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Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 165 - Laws Governing One Who Relieves Himself and Desires to Eat [Afterwards]

Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 165 - Laws Governing One Who Relieves Himself and Desires to Eat [Afterwards]

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SECTION 165 The Laws Governing One Who Relieves Himself and Desires to Eat [Afterwards]. (1–3)

קסה דִּין הָעוֹשֶׂה צְרָכָיו וְרוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל, וּבוֹ ג' סְעִיפִים:

1 One who relieves himself and desires to eat [bread immediately thereafter]1 should wash twice: the first time, washing in a manner that does not prepare him to eat, but merely cleanses his hands so that he can recite the blessing Asher yatzar,2and a second time, washing in a manner fit for the blessing Al netilas yadayim.3[This is necessary;] were he to wash only once, in a manner fit [for eating], and first recite the blessing Asher yatzar ([— which would be appropriate] since he was obligated in it first, and also because it is recited more frequently)4 — and [only] then the blessing Al netilas yadayim, there would be an interruption between washing and reciting the blessing [Al netilas yadayim]. And if he would first recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim and afterwards, Asher yatzar, there would still be an interruption5 between washing and reciting the blessing HaMotzi. [That is undesirable, because] there are authorities who forbid interrupting between the two with words or involvement in another matter, as stated in sec. 166[:1].

If the person desires to wash only once, he should recite Asher yatzar immediately after rubbing his hands together in order to cleanse them from their filth,6 after he poured the water of the first pouring over them. At that time, his hands are fit for the recitation of a blessing, but they are not [yet] fit to eat with until he pours the water of the second pouring over them. After [the second pouring], he should recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim when he dries [his hands].7 In this manner, there will be no interruption between the washing and the blessing recited over it, nor between the washing and the blessing HaMotzi. [This scenario is possible when the person] had water poured over both his hands at the same time. If that was not the case, he should not rub them together until he poured the water of the second pouring over them, as explained in sec. 162[:11].

Nevertheless, it is preferable to wash his hands twice, because most of the time, people are accustomed to pouring a reviis at once over both hands together or over each one individually in the first pouring. [In such an instance, according to the letter of the law,] the second pouring is not required to purify them. Hence there would be an interruption [between the washing and its blessing].

If one washed once in the appropriate manner and forgot to recite the blessing [Asher yatzar] until he poured the water of the second pouring, or he poured a reviis at one time, he should not recite the blessing Asher yatzar first and then wash again and recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim. [The rationale is that] he already fulfilled his obligation with the first washing and he may not recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim on the second washing alone, because he is not obligated in it [during this second washing]. If he would recite a blessing on the first washing after the second [after having made an interruption between them with the blessing Asher yatzar], he would be intervening between the washing and its blessing. Instead, he should first recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim on this washing alone and afterwards, the blessing Asher yatzar.8The blessing Asher yatzar is not considered an interruption between the washing and the recitation of the blessing HaMotzi, because it also comes [in association with] the purification of one’s hands.9

([This option is preferable, because] greater concern should be shown for an interruption between washing and its blessing, as stated in sec. 158[:16].10 Moreover, [otherwise, were he to recite the blessing Asher yatzar and then the blessing Al netilas yadayim,] there would be two interruptions, one between washing and its blessing and one between washing and the blessing HaMotzi.)

Those people who are careful not to speak between washing their hands and the blessing HaMotzi, but do speak between washing their hands and the blessing [Al netilas yadayim] commit an error. They should be cautioned not to speak at all.

If a person relieves himself in the middle of a meal, since he is not required to recite the blessing HaMotzi,11he is only required to wash once.12 He need not be concerned that the blessing Asher yatzar intervenes between washing and eating, since there are authorities who permit such a small interruption between washing and the blessing HaMotzi, as stated in sec. 166[:1]. Concern is given to the words of those who forbid [such an interruption] only between washing and [reciting] the blessing HaMotzi on the basis of our Sages’ statement:13 Whoever recites the blessing HaMotzi directly after washing will not suffer harm throughout that meal. When, however, the blessing HaMotzi is not recited [as in this instance], one need only be careful not to make a significant interruption [between washing and eating]. That is forbidden according to all opinions, because of the enactment of our Sages who ordained that the meal should follow directly after washing one’s hands, as stated there and in sec. 164[:1].

א הָעוֹשֶׂה צְרָכָיו וְרוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל א,1 – יִטֹּל ב' פְּעָמִים,ב רִאשׁוֹנָה יִטֹּל נְטִילָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מַכְשֶׁרֶת לַאֲכִילָה,ג אֶלָּא לְנַקּוֹת יָדָיו לְבָרֵךְ "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר",2 וּשְׁנִיָּה נְטִילָה כְּשֵׁרָה לְבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם",3 שֶׁאִם יִטֹּל נְטִילָה אַחַת כְּשֵׁרָה וִיבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר" (מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בָּהּ תְּחִלָּה,ד וְעוֹד שֶׁהִיא תְּדִירָה),ה,4 וְאַחַר כָּךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" – יִהְיֶה הֶפְסֵק בֵּין נְטִילָה לְבִרְכָתָהּ.ו וְאַף אִם יְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" וְאַחַר כָּךְ "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר", מִכָּל מָקוֹם יִהְיֶה הֶפְסֵק5 בֵּין נְטִילָה לְ"הַמּוֹצִיא",ז וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִים לְהַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם בְּדִבְרֵי עֵסֶק וְעִנְיָן אַחֵר,ח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ו.

וְאִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לִטֹּל אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת – יְבָרֵךְ "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר" מִיָּד כְּשֶׁמְּשַׁפְשֵׁף יָדָיו לְנַקּוֹתָן מִלִּכְלוּכָן ט,6 לְאַחַר שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ עֲלֵיהֶן שְׁטִיפָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁאָז יָדָיו כְּשֵׁרוֹת לִבְרָכָה, אֲבָל אֵינָן כְּשֵׁרוֹת לַאֲכִילָה עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁפֹּךְ עֲלֵיהֶן מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים,י וְאָז יְבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" בִּשְׁעַת הַנִּגּוּב,יא,7 שֶׁבְּעִנְיָן זֶה אֵין כָּאן הֶפְסֵק בֵּין נְטִילָה לְבִרְכָתָהּ, וְלֹא בֵּין נְטִילָה לְ"הַמּוֹצִיא", כִּי לֹא נִגְמְרָה הַנְּטִילָה עַד שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים, וּכְגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ עַל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵּן אֵין יָכוֹל לְשַׁפְשְׁפָן זוֹ בָּזוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁפֹּךְ עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים,יב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ב.יג

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יוֹתֵר נָכוֹן לִטֹּל ב' פְּעָמִים, לְפִי שֶׁרֹב פְּעָמִים רְגִילִין לִשְׁפֹּךְ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת עַל ב' יָדָיו אוֹ עַל כָּל אַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ בִּשְׁטִיפָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וְשׁוּב אֵין צָרִיךְ מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים לְטַהֲרָן, וְיֵשׁ כָּאן הֶפְסֵק.יד

וְאִם נָטַל נְטִילָה אַחַת כְּשֵׁרָה וְשָׁכַח לְבָרֵךְ עַד שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים, אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר" וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִטֹּל שֵׁנִית וִיבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם", לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בַּנְּטִילָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" עַל נְטִילָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה בִּלְבַדָּהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בָּהּ, וְאִם יְבָרֵךְ עַל נְטִילָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אַחַר הַשְּׁנִיָּה – נִמְצָא שֶׁהִפְסִיק בֵּין נְטִילָה לְבִרְכָתָהּ.טו אֶלָּא יְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" עַל נְטִילָה זוֹ לְבַדָּהּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר",טז,8 שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר" אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק בֵּין נְטִילָה לְ"הַמּוֹצִיא", כֵּיוָן שֶׁלְּטָהֳרַת יָדַיִם הִיא בָּאָה גַּם כֵּן.יז,9

(אֲבָל בֵּין נְטִילָה לְבִרְכָתָהּ יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ יוֹתֵר לְהֶפְסֵק, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קנ"ח.יח,10 וְעוֹד, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּזוֹ שְׁתֵּי הַפְסָקוֹת: בֵּין נְטִילָה לְבִרְכָתָהּ, וּבֵין נְטִילָה לְ"הַמּוֹצִיא").

וְאוֹתָן הַנִּזְהָרִין מִלְּהָשִׂיחַ בֵּין נְטִילַת יָדַיִם לְ"הַמּוֹצִיא" וּמְשִׂיחִין בֵּין נְטִילַת יָדַיִם לְבִרְכָתָהּ – טוֹעִים הֵם, וְצָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִירָם שֶׁלֹּא יָשִׂיחוּ כְּלָל.

וְאִם עוֹשֶׂה צְרָכָיו בְּאֶמְצַע הַסְּעוּדָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא"11 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת.12 וְאֵין לָחֹשׁ לְהַפְסָקַת "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר" בֵּין נְטִילָה לַאֲכִילָה,יט כִּי אֲפִלּוּ בֵּין נְטִילָה לְ"הַמּוֹצִיא" יֵשׁ מַתִּירִין בְּהֶפְסֵק מוּעָט כָּזֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ו, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹסְרִים אֶלָּא בֵּין נְטִילָה לְ"הַמּוֹצִיא", מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים: כ,13 כָּל הַתּוֹכֵף בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" לִנְטִילָה – אֵינוֹ נִזּוֹק בְּכָל אוֹתָהּ סְעוּדָה, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵין שָׁם בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר אֶלָּא מֵהֶפְסֵק גָּדוֹל הָאָסוּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, מִפְּנֵי תַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ תֵּכֶף לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם סְעוּדָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ד: כא

2 When a person ate food after which he is obligated to recite the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos, but forgot to do so, and then urinated, he should recite the blessing Asher yatzar first, and then Borei nefashos rabbos. [The rationale is that] the blessing Asher yatzar is recited more frequently and when a practice is more frequent than another, it is given precedence [over a practice that is less frequent].14

ב אָכַל דָּבָר שֶׁחַיָּב לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, וְשָׁכַח וְהֵטִיל מַיִם – יְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר" וְאַחַר כָּךְ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת", מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר" תְּדִירָה יוֹתֵר,כב וְכָל הַתָּדִיר מֵחֲבֵרוֹ – קוֹדֵם לַחֲבֵרוֹ: כג,14

3 When many people eat a meal together, the person of greatest stature should wash his hands first, as an expression of respect.15 There are, however, some men of stature who follow the practice of washing last so that they will not make an interruption [between washing and HaMotzi] by waiting until all the others wash,16 nor by speaking about other matters [after washing], as explained in sec. 166[:1].

ג אִם רַבִּים מְסֻבִּין בַּסְּעוּדָה, הַגָּדוֹל נוֹטֵל יָדָיו תְּחִלָּה, מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹדוֹ.כד,15 אֶלָּא שֶׁקְּצָת גְּדוֹלִים רְגִילִין לִטֹּל בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, שֶׁלֹּא לְהַפְסִיק בִּשְׁהִיָּה עַד שֶׁיִּטְּלוּ כֻּלָּם,כה,16 וְשֶׁלֹּא לְדַבֵּר דִּבְרֵי עֵסֶק וְעִנְיָן אַחֵר,כו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר סִימָן קסו:

Footnotes
1.
The addition of the phrase “immediately thereafter” is based on sec. 164:1.
2.
The blessing recited after relieving oneself. See sec. 7.
3.
In practice, initially, after using the lavatory, one should clean his hands with only a small amount of water (the Alter Rebbe’s Seder Netilas Yadayim, sec. 6) in a manner that is invalid for washing to eat. Alternatively, he could use a generous amount of water, without pouring it from a k’li, e.g. having the water run over his hands directly from a faucet (see sec. 159, footnote 88). He should then dry his hands and recite the blessing Asher yatzar. Afterwards, he should wash three times on each hand consecutively, as is the accepted Lubavitch practice for washing for a meal.

{The initial washing described above is adequate after making use of the lavatory — see above section 4:18. True, many are more stringent and are accustomed to wash three times alternatively after using the lavatory, as is required for the morning washing (see Badei HaShulchan 33:7), but in this instance, there are reasons why one should not observe this extra stringency. Seder Netilas Yadayim (ibid.) offers an alternative sequence to the one described here — see note 8 below.}
4.
See subsection 2 and the sources cited there.
5.
I.e., the recitation of Asher yatzar.
6.
See sec. 162:8.
7.
See sec. 158:16.
8.
In his Seder Netilas Yadayim, sec. 6, the Alter Rebbe states this sequence is halachically valid, i.e., one may wash before partaking of bread according to his ordinary practice, recite the blessing Al Netilas Yadayim, dry his hands, recite the blessing Asher yatzar, and then recite the blessing HaMotzi.
9.
Some explanation is required here, because at the beginning of the subsection, the Alter Rebbe said that the blessing Asher yatzar would constitute such an interruption. In resolution, it can be explained that, in this instance, we are speaking after the fact, in a situation where the person has already washed his hands properly, and failed to recite the Asher yatzar blessing at the appropriate time. He is advised to recite it after the blessing Al netilas yadayim so as not to delay its recitation further. Reciting it at this time — though not entirely desirable — is not considered an interruption in an ultimate sense for, as the Alter Rebbe explains, the Asher yatzar blessing also relates to purifying one’s hands.
10.
In his Seder Netilas Yadayim, sec. 5, the Alter Rebbe states that there should be no interruption whatsoever between the washing and the blessing. Rather, they should be joined together to the greatest possible extent.
11.
See sec. 178:3.
12.
As mentioned above, many are accustomed to washing their hands three times alternatively after using the lavatory. Similarly, if one uses the lavatory during the meal, he should follow this practice as well. Strictly speaking, this washing also suffices for partaking of bread (see Kaf HaChayim 165:1). Nevertheless, one may choose to wash again directly thereafter, washing three times on each hand consecutively, as is the ordinary practice before eating of bread. Wiping one’s hands between these two washings is, however, unnecessary. The blessing of Asher yatzar is recited after all washing has been completed.
13.
Talmud Yerushalmi, Berachos 1:1.
14.
Berachos 51b; see other examples of this concept in sec. 25:2, sec. 188:6, sec. 286:5, sec. 483:1, and sec. 489:16.
15.
Berachos 46b.
16.
For it is proper for the person of greatest stature to recite the blessing HaMotzi on behalf of all those participating in the meal (see sec. 167:14ff.).
Sources
א.
מיד. ואם רוצה לאכול לאח"ז ראה לעיל רס"י קסד.
ב.
טור בשם רש"י בס' הפרדס סי' סד, שכך השיב רבינו יעקב ב"ר יקר. הובא בתשב"ץ סי' רפא. הגהות מיימוניות הל' ברכות פ"ו אות נ. רבינו ירוחם שער טז ח"ו (קמז, ב). שו"ע ס"א.
ג.
תשובות מהר"ם מרוטנברג (פראג) סי' מב. הגהות מיימוניות שם. מ"א ס"ק ב.
ד.
ב"ח בריש הסימן. פרישה ס"ק א. אליה רבה ס"ק א.
ה.
כדלקמן ס"ב וש"נ.
ו.
ב"ח שם. מ"א ס"ק א. טור ותשב"ץ שם.
ז.
לבוש וב"ח ומ"א שם.
ח.
מ"א ס"ק ד.
ט.
ראה לעיל סי' קסב ריש ס"ח וש"נ.
י.
כדלעיל סי' קסב ס"ג (לענין שפך על ב' ידיו כאחת) וש"נ.
יא.
שו"ת הרא"ש כלל ד סי' א. טור ושו"ע שם. ועי' לעיל סי' קנח סט"ז.
יב.
דרישה ס"ק א. ט"ז ריש ס"ק ב. מ"א ס"ק ג.
יג.
סעיף יא.
יד.
ט"ז שם.
טו.
עי' לעיל סי' קנח סי"ג.
טז.
מ"א שם.
יז.
שובות מהר"ם מרוטנברג שם. הגהות מיימוניות שם. וכ"ה בסדר נט"י לסעודה ס"ו.
יח.
עיף טז וש"נ.
יט.
"א ס"ק א.
כ.
ירושלמי ברכות פ"א ה"א, בנוסח שהובא בטור רס"י קסו, ולקמן שם וש"נ.
כא.
סעיף א.
כב.
שו"ת רש"ל סי' צז. מ"א ס"ק ג. וראה גם לעיל סי' ז ס"ז (ברכה אחרונה). וראה בדה"ש סי' ס ס"ק כא.
כג.
ראה גם לעיל סי' כה ס"ב. לקמן סי' קפח ס"ו. סי' רפו ס"ה. סי' תפג ס"א. סי' תפט סט"ז. וראה חקרי הלכות ח"ז נא, ב.
כד.
ברכות מו, ב. טור ושו"ע ס"ב.
כה.
רא"ש הובא בטור סי' קסו. שו"ע ס"ב.
כו.
מ"א ס"ק ד.
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