוֹתקפה – כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ. וְאִם בֵּרַךְ אֶחָד לְכֻלָּם – יָצְאוּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם בְּדִיעֲבַד,קפו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"גקפז,101 ורי"ג.קפח,102 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקפט שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם103 יָצְאוּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם בְּדִיעֲבַד. וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:

18 Whenever the establishment of a common setting is effective in joining people together so that a single blessing may be recited for all, it is a mitzvah that one person recite the blessing on behalf of all rather than each one [recite the blessing] individually, as [implied by] the verse:104 “The King’s glory is [evident] amidst a multitude of people.” Nevertheless, they have the option of establishing a common setting with the intent of not joining together [in one blessing], as will be explained in sec. 213:[6].

Accordingly, the present custom is for each person to recite the blessing individually, because people at large were not meticulous [in refraining] from chatting between hearing the blessing and partaking of the food.105 The Sages therefore ordained that each person recite the blessing individually. Since this has become the prevailing custom, it is considered as the expressed intent of the people who established a common setting together, i.e., they establish this setting with the intent that they will not join together [in the blessing. As such,] they are exempt from this [duty] to glorify [G‑d].106

יח וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁקְּבִיעוּתָם מוֹעֶלֶת לְצָרְפָם לִבְרָכָה אַחַת – מִצְוָה שֶׁאֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְכֻלָּם וְלֹא כָּל אֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:קצ,104 "בְּרָב עָם הַדְרַת מֶלֶךְ".קצא וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, רַשָּׁאִים הֵם לִקְבֹּעַ יַחַד עַל דַּעַת שֶׁלֹּא לְהִצְטָרֵף, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רי"ג.קצב וּלְפִיכָךְ, נָהֲגוּ עַכְשָׁו לְבָרֵךְ כָּל אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהֶהָמוֹן לֹא הָיוּ נִזְהָרִים מִלְּהָשִׂיחַ בֵּין שְׁמִיעַת הַבְּרָכָה לְהַטְּעִימָה,קצג,105 לָכֵן הִנְהִיגוּ לְבָרֵךְ כָּל אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ.קצד וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ כֵּן – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הָיְתָה דַּעְתָּם בְּפֵרוּשׁ בִּקְבִיעוּתָם יַחַד, שֶׁקּוֹבְעִים עַל דַּעַת שֶׁלֹּא לְהִצְטָרֵף, וּפְטוּרִין מֵהִדּוּר זֶה:106

19 When there is no head of the household among the members of a company or if they are all heads of households, the one who is of most eminent wisdom should break bread, or he may authorize one whom he desires to do so.107 If two [members of a group] are of equal stature and one is a kohen, it is a mitzvah to give him precedence.108 If the kohen is unlearned and the other person, a Torah scholar, the Torah scholar is given precedence.109

It is forbidden for the Torah scholar to give precedence to the unlearned kohen in observance of the statutes and regulations of [the honor due] the priesthood,110 unless the scholar would waive [his honor] and give [the unlearned kohen] permission to recite the blessing without consideration of his priestly status, as will be explained in sec. 201[:2]. If the kohen is also a Torah scholar, but the Israelite is [a scholar] of greater stature, it is a mitzvah for him to accord precedence to the kohen, but there is no obligation to do so. If, however, [the Torah scholar] grants [the kohen] precedence, he will be granted long life.111 If the head of the household is present, he is given precedence, even over a kohen who is a Torah scholar, so that he will give everyone generous portions of bread.112

(The precedence accorded to a kohen has its source in a Scriptural commandment.113 Nevertheless, it can be assumed that the kohen is willing to waive the honor due him [and allow the head of the household to break bread] for the above reason. Moreover, even if he does not waive his honor, he does not deserve precedence over the head of the household with regard to breaking bread. [The rationale is that] the head of the household has the option of not giving the kohen anything to eat. For the regulations of [the honor due] the priesthood do not require one to provide a kohen with food without charge. Even when the kohen is employed as a day-worker by the head of the household [— in which instance he is obligated to provide him with food —] he is not obligated to provide him with food at this particular time and place. Instead, he could do so at a later time or in a different place. [These concepts] do not apply with regard to the Grace after Meals, for [in that instance, the kohen] has already eaten and has become obligated in the recitation of Grace together with all [those who shared the meal. Hence,] he deserves precedence over all the others unless he waives [the honor].)

If [the head of the household] desires to honor a person of greater stature [by allowing him to breakbread], he may. This is the accepted practice. Similarly, a bridegroom on his wedding day is granted precedence over all others to break bread,114 even though there is [a scholar] of greater stature or a kohen present. Since the meal is [served] in his honor and he has the potential of postponing it, no other person is granted precedence over him.

As an expression of humility, even if the one breaking bread is the person of greatest stature, he should ask permission from all the members of the company, stating before [reciting the blessing], “With the license of my teachers and masters,” as if they are of greater stature than he and it is befitting for them to recite the blessing [HaMotzi. Similarly,] it is customary to ask permission from a kohen to [recite the zimun for] Grace. This is a proper practice, because it is a mitzvah to accord him precedence. As such, it is forbidden to recite Grace without his permission, unless one is of greater stature than him in wisdom.115 Nevertheless, it is of no avail for one to [merely] state: “With the license [of the kohen]” [before reciting the zimun], if the kohen did not actually grant him permission.

יט בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה שֶׁאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹ שֶׁכֻּלָּם בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים – גָּדוֹל בְּחָכְמָה שֶׁבָּהֶם הוּא הַבּוֹצֵעַ קצה מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹדוֹ, אוֹ נוֹתֵן רְשׁוּת לְמִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה.קצו,107 וְאִם הֵם שָׁוִין וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם כֹּהֵן – מִצְוָה לְהַקְדִּימוֹ.קצז,108 וְאִם כֹּהֵן עַם הָאָרֶץ וְהוּא תַּלְמִיד חָכָם – הוּא קוֹדֵם לוֹ.קצח,109 וְאָסוּר לְחָכָם לְהַקְדִּים אֶת עַם הָאָרֶץ לְפָנָיו קצט דֶּרֶךְ חֹק וּמִשְׁפַּט כְּהֻנָּה,110 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מוֹחֵל לוֹ וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְבָרֵךְ בְּלֹא כְּהֻנָּתוֹ,ר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"א.רא וְאִם הַכֹּהֵן גַּם כֵּן תַּלְמִיד חָכָם אֶלָּא שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל גָּדוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ – טוֹב לְהַקְדִּימוֹ לְהַכֹּהֵן, אֲבָל אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בַּדָּבָר.רב וְאִם מַקְדִּימוֹ – מַאֲרִיךְ יָמִים.רג,111 וְאִם יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם בַּעַל הַבַּיִת – הוּא קוֹדֵם רד אֲפִלּוּ לְכֹהֵן תַּלְמִיד חָכָם,רה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּבְצַע בְּעַיִן יָפָה.רו,112

(אַף שֶׁקְּדִימַת הַכֹּהֵן הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה,רז,113 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִן הַסְּתָם מוֹחֵל לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן בִּכְבוֹדוֹ רח בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה.רט וְאַף אִם אֵינוֹ מוֹחֵל לוֹ – אֵין לוֹ קְדִימָה בַּבְּצִיעָה נֶגֶד בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּיַד הַבַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל כְּלָל, שֶׁאֵין זֶה מִמִּשְׁפְּטֵי הַכְּהֻנָּה לְהַאֲכִילָם בְּחִנָּם. וְאַף אִם הוּא שְׂכִירוֹ – אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב לִתֵּן לוֹ כָּאן עַכְשָׁו, אֶלָּא לְאַחַר זְמַן אוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁכְּבָר אָכַל וְנִתְחַיֵּב בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עִם כֻּלָּם יַחַד – הוּא קוֹדֵם לְכֻלָּם, אִם אֵינוֹ מוֹחֵל לָהֶם).רי

וְאִם בָּא לַחֲלֹק כָּבוֹד לְגָדוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ – רַשַּׁאי.ריא,106 וְכֵן נָהֲגוּ.ריב וְכֵן הֶחָתָן בְּיוֹם חֲתֻנָּתוֹ – הוּא קוֹדֵם לַכֹּל לִבְצֹעַ,ריג,114 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם גָּדוֹל ריד וְכֹהֵן, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַסְּעוּדָה הִיא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ וּבְיָדוֹ לִדְחוֹתָהּ – אֵין קְדִימָה נֶגְדּוֹ לְשׁוּם אָדָם.

וּמִדַּת עֲנָוָה הִיא שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַבּוֹצֵעַ הוּא הַגָּדוֹל – נוֹטֵל רְשׁוּת מִכָּל בְּנֵי הַחֲבוּרָה, וְאוֹמֵר בַּתְּחִלָּה: "בִּרְשׁוּת מוֹרַי וְרַבּוֹתַי", כְּאִלּוּ הֵם גְּדוֹלִים מִמֶּנּוּ וְלָהֶם נָאֶה לְבָרֵךְ.רטו וְנָהֲגוּ לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִכֹּהֵן לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.רטז וְכֵן נָכוֹן, שֶׁהֲרֵי מִצְוָה לְהַקְדִּימוֹ, וְאִם כֵּן אָסוּר לְבָרֵךְ בְּלֹא רְשׁוּתוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן גָּדוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּחָכְמָה.115 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין מוֹעִיל מַה שֶּׁאוֹמֵר "בִּרְשׁוּת" אִם לֹא נָתַן לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן רְשׁוּת: ריז

20 The participants in a meal do not have license to partake [of the bread] until the person breaking bread partakes [of the bread he cuts], for example, if they would desire to cut slices from the loaf [the head of the household] sliced and partake of it before he does. He should not, however, distribute bread to them at all before he partakes of it, so as not to unnecessarily interrupt between his blessing and eating with the delay [caused] by distributing [the bread. Moreover, the delay would serve no purpose,] for, in any event, they are not allowed to partake of what he gives them until he eats first.116

If everyone taking part in the meal eats from their own loaf of bread which was set out before them and they do not require [bread] from the loaf of the person breaking bread,117 they may partake of their loaves of bread before the one breaking bread partakes of his. They must, nonetheless, wait until the majority of the people responding [to his blessing] conclude the recitation of Amen, as is required of the person breaking bread himself, as stated above.118 On Shabbos and festivals, it is necessary that the participants have two loaves of bread before them, in addition to the loaves that are before the person breaking bread.119 They are then permitted to partake of their bread before the person breaking bread. Were that not to be so, they would be dependent on the bread placed before the person breaking bread to fulfill their obligation to have two loaves of bread.

(Even during the week, there should be a whole loaf before the other participants, just as there is one before the one who breaks bread. Were this not to be so, they would be dependent on the bread placed before the person breaking bread. [The rationale:] since there is a whole loaf on the table, it is forbidden to recite the blessing HaMotzi on a slice of bread, except[in the exceptional circumstances] that will be explained in sec. 168[:1-2].)

If the person breaking bread seeks to honor a person of greater stature by allowing him to partake of the bread first, he has license to do so. Other authorities differ.

כ אֵין הַמְסֻבִּים רַשָּׁאִים לִטְעֹם עַד שֶׁיִּטְעֹם הַבּוֹצֵעַ,ריח כְּגוֹן אִם הֵם רוֹצִים לַחְתֹּךְ מִן הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁבָּצַע מִמֶּנּוּ הַבּוֹצֵעַ וְלִטְעֹם קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְעֹם הוּא. אֲבָל הוּא לֹא יִתֵּן לָהֶם כְּלָל קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְעֹם,ריט שֶׁלֹּא לְהַפְסִיק בִּשְׁהִיַּת נְתִינָה זוֹ בֵּין בְּרָכָה לַאֲכִילָה שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵם אֵינָם רַשָּׁאִים לִטְעֹם מַה שֶּׁנּוֹתֵן לָהֶם עַד שֶׁיִּטְעֹם הוּא תְּחִלָּה.רכ,116

וְאִם כָּל אֶחָד אוֹכֵל מִכִּכָּרוֹ, וְאֵין זְקוּקִים לַכִּכָּר שֶׁבְּיַד הַבּוֹצֵעַ117 – רַשָּׁאִין לִטְעֹם מִכִּכְּרוֹתֵיהֶם קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְעֹם הַבּוֹצֵעַ מִכִּכָּרוֹ.רכא,37 רַק שֶׁיַּמְתִּינוּ עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה "אָמֵן" מִפִּי רֹב הָעוֹנִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַבּוֹצֵעַ צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.רכב,118 וּבְשַׁבָּת רכג וְיוֹם טוֹב רכד צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת לִפְנֵי הַמְסֻבִּין לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה חוּץ מִמַּה שֶּׁלִּפְנֵי הַבּוֹצֵעַ,119 וְאָז רַשָּׁאִין לִטְעֹם קֹדֶם הַבּוֹצֵעַ, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵּן זְקוּקִים הֵם לַכִּכָּר שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַבּוֹצֵעַ, לָצֵאת בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבַת לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה.רכה

(וְגַם בְּחֹל צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת לִפְנֵיהֶם כִּכָּר שָׁלֵם כְּמוֹ לִפְנֵי הַבּוֹצֵעַ, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵּן זְקוּקִים הֵם לְכִכָּר שָׁלֵם שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַבּוֹצֵעַ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן פַּת שְׁלֵמָה – אָסוּר לִבְצֹעַ עַל הַפְּרוּסָה, אֶלָּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ח).רכו

וְאִם בָּא הַבּוֹצֵעַ לַחֲלֹק כָּבוֹד לְמִי שֶׁגָּדוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁיִּטְעֹם תְּחִלָּה – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ.רכז וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין: רכח

21 [After partaking of the bread and distributing it to all the participants in the meal,] the one who broke bread should be the first to extend his hand to the bowl [in which the food was served] to eat. If he desires to honor a person of greater stature, he may do so.120

The one who breaks bread should place a slice [of bread] before everyone[taking part in the meal]. Each person then takes it with his own hand, unless he is a mourner.121 [In such an instance, the person breaking bread places the slice directly in the mourner’s hand.] All of the above are laws of refined conduct practiced by the Sages of Israel at meals. On Shabbos, mourning practices [— including the one stated above —] are not observed [in public].122

The person breaking bread should take care not to throw the piece of bread on which the blessing HaMotzi was recited before those participating in the meal. For it is forbidden to throw bread,123 even on the table, as will be explained in sec. 171.124

כא הַבּוֹצֵעַ הוּא פּוֹשֵׁט יָדוֹ תְּחִלָּה רכט לַקְּעָרָה לֶאֱכֹל,רל,112 וְאִם בָּא לַחֲלֹק כָּבוֹד לְמִי שֶׁגָּדוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ – רַשַּׁאי.רלא,120

הַבּוֹצֵעַ נוֹתֵן פְּרוּסָה לִפְנֵי כָּל אֶחָד וְהָאַחֵר נוֹטְלָהּ בְּיָדוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָאוֹכֵל הוּא אָבֵל.רלב,121 וְכָל אֵלּוּ מִמִּנְהֲגֵי דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ חַכְמֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּסְּעוּדָה.רלג וּבְשַׁבָּת אֵין אֲבֵלוּת נוֹהֶגֶת.רלד,122

וְיִזָּהֵר הַבּוֹצֵעַ שֶׁלֹּא יִזְרֹק חֲתִיכַת "הַמּוֹצִיא" לִפְנֵי הַמְסֻבִּין,רלה שֶׁאָסוּר לִזְרֹק הַפַּת רלו,123 אֲפִלּוּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"א: רלז,124

22 It is desirable to be careful not to feed the slice of bread over which the blessing was recited to a non-Jew, an animal, or a fowl, as a sign of respect for the blessing. This piece of bread should be eaten before eating other bread, so that it will be eaten with appetite [thereby demonstrating that one] cherishes the mitzvah. Other authorities say that it is desirable to [also] partake of it at the end of the meal. One who wishes to satisfy both opinions, should eat a portion of it at the beginning of the meal and a portion at the end.

כב טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַאֲכִיל פְּרוּסַת הַבְּצִיעָה לְנָכְרִי אוֹ לִבְהֵמָה וָעוֹף,רלח מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַבְּרָכָה,רלט וְיֵשׁ לְאָכְלָהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹּאכַל פַּת אַחֶרֶת, כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא נֶאֱכֶלֶת לְתֵאָבוֹן רמ מִשּׁוּם חִבּוּב מִצְוָה.רמא וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים רמב שֶׁטּוֹב לְאָכְלָהּ בְּסוֹף הַסְּעוּדָה. וְהָרוֹצֶה לָצֵאת יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם – יֹאכַל קְצָת בַּתְּחִלָּה וּקְצָת בַּסּוֹף: רמג

23 A person who is not eating may not recite the blessing HaMotzi in order to fulfill the obligation of others who are eating.125 [This ruling applies] even if those individuals do not know how to recite a blessing themselves. [The rationale is] that [since he is not eating], he is not obligated in this blessing, and one who is not obligated in a matter cannot fulfill the obligation on behalf of others.

[In this,] the blessings recited in appreciation for receiving benefit (Birchos HaNehenin) do not resemble the blessings recited over the mitzvos (Birchos HaMitzvos). [In the latter instance,] one who is no [longer] obligated in the mitzvah because he already fulfilled his obligation126 can recite a blessing for another person who has not yet fulfilled his obligation and who does not know how to recite the blessing, e.g., one may recite Kiddush [on Shabbos and festivals] for women and unlearned people.127 [The rationale is that] all Israel are responsible for each other128 with regard to mitzvos that are obligatory.129 [Hence, even a person who fulfilled his personal obligation] is still considered as obligated in the matter, since his fellow Jew has yet to fulfill his obligation. With regard to Birchos HaNehenin, by contrast, even though they are obligatory for one who derives benefit, he nonetheless has the option of not deriving benefit and not [being obligated to] recite the blessing. Therefore, another person who does not personally derive benefit is not considered as obligated in the recitation of the blessing that this [other] person must recite on the food of which he seeks to derive benefit.130

On Shabbos, one is obligated to partake of bread.131 Nevertheless, this obligation is dependent on his deriving benefit [from the bread] — for if one does not derive benefit from eating, and fasting [rather than eating] brings him pleasure, he is exempt from the obligation to eat.132 Hence, if one does not know how to recite the appropriate blessings, he should also refrain from deriving benefit, for it is forbidden to derive benefit from this world without a blessing. And [in contrast to the observance of mitzvos], all Israel do not bear responsibility that this person derive benefit.133

[Different laws apply concerning] all eating and drinking that are obligatory, independent of the person deriving benefit, for example, [eating] matzah on the first night of Pesach and [reciting] Kiddush overwine, whether at night or during the day [on Shabbos and festivals].134 [In these instances,] if a person does not know how to recite the blessing, another person who has already fulfilled his own obligation may [recite the blessing, enabling the unlearned person to] fulfill his obligation. [This includes] also the Birchos HaNehenin [associated with the mitzvah], i.e., HaMotzi [for the matzah] and Borei pri hagafen [for the wine]. Needless to say, it applies with regard to the blessing Al achilas matzah (“…concerning the eating of matzah”) and the blessing of Kiddush itself, for they are blessings associated with the mitzvos (Birchos Ha­Mitzvos).135 If [the unlearned person desires to] make Kiddush over bread [rather than wine and does not know the blessing of HaMotzi, the learned person] may [recite] the blessing HaMotzi in the Kiddush,fulfilling [the unlearned person’s] obligation. [In this instance, the blessing HaMotzi] is [recited as part of] the obligation of Kiddush, not [to enable the unlearned person to derive] benefit.

All of the above applies with regard to an adult.136 One may recite all of the Birchos HaNehenin on behalf of minors, in order to train them in the observance of mitzvos.137 This applies even when one is not responsible for their education, e.g., they are not members of his household.

כג מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל – אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" לְהוֹצִיא הָאוֹכְלִין יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן,רמד,125 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָן יוֹדְעִין לְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמָן,רמה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ, וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָר – אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן,רמו שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין אֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לְבִרְכַּת הַמִּצְוֹת, שֶׁאַף מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ רמז,126 יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ לְמִי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא יָצָא וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ,רמח כְּגוֹן לְקַדֵּשׁ קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם לְנָשִׁים וְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ,רמט,127 לְפִי שֶׁבְּמִצְוֹת שֶׁהֵן חוֹבָה128 – כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲרֵבִים זֶה בָּזֶה,רנ,129 וְגַם הוּא נִקְרָא מְחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָר כְּשֶׁחֲבֵרוֹ לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ עֲדַיִן,רנא מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּבִרְכוֹת הַנֶּהֱנִין, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהֵן חוֹבָה עַל הַנֶּהֱנֶה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לֵהָנוֹת וְשֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ,רנב לְפִיכָךְ אֵין אַחֵר שֶׁאֵין נֶהֱנֶה נִקְרָא מְחֻיָּב בִּדְבַר הַבְּרָכָה זוֹ, שֶׁזֶּה צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל מַה שֶּׁחָפֵץ לֵהָנוֹת.130

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת רנג שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לֶאֱכֹל פַּת,רנד,131 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁחִיּוּב זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לַהֲנָאָתוֹ, שֶׁאִם אֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה בַּאֲכִילָתוֹ וְהַתַּעֲנִית עֹנֶג לוֹ פָּטוּר מִלֶּאֱכֹל,רנה,132 אִם כֵּן, אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ גַּם כֵּן – לֹא יֵהָנֶה,רנו שֶׁאָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה,רנז,6 וְאֵין כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲרֵבִים שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה זֶה.133

אֲבָל כָּל אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה שֶׁהֵן חוֹבָה עַל הָאָדָם שֶׁלֹּא מִשּׁוּם הֲנָאָתוֹ,רנח כְּגוֹן מַצָּה בְּלֵיל רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח, וְיַיִן שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ,רנט,134 בֵּין שֶׁל לַיְלָה וּבֵין שֶׁל יוֹם,רס אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ רסא – יָכוֹל אַחֵר שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא לְהוֹצִיאוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אַף מִבִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין שֶׁבָּהֶן, שֶׁהֵן "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּ"בוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",רסב וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בִּרְכַּת אֲכִילַת מַצָּה וּבִרְכַּת הַקִּדּוּשׁ עַצְמָהּ שֶׁהֵם מִבִּרְכוֹת הַמִּצְוֹת.רסג,135 וְאִם מְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת – מוֹצִיאוֹ גַּם מִבִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" שֶׁבַּקִּדּוּשׁ, שֶׁהִיא חוֹבָה מִשּׁוּם קִדּוּשׁ וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם הֲנָאָתוֹ.רסד

וְכָל זֶה לְגָדוֹל136 שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ, אֲבָל לִקְטַנִּים רַשַּׁאי לְבָרֵךְ כָּל בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין כְּדֵי לְחַנְּכָן בְּמִצְוֹת,רסה,137 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין חִנּוּכָם מֻטָּל עָלָיו, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵינָן מִבְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ: רסו