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Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 131 - Laws Relating to [Supplications that Follow Shemoneh Esreh]

Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 131 - Laws Relating to [Supplications that Follow Shemoneh Esreh]

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SECTION 131 Laws Relating to [the Supplications that Follow Shemoneh Esreh]. (1-6)

קלא דִּינֵי נְפִילַת אַפַּיִם וּבוֹ ו' סְעִיפִים:

1 When1 the sheliach tzibbur has finished repeating Shemoneh Esreh,2 [the congregants] should prostrate themselves and recite prayers of supplication, each region according to its custom.3 Though in principle this prostration is a custom practiced by all Jews from earliest times,4 it is not obligatory, but optional.5 Hence, all of its laws are dependent on custom, as will be explained.

The supplications made while prostrating oneself must immediately follow Shemoneh Esreh. If one made an interruption and became involved in other matters after Shemoneh Esreh, his supplications will no longer be as acceptable.6 One should therefore not speak between Shemoneh Esreh and these supplications (even though according to the letter of the law no prohibition is entailed, because in principle these supplications are optional).

Nevertheless, one is required to be vigilant only with regard to making an interruption and becoming involved in utterly unrelated matters; there is no need to be concerned about a brief interchange of words.7 [Moreover,] whenever one has not made an interruption for utterly unrelated matters, after Shemoneh Esreh one may go to another place to recite these supplications.

In principle, the nefilas apayim that has been practiced from early times is prostrating oneself8 on the ground, even without spreading out one’s hands and feet.9 ([This includes] even sitting on the ground and lowering one’s face8 to the ground.) A distinguished personage is not permitted to fall on his face in this manner4 in the presence of a congregation when he is praying for them — if the congregants do not also fall on their faces as he does — unless he is confident that his deeds [are virtuous enough to warrant] that he will be answered as was Yehoshua bin Nun. And to him it was said,10 “Arise. Why do you fall on your face?” (Implied is that [Yehoshua] should not [have] remained in that position.) [The rationale is that] if [the prayer of this distinguished person] is not answered immediately, the congregation will harbor doubts about him, supposing that he is unworthy and undeserving of being answered.

In addition, any person is forbidden to prostrate himself on a stone11 floor,4 even when he does not spread out his hands and feet entirely. This was ordained [as a safeguard] lest one prostrate oneself with his hands and feet spread out, which contravenes a Scriptural prohibition12 for which one is liable for lashes, as it is written,13 “Do not place a stone floor14 in your land to prostrate yourself upon it.” [Prostrating oneself on a stone floor] is permitted only in the [Beis Ha]Mikdash.

If one does not press his face to the ground, but bends to his side, this is permitted even for a distinguished person in the presence of a congregation. Indeed, [he may do this] even on a stone floor, though without spreading his hands and feet, as will be explained.15 In the present era, when it is customary not to actually prostrate oneself but only to lower one’s head and cover one’s face, all the above is no longer applicable.

Moreover, since the common practice is not to actually prostrate oneself, but to cover one’s face, it has become customary to recite these supplications even when standing. Nevertheless, according to the Kabbalah, it is appropriate to recite these supplications while sitting. If it is impossible to sit in the place to which one stepped back three steps,16 he should wait the time it takes to walk four cubits and then return to his place and recite these supplications while seated.

It is customary to cover one’s face with a garment. It is not sufficient to cover one’s face with the [fore]arm on which he rests his face,17 because the arm and the face are [parts of] the same body, and the body cannot cover itself, as explained in sec. 74[:3] and 91[:4].

In many places it is customary to incline to one’s left, for we have found that when a person prays, the Divine Presence is on his right, for it is written,18G‑d is your protective shade at your right hand,” as stated in sec. 97[:2]. Thus, when one is leaning to his left, he is facing the Divine Presence. If, by contrast, he was leaning to his right, the opposite would be true, and it is not fitting that a servant should turn his back to his master.

Other authorities maintain that one should [rest his head] on his right arm. And when inclining [one’s head] to the right with the Divine Presence opposite him, he should have in mind [the verse],19 “His left hand is under my head20 and His right hand embraces me.” In these countries,21 it is customary at the Morning Service to lean to one’s right and not to his left, out of respect for the tefillin worn on the left.22 During the Afternoon Service, or even during the Morning Service if one is not wearing tefillin on his left arm, he should incline on his left. The sheliach tzibbur who stands to the right of the Ark should incline his head slightly toward the Ark even when leaning his head on his right arm. (The same also applies to those sitting at the side of the candelabrum before the Ark.23 They recite the supplications while leaning to the east, like the sheliach tzibbur.)

According to the Kabbalah,24 one should say the psalm that begins,25 “[By David:] To You, O G‑d, I raise up my soul,” [as the supplication]. Nevertheless, because [the Zohar teaches that] one who recites this psalm while his heart is in a distant place will die prematurely, [the custom] in these countries is to refrain from saying it. Instead, we say “Merciful and Gracious One,... G‑d, do not in Your anger....”26

א לְאַחַר1 שֶׁסִּיֵּם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חֲזָרַת הַתְּפִלָּה2 – נוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם וּמִתְחַנְּנִיםא כָּל מָקוֹם לְפִי מִנְהָגוֹ.ב,3 וְגַם עִקַּר נְפִילַת אַפַּיִם הוּא מִנְהָג שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיְמוֹת עוֹלָם.ג,4 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינָהּ חוֹבָה אֶלָּא רְשׁוּת,ד,5 לָכֵן כָּל הִלְכוֹתֶיהָ תְּלוּיוֹת בַּמִּנְהָגה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. וּתְחִנָּה זוֹ שֶׁמִּתְחַנֵּן בִּנְפִילַת אַפַּיִם צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מִיָּד אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה,ו אֲבָל אִם הִפְסִיק וְעָסַק בִּדְבָרִים אֲחֵרִים אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה – שׁוּב אֵין תְּחִנָּתוֹ נִשְׁמַעַת כָּל כָּךְ.6 לָכֵן אֵין לְדַבֵּר בֵּין תְּפִלָּה לִנְפִילַת אַפַּיִם (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּן הַדִּין אֵין אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר, שֶׁהֲרֵי עִקַּר נְפִילַת אַפַּיִם הִיא רְשׁוּתז). וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר אֶלָּא מִלְּהַפְסִיק וְלַעֲסֹק בִּדְבָרִים אֲחֵרִים לְגַמְרֵי, אֲבָל שִׂיחָה מוּעֶטֶת אֵין לָחוּשׁ.ח,7 וְכָל שֶׁאֵין מַפְסִיקִין בִּדְבָרִים אֲחֵרִים לְגַמְרֵי – יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר לִפֹּל שָׁם עַל פָּנָיו.ט

וְעִקַּר נְפִילַת אַפַּיִם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ בָּהּ בַּיָּמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הִיא לִפֹּל עַל פָּנָיו8 אַרְצָה אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּפִשּׁוּט יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִםי,9 (וַאֲפִלּוּ יוֹשֵׁב עַל הָאָרֶץ וְנוֹפֵל עַל פָּנָיו8 אַרְצָהיא). וְאָדָם חָשׁוּב אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לִפֹּל עַל פָּנָיו בְּעִנְיָן זֶהיב,4 בִּפְנֵי הַצִּבּוּר כְּשֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל עַל הַצִּבּוּריג אִם אֵין הַצִּבּוּר נוֹפְלִים כָּךְ כָּמוֹהוּ,יד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא בָּטוּחַ בְּמַעֲשָׂיו שֶׁיֵּעָנֶה כִּיהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן,טו (שֶׁהֲרֵי) נֶאֱמַר בּוֹטז,10 "קֻם לָךְ לָמָּה זֶּה אַתָּה נֹפֵל עַל פָּנֶיךָ" (מַשְׁמָע שֶׁאֵין לוֹ לִפֹּל), לְפִי שֶׁאִם לֹא יֵעָנֶה מִיָּד – יְהַרְהֲרוּ הַצִּבּוּר אַחֲרָיויז לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ הָגוּן וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לֵעָנוֹת.

וְכֵן כָּל אָדָם אָסוּר לִפֹּל עַל פָּנָיו אַרְצָהיח עַל גַּבֵּי רִצְפַּת4 אֲבָנִיםיט,11 אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּפִשּׁוּט יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם, גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם הִשְׁתַּחֲוָאָה בְּפִשּׁוּט יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִםכ שֶׁהִיא אֲסוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָהכא,12 וְלוֹקִין עָלָיו,כב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:כג,13 "וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית14 לֹא תִתְּנוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת עָלֶיהָ", וְאֵינוֹ מֻתָּר אֶלָּא בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ בִּלְבַד.

וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַדְבִּיק פָּנָיו בַּקַּרְקַע אֶלָּא מַטֶּה עַל צִדּוֹ – מֻתָּרכד אֲפִלּוּ לְאָדָם חָשׁוּב בִּפְנֵי הַצִּבּוּר,כה וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי רִצְפַּת אֲבָנִיםכו שֶׁלֹּא בְּפִשּׁוּט יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִםכז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.כח,15 וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁלֹּא נָהֲגוּ לִפֹּל עַל פְּנֵיהֶם מַמָּשׁכט אֶלָּא בְּהַטָּיַת הָרֹאשׁ וְכִסּוּי הַפָּנִים בִּלְבַד – לֹא שַׁיָּךְ כָּל זֶה.ל

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין נוֹפְלִין מַמָּשׁ אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּכַסֶּה פָּנָיו – נָהֲגוּ לִפֹּל אֲפִלּוּ מְעֻמָּד.לא אַךְ עַל פִּי הַקַּבָּלָה רָאוּי לִהְיוֹת נְפִילַת אַפַּיִם מְיֻשָּׁב.לב וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לֵישֵׁב בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁכָּלוּ הַג' פְּסִיעוֹת16 – יַמְתִּין כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ ד' אַמּוֹת וְיַחֲזֹר לִמְקוֹמוֹ וְיִפֹּל מְיֻשָּׁב.לג

וְנוֹהֲגִים לְכַסּוֹת הַפָּנִים בְּבֶגֶד, וְלֹא דַּי בְּכִסּוּי הַיָּד שֶׁנּוֹפֵל פָּנָיו עָלֶיהָ,17 לְפִי שֶׁהַיָּד וְהַפָּנִים גּוּף אֶחָד הֵן וְאֵין הַגּוּף יָכוֹל לְכַסּוֹת אֶת עַצְמוֹלד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר סִימָן ע"דלה וצ"א.לו

וְנָהֲגוּ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת הַרְבֵּה לְהַטּוֹת עַל צַד שְׂמֹאל,לז לְפִי שֶׁמָּצִינוּ כְּשֶׁאָדָם מִתְפַּלֵּל שְׁכִינָה מִימִינוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:לח,18 "ה' צִלְּךָ עַל יַד יְמִינֶךָ", וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן צ"ז.לט נִמְצָא כְּשֶׁהוּא מֻטֶּה עַל שְׂמֹאלוֹ פָּנָיו כְּלַפֵּי שְׁכִינָה, וְאִם הָיָה מֻטֶּה עַל יְמִינוֹ הָיָה לְהֶפֶךְ, וְלֹא יִתָּכֵן לָעֶבֶד לִהְיוֹת אֲחוֹרָיו כְּלַפֵּי אֲדוֹנָיו.מ וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמא לְהַטּוֹת עַל יַד יְמִינוֹ, שֶׁכְּשֶׁהוּא מֻטֶּה עַל יְמִינוֹ וּשְׁכִינָה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ – יְכַוֵּן19 "שְׂמֹאלוֹ תַּחַת לְרֹאשִׁי20 וִימִינוֹ תְּחַבְּקֵנִי".מב וְנָהֲגוּ בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ21 לְהַטּוֹת בְּשַׁחֲרִית עַל יְמִינוֹ וְלֹא עַל שְׂמֹאלוֹ מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַתְּפִלִּין שֶׁבִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ,22 וּבְמִנְחָה אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁחֲרִית כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ תְּפִלִּין בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ – מַטֶּה עַל שְׂמֹאלוֹ.מג וְהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הָעוֹמֵד מִימִין הָאָרוֹן – טוֹב שֶׁיַּטֶּה רֹאשׁוֹ מְעַט כְּלַפֵּי הָאָרוֹן אַף כְּשֶׁנּוֹפֵל עַל יַד יְמִינוֹמד (וְהוּא הַדִּין הַיּוֹשְׁבִים בְּצַד הַמְּנוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הָאָרוֹן23 וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם לַמִּזְרָח כְּמוֹ הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּרמה).

עַל פִּי הַקַּבָּלָהמו,24 יֵשׁ לוֹמַר מִזְמוֹרמז,25 "אֵלֶיךָ ה' נַפְשִׁי אֶשָּׂא".מח אַךְ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָאוֹמְרוֹ וְלִבּוֹ רָחוֹק מִמֶּנּוּ גּוֹרֵם לוֹ לְהֵאָסֵף בְּלֹא עִתּוֹ,מט לְפִיכָךְ נִמְנְעוּ לְאָמְרוֹ בַּמְּדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים "רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן כו' ה' אַל בְּאַפְּךָ כו'":נ,26

2 After prostrating oneself, one should raise his head and briefly recite supplications while sitting, each community according to its local custom.27 It is common custom to recite the passage,28 “We do not know what to do...,”29 [as if to say]: We have prayed in every position in which a person could pray — sitting, standing, and prostrated — just as was done by Moshe our teacher (Peace upon him!). For of him it is written,30 “And I abided on the mountain...,” and “I prostrated myself before G‑d.”31 Since we cannot pray in any other position, we say, “We do not know what to do....”

This is followed32 by a half-Kaddish, Ashrei,33 and LaMenatzeiach.34

ב לְאַחַר שֶׁנָּפַל עַל פָּנָיונא – יַגְבִּיהַּ רֹאשׁוֹ וְיִתְחַנֵּן מְעַט מְיֻשָּׁב, כָּל מָקוֹם וּמָקוֹם לְפִי מִנְהָגוֹ.27 וּמִנְהָג פָּשׁוּט לוֹמַר28 "וַאֲנַחְנוּ לֹא נֵדַע מַה נַּעֲשֶׂה כו'",נב,29 לְפִי שֶׁהִתְפַּלַּלְנוּ בְּכָל עִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל אָדָם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל, בִּישִׁיבָה וּבַעֲמִידָה וּבִנְפִילַת אַפַּיִם, כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:נג,30 "וָאֵשֵׁב בָּהָר וגו'נד וָאֶתְנַפַּל לִפְנֵי ה' וְגו'",31 וּמֵאַחַר שֶׁאֵין בָּנוּ כֹּחַ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר – אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים "וַאֲנַחְנוּ לֹא נֵדַע מַה נַּעֲשֶׂה כו'".נה וְאַחַר כָּךְ32 חֲצִי קַדִּישׁ, "אַשְׁרֵי",33 "לַמְנַצֵּחַ":נו,34

3 It is the custom of some people not to prostrate themselves unless they are in a place where there is a Torah scroll. An allusion in this direction may be found [in a verse] that relates to the battle against Ai:35 “And [Yehoshua] fell on his face... before the Ark of G‑d.” In a place where there is no Torah scroll, their custom is to recite the supplications36 without covering their faces.37

When people pray in a synagogue courtyard that is open to the synagogue and [the entrance to] the synagogue is open, the custom is that they recite supplications while prostrating themselves as they would do in the synagogue itself. [This does not apply] when [the entrance to] the synagogue is closed. The women’s synagogue is considered as the same structure as the synagogue in which the Torah scroll is kept, even if it is not open to that synagogue, and thus it is customary to recite [supplications] while prostrating oneself there.38 The entrance hall in front of the synagogue,39 by contrast, has the same halachic status as a synagogue courtyard.

Even a person who is praying alone in his home at the time the congregation is praying in the synagogue40 may prostrate himself at the same time that they do, since it is considered as if he was standing together with them [in prayer]. For “even an iron barrier cannot separate Jews from their Father in Heaven”41 — provided that there are ten men in one location, as explained in sec. 55[:22].

ג יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים שֶׁאֵין נוֹפְלִים אַפַּיִם אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה.נז וְסִימָן לַדָּבָר בְּמִלְחֶמֶת הָעַי35 "וַיִּפֹּל עַל פָּנָיו ... לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן ה'".נח וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה – נוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר תְּחִנָּה36 בְּלֹא כִּסּוּי פָּנִים.נט,37

וַחֲצַר בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת הַפְּתוּחָה לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – הַמִּתְפַּלְלִים בָּהּ כְּשֶׁבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת פָּתוּחַ נוֹהֲגִים לוֹמַר תְּחִנָּה בִּנְפִילַת אַפַּיִם כְּמוֹ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת עַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא כְּשֶׁבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת נָעוּל.ס וּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁל נָשִׁים הִיא כְּבַיִת אֶחָד לְעִנְיָן זֶה עִם בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁהַסֵּפֶר תּוֹרָה בְּתוֹכָהּ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ פָּתוּחַ לוֹ, וְנוֹהֲגִים לוֹמַר בּוֹ בִּנְפִילַת אַפַּיִם.סא,38 אֲבָל עֲזָרָה שֶׁלִּפְנֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת39 – דִּינָהּ כַּחֲצַר בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת.סב

אֲפִלּוּ יָחִיד הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּבֵיתוֹ כְּשֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר מִתְפַּלְּלִין בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת40 – יָכוֹל לִפֹּל עִמָּהֶם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהֵם נוֹפְלִים,סג שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא כְּאִלּוּ עוֹמֵד עִמָּהֶם, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ מְחִצָּה שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל אֵינָהּ מַפְסֶקֶת בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם41 כָּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲשָׂרָה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"ה:סד

4 We do not prostrate ourselves at night, for an esoteric reason.42 Therefore, if the Afternoon Service is extended until nightfall, these supplications should not be recited. Accordingly, [if necessary,] the passage beginning Avinu Malkeinu43 may be skipped so that the congregation can prostrate themselves while it is still day. Nevertheless, concern for this need only be shown when it is definitely night,44 but not during twilight.45

[In the pre-dawn hours,] it is customary to prostrate oneself [during the Selichos prayers],46 because it is close to daylight. Some people follow the custom of prolonging the Selichos until it is definitely daytime47 and then they prostrate themselves.48

ד אֵין נְפִילַת אַפַּיִם בַּלַּיְלָה,סה מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לַיּוֹדְעִים.42 לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִמְשְׁכָה תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה עַד הַלַּיְלָה – אֵין לִפֹּל עַל פָּנָיו.סו וְיֵשׁ לְדַלֵּג "אָבִינוּ מַלְכֵּנוּ"43 כְּדֵי לִפֹּל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.סז וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְזֶה אֶלָּא בְּוַדַּאי לַיְלָה,44 אֲבָל לֹא בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת.סח,45 וְנוֹהֲגִים לִפֹּל עַל פְּנֵיהֶם46 בְּלֵיל אַשְׁמוּרוֹת, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא קָרוֹב לַיּוֹם.סט וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים לְהַאֲרִיךְ בַּסְּלִיחוֹת עַד נְכוֹן הַיּוֹם,47 וְאָז נוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם:ע,48

5 It is customary not to recite these prayers of supplication in the house of a groom on the day he will be married,49 because this day is a festival for him, nor in a synagogue on the day of a circumcision,50 because the mitzvah of circumcision was accepted with joy,51 nor when there is a groom in the synagogue,52 nor in a mourner’s home.53 For the seven days of mourning54 were likened [by the Sages] to the seven days of the festivals with regard to the prohibition against performing work,55 as it is written,56 “I will turn your festivals into mourning.”57

The above also applies to [the supplications beginning] VeHu Rachum that are recited on Mondays and Thursdays.

Even after people have left the house of the groom or the house of mourning and have come home, they are not obligated to recite Tachanun, because its assigned time is immediately after Shemoneh Esreh, and once it has been dislodged from its fixed position, it is suspended entirely. This [exemption] also applies to [reciting the supplications beginning] VeHu Rachum in these countries,21 where they are always recited before58 one prostrates oneself. Though their recitation is obligatory, as stated in sec. 134,59 (the obligation to recite them stems only from a custom, and in the above situation people were exempted from reciting them at the time that doing so was [normally] obligatory, i.e., at the time at which they are customarily recited every day, which is immediately after Shemoneh Esreh before prostrating oneself. Accordingly, they are exempt for that entire day.)60

On Rosh Chodesh, by contrast, when it is customary to refrain from reciting Hallel in a house of mourning, (every individual present should recite Hallel afterwards, when he returns home.61 For the mitzvah of Hallel applies throughout the day62 and its place [in the prayer service] is not fixed for immediately after Shemoneh Esreh.63 Indeed, at certain times it should be recited even before the [Morning] Shemoneh Esreh, as will be explained in sec. 422.64 Needless to say, this applies after [the recitation of] Shemoneh Esreh, for the requirement to recite Hallel continues throughout the day, even for one praying individually on Rosh Chodesh.65 It is recited immediately after the morning Shemoneh Esreh only because “those who are eager hasten to [observe] the mitzvos.”66

[The recitation of Hallel] does not resemble [that of] VeHu Rachum for an additional reason. [The people visiting the mourner] were exempted from reciting [VeHu Rachum] at the time that this was obligatory, because of the mourner’s [halachic] state, which is [governed by laws that parallel the laws of] a festival.67 By contrast, the only reason they are exempt from reciting Hallel is that since there is mourning in the house, they do not desire to say [as part of Hallel], “The dead do not praise you,”68 for it would appear that they are “mocking the poor.”69 They must therefore leave [the house of mourning] and recite it. To cite a parallel: If a person is praying while walking along a road70 and encounters graves directly after Shemoneh Esreh, he must [first] move away from there lest he “mock the poor,” and [only then] recite Hallel.)71

When does the above apply? With regard to Hallel on Rosh Chodesh, for the obligation [to recite it] is only a custom72 and thus it is not customary to recite it in the house of a mourner. On Chanukah, when the recitation of Hallel is an obligation ordained by the Sages,73 it should be recited in a mourner’s home as well, for the mourner is also obligated to recite it. The only difference is that throughout the thirty days of mourning — and throughout the twelve months [of mourning] for a parent — the custom is that the mourner should not lead the congregation during the recitation of Hallel,74 for the [other] congregants are in a state of joy comparable to that of Shabbos and the festivals.75

ה נָהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִפֹּל עַל פְּנֵיהֶם בְּבֵית הֶחָתָןעא בְּיוֹם כְּנִיסָתוֹ לַחֻפָּה,עב,49 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיּוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלּוֹ הוּא.עג וְלֹא בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּיוֹם מִילָּה,עד,50 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּצְוַת מִילָּה בְּשִׂמְחָה קִבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם.עה,51 וְלֹא כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם חָתָן בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת.עו,52 וְלֹא בְּבֵית הָאָבֵל,עז,53 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁז' יְמֵי אֲבֵלוּת הֻקְּשׁוּ54 לְז' יְמֵי הַחַג לְעִנְיַן אִסּוּר עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה,עח,55 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:עט,56 "וְהָפַכְתִּי חַגֵּיכֶם לְאֵבֶל".57 וְהוּא הַדִּין לִ"וְהוּא רַחוּם" שֶׁאוֹמְרִ[ים] בְּב' וְה'.פ

וְאַף לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִבֵּית הֶחָתָן וְהָאָבֵל וּבָאוּ לְבָתֵּיהֶם – אֵין צְרִיכִים לוֹמַר תַּחֲנוּן,פא לְפִי שֶׁמְּקוֹמוֹ הוּא מִיָּד אַחַר תְּפִלַּת י"ח, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּדְחָה מִמְּקוֹם קְבִיעוּתוֹ – נִדְחָה לְגַמְרֵי.פב וְהוּא הַדִּין לִ"וְהוּא רַחוּם"פג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ21 שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים לוֹמַר קֹדֶם58 נְפִילַת אַפַּיִםפד בְּכָל הַיָּמִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲמִירָתוֹ חוֹבָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קל"דפה,59 (מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁחִיּוּבוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי הַמִּנְהָג וְעַכְשָׁו נִפְטְרוּ מִלְּאָמְרוֹ בִּשְׁעַת חִיּוּבוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ בַּזְּמַן שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים לְאָמְרוֹ בְּכָל יוֹם שֶׁהוּא מִיָּד אַחַר תְּפִלַּת י"ח קֹדֶם נְפִילַת אַפַּיִם – נִפְטְרוּ כָּל הַיּוֹם).60

אֲבָל בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים הַלֵּל בְּבֵית הָאֵבֶלפו (יֵשׁ לְכָל אֶחָד לוֹמַר הַלֵּל אַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁבָּא לְבֵיתוֹ,61 שֶׁמִּצְוַת הַלֵּל הִיא כָּל הַיּוֹםפז,62 וְאֵין מְקוֹמוֹ קָבוּעַ מִיָּד אַחַר תְּפִלַּת י"ח,63 שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹתוֹ לִפְעָמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תכ"ב,פח,64 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה, שֶׁזְּמַנָּהּ כָּל הַיּוֹם אֲפִלּוּ לַיָּחִיד בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ,פט,65 וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד אַחַר תְּפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם "זְרִיזִין מַקְדִּימִין לְמִצְווֹת".צ,66 וְעוֹד שֶׁאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לִ"וְהוּא רַחוּם" שֶׁהָיוּ פְּטוּרִים מִלְּאָמְרוֹ בִּשְׁעַת חוֹבָתוֹ מִפְּנֵי הָאֲבֵלוּת שֶׁל אָבֵל שֶׁהִיא לוֹ כְּיוֹם טוֹב,67 אֲבָל מִן הַלֵּל אֵינָם פְּטוּרִים אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּפְּנֵי הָאֲבֵלוּת שֶׁבַּבַּיִת אֵין רוֹצִים לוֹמַר שָׁם "לֹא הַמֵּתִים יְהַלְלוּ יָה"צא,68 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּלוֹעֵג לָרָשׁ,צב,69 לְפִיכָךְ צְרִיכִים לָצֵאת מִשָּׁם וְלִקְרוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַמִּתְפַּלֵּל כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ70 וְהִגִּיעַ אֵצֶל קְבָרוֹתצג אַחַר י"ח מִיָּד, שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק מִשָּׁם מִשּׁוּם "לוֹעֵג לָרָשׁ" וְלִקְרוֹת הַלֵּל).71

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בַּהַלֵּל שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ, שֶׁחִיּוּבוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִנְהָגצד,72 וְלֹא נָהֲגוּ לִקְרוֹת בְּבֵית הָאָבֵל, אֲבָל בַּחֲנֻכָּהצה שֶׁהַהַלֵּל הוּא חוֹבָה מִתַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִיםצו,73 – קוֹרִים גַּם בְּבֵית הָאָבֵל, שֶׁגַּם הָאָבֵל חַיָּב בּוֹ. אֶלָּא שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים שֶׁהָאָבֵל כָּל ל' וְעַל אָבִיו וְעַל אִמּוֹ כָּל י"ב חֹדֶשׁ – אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה בְּעֵת הַהַלֵּל,74 כִּי הַקָּהָל אָז בְּשִׂמְחָה כְּעֵין שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים:צז,75

6 We do not refrain from reciting the Tachanun prayers on the day of a circumcision except in the synagogue in which the circumcision will be held; in another synagogue, these prayers should be recited. However, when it is cold and the child is circumcised at home,76 it is common practice not to recite Tachanun in the synagogue if [any of the principal celebrants]77 at the circumcision is present. All of the above applies only with regard to the Morning Service, for the circumcision is carried out at that time.78 In the Afternoon Service, even when it is recited in proximity to the [circumcised] child, Tachanun is recited.

With regard to a groom, by contrast, Tachanun is not recited the entire day when one is praying [in the domain of] a groom,79 or when the groom comes to the synagogue, on the day of his wedding. [Indeed,] in some places it is customary that a groom does not attend the synagogue for a day or two before his wedding so that the congregation can recite Tachanun. [Nevertheless,] even if [a groom] would come to the synagogue, Tachanun should be recited, except on the day of his wedding. There are those who follow the custom of not reciting Tachanun throughout the seven days of the wedding celebrations80 when a groom is in the synagogue, for these seven days are all considered as a festival for him. Even on the eighth day after the wedding (in the morning), Tachanun is customarily omitted, because the wedding was held close to the evening (and the seven days are not completed until the eighth day at that time).81

In some places it is customary to omit Tachanun in the Afternoon Service as well, when praying in proximity to a child [who has just been circumcised].82 In the synagogue, however, Tachanun is recited even if [one of the principals] of the circumcision is praying there. On Shabbos, [in the Afternoon Service,] Tzidkas’cha Tzedek83 is recited even if the celebratory feast [following a circumcision] will not be held until the night.84

We do not know what happened to the sections that are missing until sec. 158, for they were never published. “Woe for those that are lost.”85

Sections 155 and 156, “newcomers recently arrived,”86 were found in the master’s satchel. May G‑d grant us the understanding and illuminate our eyes with the light of His Torah, Amen.87

ו אֵין מוֹנְעִין מִלִּפֹּל עַל פְּנֵיהֶם בְּיוֹם הַמִּילָה אֶלָּא בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁהַמִּילָה בּוֹ, אֲבָל בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אַחֵר – נוֹפְלִין.צח וּבִזְמַן הַקֹּר שֶׁמָּלִין הַתִּינוֹק בְּבֵיתוֹצט,76 – נוֹהֲגִים שֶׁלֹּא לִפֹּל עַל פְּנֵיהֶם בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת77 שֶׁבַּעַל הַבְּרִית מִתְפַּלֵּל שָׁם.ק וְכָל זֶה בִּתְפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית שֶׁמָּלִין אָז הַתִּינוֹק,78 אֲבָל בְּמִנְחָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִין אֵצֶל הַתִּינוֹק – אוֹמְרִים תַּחֲנוּן.קא

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּחָתָן, שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים תַּחֲנוּן כָּל הַיּוֹם כְּשֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִים אֵצֶל הֶחָתָן,79 אוֹ אִם בָּא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, בְּיוֹם כְּנִיסָתוֹ לַחֻפָּה. וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת נוֹהֲגִים שֶׁאֵין הַחֲתָנִים הוֹלְכִים לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת יוֹם אוֹ יוֹמַיִם קֹדֶם הַחֻפָּה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ הַקָּהָל לוֹמַר תַּחֲנוּן. אַךְ אִם נִכְנְסוּ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אוֹמְרִים תַּחֲנוּן, לְבַד מִיּוֹם הַחֻפָּה.קב וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים שֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר תַּחֲנוּן כָּל ז'80 כְּשֶׁהֶחָתָן בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,קג שֶׁכָּל ז' יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה הֵם לוֹ כְּרֶגֶל.קד וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיּוֹם ח' לְחֻפָּתוֹ (בְּשַׁחֲרִית) אֵין נוֹהֲגִים לִפֹּל עַל פְּנֵיהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה הַחֻפָּה סָמוּךְ לָעֶרֶב (וְלֹא נִשְׁלְמוּ ז' יָמִים עַד יוֹם ח' בָּעֵת הַהִיא).81

וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת נוֹהֲגִים שֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר תַּחֲנוּן גַּם בְּמִנְחָה כְּשֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִים אֵצֶל הַתִּינוֹק.קה,82 אֲבָל בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת נוֹפְלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבַּעַל הַבְּרִית מִתְפַּלֵּל שָׁם. וּבְשַׁבָּת אוֹמְרִים "צִדְקָתְךָ צֶדֶק"קו,83 אֲפִלּוּ אֵין עוֹשִׂין הַסְּעוּדָה אֶלָּא בַּלַּיְלָה:קז,84

הסימנים החסרים עד סימן קנ"ח לא ידענו מה היה להם כי לא היו בדפוס מעולם וחבל על דאבדיןקח,85 חדשים מקרוב נמצאו באמתחת הרבקט קנ"ה וקנ"ו86 וה' יורינו דעת להאיר עינינו במאור תורתו אמן:87

The term used in the above titles, nefilas apayim, literally means “falling on one’s face” because, as will be explained, these supplicatory prayers were originally recited while prostrating oneself (Rambam, Hilchos Tefillah 5:13). In fact, only certain passages are recited while prostrated; one stands while reciting the preceding and following passages. Nevertheless, the name nefilas apayim is often applied also to all these prayers collectively. This bracket of prayers, which is omitted on festive occasions, is also commonly known as Tachanun — lit., “supplication.” These occasions are listed in footnote 84 below.
When praying individually, it is also customary to recite these supplications (Ketzos HaShulchan 24:1).
In his Siddur, as is also the case in all Siddurim of Nussach Sephard, the Alter Rebbe follows the Kabbalistic custom of including the alphabetic confessional (Ashamnu, bagadnu,...) and the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy (VaYaavor...) before these prayers of supplication.

In the content of Tachanun in particular, there is considerable diversity between the wording that appears in the Ashkenazic order of prayer (Nussach Ashkenaz) and the Sephardic order of prayer (Nussach Sepharad, popularly pronounced Nussach Sephard).

To briefly clarify the key terms: Sephardim are Jews originating from Spain (“Sepharad”) or the Orient, as distinct from Ashkenazim (“Ashkenaz” being the classical Heb. name for Germany), who originate from other European countries. However, the prayer rites known as Nussach Sephard and Nussach Ashkenaz do not coincide with these “ethnic” categories. True, Nussach Ashkenaz is the prayer rite that developed in German-speaking and other European lands. But many of the worshipers whose Siddurim follow Nussach Sephard are not of Spanish or Oriental origin; they include many chassidim and non-chassidim of Ashkenazic background, both in Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora. And the prayer rite followed by the Sephardim proper, basically of North African origin, is different again.

The prayer rite sometimes referred to in these footnotes as “the Lubavitch custom” is the version laid down by the AriZal — a variant of Nussach Sephard — as defined by the Alter Rebbe in his Siddur.
See Megillah 22b.
The corresponding nouns in the original are chovah (lit., “obligation”) and reshus (lit., “permission”).

If this prostration were obligatory, R. Eliezer ben Hurkanos would not have refrained from observing this practice, as related in Bava Metzia 59b. (See the Responsa of Rivash, sec. 412.)
They should nevertheless be recited (Eliyah Rabbah 131:1).
Accordingly, one is obviously permitted to respond to Kedushah, Kaddish, or any other davar shebikedushah (lit., “a holy pronouncement”; Rambam, Hilchos Tefillah 8:4-6, et al.) between the end of Shemoneh Esreh and these supplications. (See Shaarei Teshuvah 131:1.)

At this time one may also respond Amen whenever this is called for (Piskei Teshuvos 131:2). By contrast, one may not join the congregation in saying Vayehi binso’a haaron... when the Ark is opened before the Reading of the Torah (Responsa Shevet HaLevi, Vol. 7, sec. 12).
Lit., “to fall on one’s face.”
Bamidbar 14:5 describes how Moshe “fell on his face” in supplication before G‑d, and Yehoshua made supplication in a similar manner (Yehoshua 7:6). From Megillah, loc. cit., and Taanis 14b, it appears that supplicating in this manner was considered an integral part of the prayer service, at least on fast days. From these Talmudic passages, however, it is also evident that this could be done in a variety of positions, as the Alter Rebbe proceeds to explain.
The Scriptural prohibition applies only to a stone floor. It does not apply to a wooden floor, nor to a floor (even of stone) that is covered with an intervening substance such as linoleum. (See Rambam, Hilchos Avodas Kochavim 6:7; Rama, Yoreh Deah 131:8.) Therefore, while saying Aleinu in the course of the Mussaf services of Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur, when it is customary to kneel and to prostrate oneself until one’s forehead touches the floor, one should first spread a handkerchief or the like on the floor if it is made of stone. (See sec. 621:12 in the volume on Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur in the present Bilingual Edition; Sefer HaMinhagim: The Book of Chabad-Lubavitch Customs, p. 120.)
Sefer HaMitzvos (prohibitive commandment 11) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 493) include this prohibition among the Torah’s 613 commandments. Rambam explains that pagans would prostrate themselves in such a manner before their deities (loc. cit., 6:6).
In the original, even maskis — also translatable as “a kneeling stone” (Targum Onkelos), “a decorated stone” (Targum Yonasan), et al. See Encyclopedia Talmudis, Vol. 1, p. 82.
This law is not found in the extant sections of the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch. See the Shulchan Aruch of R. Yosef Caro and Rama, 131:8.
The Alter Rebbe appears to be speaking about an instance in which one desires to recite these supplications after reciting the whispered Shemoneh Esreh. Sec. 123:4 states that some authorities do not require one to return to his place of prayer after stepping back at the end of the whispered Shemoneh Esreh. In practice, even when one prays individually, these supplications are universally recited after taking three steps forward to return to one’s place of prayer.
Covering one’s face with his sleeve is acceptable (Badei HaShulchan 24:4).
As if to say that “His left hand [which is opposite my right hand] is supporting my head.”
I.e., within the Ashkenazic community.
Accordingly, a left-handed person who wears tefillin on his right arm should lean to his left during the Morning Service as well (Pri Megadim: Mishbetzos Zahav 131:2).
The Menorah lit in the synagogue on Chanukah is placed at the south side, recalling its position in the Beis HaMikdash — to the right of the congregants who face the Ark at the east (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 671:7). It was once customary in certain communities to light up the south side of the synagogue with additional candles throughout the year, not only on Chanukah. And it is recorded that in the fourteenth century, the Maharil used to pray near the Menorah that stood in his synagogue — evidently a permanent fixture — to the south of the Ark (Minhagei Maharil: Minhagei Tefillah).
Zohar, Vol. III, p. 120b. See also Tanya — Iggeres HaTeshuvah, ch. 10.
Psalm 25.
This is the custom in the Ashkenazic community. In his Siddur (and this is also the custom of Nussach Sephard), the Alter Rebbe prescribes that Psalm 25 should in fact be recited.
At this point in his Siddur, the Alter Rebbe includes several requests, all beginning Avinu Malkeinu, that are recited while sitting. On Mondays and Thursdays, however, people often recite them while standing, because on those days they are immediately preceded — in Nussach Ari — by prayers that are recited while standing, viz., the extended version of Tachanun that includes the passage beginning VeHu Rachum (Rama, Orach Chayim 134:1).
At this point, it is customary to rise (Shelah, as quoted in Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 22:3).
Devarim 9:9. The verb va’eisheiv, translated here as “I abided,” also means “I sat.”
Loc. cit., v. 18. The Alter Rebbe does not mention standing. It has been noted that the Tur cites Devarim 10:10: “And I stood on the mountain.” Perhaps that verse was omitted because of its resemblance to the verse cited previously. Alternatively, perhaps there is no need to bring support for the obligation to pray while standing, for that is the position in which Shemoneh Esreh is recited.
In fact, several other brief supplications are recited immediately after that verse.
Popular name for the bracket of verses comprising Tehillim 84:5 (whose first word is Ashrei), 144:15, 145:1-21, and 115:18.
Psalm 20; this is its first word.
And in such a case one may recite the supplications while standing (Derech HaChayim 38:5).
This is also the Lubavitch custom — except in Jerusalem, as noted in Ketzos HaShulchan 24:4.
Here the Alter Rebbe is speaking about a prayer service conducted by a group of men in an unoccupied women’s synagogue.
In the original, “the azarah in front of the synagogue,” here translated not as “courtyard,” but as “the entrance hall in front of the synagogue” — in order to distinguish it from the “synagogue courtyard (chatzer) that is open to the synagogue” which is spoken of at the beginning of the paragraph. Unlike the women’s synagogue, people do not usually pray in the entrance hall in front of the synagogue.
See sec. 90:10.
Pesachim 85b.
Or, in the code language of the original, mitaam hayadua layod’im — lit., “for a reason that is known to those who know.”
The Alter Rebbe is evidently referring to “the long Avinu Malkeinu” which is recited on fast days and throughout the Ten Days of Repentance, and which, in Ashkenazic custom, precedes the Tachanun prayers. By contrast, as noted in Siddur Tehillat HaShem (p. 59), in Lubavitch custom “the long Avinu Malkeinu” follows those prayers, at the same point at which “the short Avinu Malkeinu” (see footnote 27 above) is said throughout the year.

This difference in sequence presents another instance of the standard divergence of customs between the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch and his Siddur: his Shulchan Aruch cites the Ashkenazic order of prayer (Nussach Ashkenaz), whereas his Siddur follows the AriZal’s version of the Sephardic order of prayer (Nussach Sephard).

On these terms, see footnote 1392 above.
I.e., after the appearance of stars.
In the original, bein hashmashos — defined as the time between sunset and the appearance of three stars.
Which are recited during the week before Rosh HaShanah, and in many communities, between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur as well. See sec. 602:3 and footnotes there.
In the original, ad nechon hayom (Mishlei 4:18).
In view of this consideration, the Lubavitch custom is not to prostrate oneself during Selichos at all (Sefer HaMinhagim: The Book of Chabad-Lubavitch Customs, p. 115).
In Talmudic times and thereafter, it was customary for the groom, his friends and family to celebrate — and to pray together — for seven days in one house, “the house of the groom” (see sec 639:10).
Subsection 6 below gives more details regarding this exemption.
Shabbos 130a.
This appears to be referring to a groom on the day of his wedding, as stated in Divrei Nechemiah. (See the supplements (Hosafos) to sec. 131 in the reset Heb. edition (5763) of the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch, Vol. 4, p. 425.) Lubavitch halachic authorities have understood this as applying to both the Morning and Afternoon Services. Moreover, even if the wedding will not be held until shortly after nightfall, some authorities recommend that Tachanun should be omitted in the preceding Afternoon Service. As stated in subsection 6 below, some authorities maintain that this exemption should be continued throughout the seven days of the wedding celebration. In his Siddur, the Alter Rebbe accepts this view.

The whole of the above discussion relates to everyone apart from the groom himself, for whom his wedding day is his private Day of Atonement. At Minchah, therefore, he recites Vidui — the entire confessional of Yom Kippur — just before completing Shemoneh Esreh, even though he omits nefilas apayim after Shemoneh Esreh.
This applies even when the mourner is only a child and even when praying in the house of the deceased when there are no mourners present. When, for various reasons, a mourner prays in the synagogue, he should not recite Tachanun, but the other congregants should (Ketzos HaShulchan 24:7).
Since the term used is “the seven days of mourning,” Tachanun is also omitted in the Afternoon Service of the seventh day, even though the mourner already formally rose from his state of mourning at the beginning of that day (ibid.). If the mourner attends the Afternoon Service in the synagogue, then only he omits Tachanun. Indeed, even if a mourner attends services in the synagogue at any time during the seven days of mourning, the congregation still recites Tachanun (Eliyah Rabbah 131:9).
Moed Katan 15b.
For a complete listing of the times at which Tachanun is omitted, see footnote 84 below.
In his Siddur, following a directive of the AriZal, the Alter Rebbe prescribed that these supplications be recited after prostrating oneself. However, the prevailing custom is not to recite these prayers after leaving the house of mourning.
This section is not extant in the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch. See the Tur, and the Shulchan Aruch of R. Yosef Caro, sec. 134:1.
The Alter Rebbe sometimes uses parentheses to indicate additional reasoning that underlies a law that has already been stated.
Alternatively, for fear that people will forget to recite Hallel afterwards, it is customary in certain communities for the mourner to leave the room and for the others to recite Hallel in his absence. This leniency is granted only when the deceased did not pass away in the mourner’s home (Pnei Baruch, p. 119).
Megillah 20b.
I.e., though Hallel is ordinarily recited after Shemoneh Esreh, there is no intrinsic connection between the two prayers.
This section is not extant in the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch. Magen Avraham 422:6 rules that when a person arrives at the synagogue at the time the congregation has reached Hallel, he should join them even though he has not yet recited Shemoneh Esreh. The Alter Rebbe mentions this ruling in sec. 488:3.

In practice, however, chassidim endeavor to keep pace with the minyan and join it in the recitation of Hallel. If one arrived too late to recite Shacharis together with the congregation, which is already about to recite Hallel, instead of reciting Hallel before having completed Shacharis, one is advised to proceed at his own pace through Shacharis and then to recite Hallel individually, at the proper juncture. As the author of Kaf HaChayim writes (Orach Chayim, sec. 422:38), “The saintly AriZal disapproved of the arguments that favor the recitation of prayers out of sequence.” This approach underlies the directives given orally by the Rebbes of Chabad in their respective generations. See Siddur Rabeinu Hazaken Im Tziyunim Mekoros V’Heoros, p. 732, footnote 6.
I.e., the recitation of Hallel on Rosh Chodesh is a custom and does not have the authority of a Rabbinic ordinance, as does the recitation of Hallel on festivals. On the different laws that apply to an individual and to a congregation with regard to the recitation of Hallel on Rosh Chodesh, see the Shulchan Aruch of R. Yosef Caro, sec. 422:2 and Siddur Rabeinu Hazaken Im Tziyunim Mekoros V’Heoros, p. 728.
In the original, zerizin makdimin lemitzvos (Rosh HaShanah 32b). For another application of this principle, see sec. 156:17.
This statement is explained in the opening lines of the present subsection.
In the original, lo’eg larash (cf. Mishlei 17:5). On the basis of this verse we are enjoined not to perform mitzvos in the presence of a corpse — described as “poor,” i.e., unable to perform mitzvos — since this would be “mocking” him (Berachos 18a). For other applications of this concept, see sec. 23:1 in Vol. 1 of the present Bilingual Edition, et al.
On the possibility of praying while walking, see sec. 94:5 above.
See parallels in sec. 71:6 and 72:3.
Taanis 28b.
Ibid.; Arachin 10a. The Alter Rebbe does not mention the recitation of Hallel on festivals, because the laws of mourning are suspended at those times.
In Lubavitch custom, he does not serve as sheliach tzibbur — even at Maariv and Minchah — on any day on which there is a Mussaf service (Sefer HaMinhagim: The Book of Chabad-Lubavitch Customs, p. 68-69). On Chanukah, by contrast, he does serve as sheliach tzibbur, though not for the recitation of Hallel (op. cit., p. 161).
And the custom is that on those days a mourner does not lead the prayers (Rama in Yoreh Deah, end of sec. 374:4).
See also sec. 338:8, sec. 347:7, et al.
In the original, baal habris (in the singular). This term includes the father, the sandak (the person accorded the honor of holding the infant while he is being circumcised), and the mohel (the person who performs the circumcision). See Divrei Nechemiah, p. 73 and the Hosafos referred to in footnote 42 above.
Based on the principle that “those who are eager hasten to [observe] the mitzvos” (see sec. 156:17), it is customary to perform a circumcision in the morning (see Pis’chei Teshuvah, Yoreh Deah 262:2).
As evident from the contrast that follows, this phrase relates to a prayer service that is not held in a synagogue.
In the original, shivas yemei hamishteh — lit., “the seven days of feasting,” popularly known as “the week of Sheva Berachos.” During these days, the Seven Blessings that were first recited under the marriage canopy are appended to the Grace after a Meal whenever a minyan celebrates together in the company of the bride and groom — provided the joy at each such occasion is heightened afresh by the presence of “a new face” (panim chadashos).
Thus, if the wedding took place on Tuesday afternoon, the following Tuesday is the eighth day, and Tachanun is omitted at the Morning Service. The current ruling is different to the one followed in relation to reciting the Seven Blessings at the celebratory meals in the course of the week following the wedding. In that instance there is an issue of reciting blessings in vain, and therefore a stricter approach is followed, whereby the seven days will end — in our example — on Monday afternoon. By contrast, since the recital of Tachanun is a custom, the more lenient ruling is followed.
This is the accepted custom. It goes without saying that if the child has not been circumcised before the Afternoon Service, Tachanun should be omitted at that time.
A passage that is recited before the Kaddish that precedes Aleinu, on the days that Tachanun would have been recited had it been a weekday. Here the Alter Rebbe identifies this passage by the two words that appear first in Siddurim that follow the custom of Nussach Ashkenaz. In his own Siddur, the passage begins with the opening words of a different verse, Tzidkas’cha keharerei E-l.
As is clear from a comparison with the parent Shulchan Aruch of R. Yosef Caro, the Alter Rebbe’s manuscript text of the remaining subsections of sec. 131 has been lost. In response to that challenge, the missing continuation has been supplied as a conjecture in the supplements of Divrei Nechemiah, on the basis of the author’s own scholarship.

A major subject there is the days on which Tachanun is omitted. (The author’s extrapolation builds on the beginning of subsection 5 above and on the list that the Alter Rebbe inserted in his Siddur, immediately before LaMenatzeiach... Yaancha in the weekday Morning Service.)

Those days include: Shabbos and the preceding afternoon; Motzaei Shabbos (until midnight); Rosh Chodesh and the preceding afternoon; the entire month of Nissan; Pesach Sheni (the 14th of Iyar); Lag BaOmer and the preceding afternoon; from the afternoon of erev Rosh Chodesh Sivan through the 12th of Sivan; Tishah BeAv and the preceding afternoon; the Fifteenth of Av and the preceding afternoon; erev Rosh HaShanah and Rosh HaShanah; erev Yom Kippur through the end of the month of Tishrei; Chanukah and the preceding afternoon; the Fifteenth of Shvat and the preceding afternoon; the afternoon of the Fast of Esther when the fast immediately precedes Purim; Purim and Shushan Purim (and, in the First Adar of a leap year, also Purim Katan and the preceding afternoon, and Shushan Purim Katan).

Additional circumstances: When there is a circumcision in the synagogue, or in the presence of the father, the sandak or the mohel; when a groom is present at a prayer service on his wedding day and during the week of Sheva Berachos; in the house of a mourner.

According to Chabad custom, Tachanun is also omitted on certain chassidic festivals, including the 12th and 13th of Tammuz and the preceding afternoon; the 10th of Kislev and the preceding afternoon; the 19th and 20th of Kislev and the preceding afternoon.

The omission of certain other prayers is linked to the omission of Tachanun in the above list. These passages are all indicated in every Siddur; e.g., certain components of Kerias Shema she’al HaMitah, the Prayer before Retiring at Night.
Cf. Sanhedrin 111a. The publishers appended these two sentences to the printings of Shulchan Aruch HaRav from the Warsaw edition of 5598 (1838) onward.
These two sentences — and sec. 155 and 156 that follow hereunder — were included in the printings of Shulchan Aruch HaRav from the Zhitomir edition of 5616 (1856) onward.
טור. וראה רמב"ם הלכות תפלה פ"ה הי"ג. פ"ט ה"ה.
שו"ת ריב"ש סי' תיב. רמ"א ס"א. וראה רמב"ם שם פ"ה הי"ג.
במדבר יד, ה. יהושע ז, ו. תענית יד, ב. מגילה כב, ב. וראה שו"ת ריב"ש סי' תיב. שער הכולל פי"א ס"ו וש"נ.
רב נטרונאי הובא בטור.
שו"ת ריב"ש סי' תיב.
תלמידי הרשב"א (ראה ריטב"א החדשים ושטמ"ק ב"מ נט, ב. צרור החיים ע' יח) בשמו. ארחות חיים בשם גאונים. הובאו בב"י. ש"ע ולבוש ס"א. ובסידור: "אחר שמו"ע בשחרית ובמנחה יאמר וידוי", ואח"כ י"ג מדות ונפ"א. והוא עפ"י פרי עץ חיים שער הסליחות פ"ט. שער הכוונות ענין אל מלך יושב והודוי. סדר היום.
ראה חקרי הלכות ח"ז כז, א.
מ"א ס"ק א.
רמב"ם שם הי"ד. ספר חסידים סי' יח. הובא במ"א שם.
גמ' פ"ג דמגילה כב, ב. ורש"י ד"ה פשוט ידים.
רמב"ם שם הי"ג. פ"ז הי"ז. פ"ט ה"ה. טור.
גמרא שם.
ירושלמי תענית פ"ב ה"ו. לפי' התוס' שם ד"ה אין. רא"ש שם סי' ד. טור ושו"ע ס"ח. ט"ז ס"ק יג.
ראבי"ה סי' תתסז והגהות מיימוניות הל' תפלה פ"ה אות ק בשם רבינו יואל הלוי בפי' הירושלמי שם. ט"ז שם.
גמ' שם ורש"י ד"ה אא"כ וד"ה למה.
יהושע ז, י.
רא"ש שם. טור.
גמרא שם.
משא"כ ברצפת קרשים. ראה ס' המנהגים – חב"ד עמ' 57. וראה גם פס"ד צ"צ שמב, א.
תוס' שם ד"ה ואיבעית. רא"ש שם. טור. כס"מ הל' ע"ז פ"ו ה"ו בדעת הרמב"ם.
גמרא שם.
רמב"ם שם ה"ו.
ויקרא כו, א.
גמרא שם כג, א. רש"י שם ד"ה דמצלי. רמב"ם שם ה"ז והל' תפלה פ"ה הי"ד. ועי' ב"י.
רש"י שם. רמב"ם הל' תפלה שם. רא"ש שם בדעת הרי"ף. ב"ח. מ"א ס"ק יט.
רמב"ם הל' ע"ז שם. תוס' ורא"ש ומרדכי שם. ועי' ב"י בפי' הטור.
אור זרוע ח"א סי' צג. הגהות אשר"י ס"פ תפלת השחר. ב"ח.
סעיף זה בשוע"ר לא הגיע לידינו.
ולענין יוהכ"פ ראה לקמן סי' תרכא סי"ב. ועי' פס"ד צ"צ שמב, א.
ריב"ש סי' תיב. הובא בב"י.
ריב"ש שם. מהרי"ל הל' תפלה (עמ' תלו). מ"א ס"ק ה.
ב"י. שו"ע ס"ב.
מ"א שם. וראה לעיל סי' קכג ס"ג.
מ"א ס"ק ב.
סעיף ג.
סעיף ד.
שבלי הלקט סי' ל בשם רבינו האי. הובא בב"י. ש"ע ס"א.
תהילים קכא, ה.
סעיף ב, וש"נ.
שבלי הלקט סי' ל בשם רבי בנימין. הובא בב"י.
טור בשם מדרש. וריב"ש שם בשם רש"י. הובא בב"י. רמ"א ס"א. ט"ז ס"ק ב.
שיר השירים ב, ו.
ס' המנהגים (טירנא, שחרית של חול עמ' יב). רמ"א שם. מ"א ס"ק ג.
מטה משה סי' רו, הובא במ"א שם. וראה עצי הלבנון סי' ג.
מ"א שם.
זהר ח"ג קכ, ב. הובא בב"י ד"ה כ' בספר הזוהר. וראה גם תניא אגה"ת פ"י.
תהילים כה.
וכ"ה בסידור. ולפנ"כ: רחום וחנון כו'.
זהר שם.
מ"א ס"ק ה.
רמב"ם הל' תפלה פ"ט ה"ה. פ"ז הי"ז. טור רס"י קלא וסי' קלד. רמ"א ס"א.
רמ"א שם.
דברים ט, ט; יח.
בטור: דכתיב ואשב בהר וכתיב ואנכי עמדתי בהר וגו' (שם י, י). ואולי נשמט כאן מפני הדומות.
טור. רמ"א שם. וכ"ה בנוסח הסידור.
רוקח סי' שכד. רמ"א ס"ב. ט"ז ס"ק ה.
יהושע ז, ו.
מנהגי מהרי"ל הל' תפלה (עמ' תמה). שו"ת מהרי"ל החדשות סי' עב. רמ"א שם.
מהרי"ל ורמ"א שם. מ"א ס"ק ז.
הגהות מנהגים (שחרית של חול אות יב). מהרי"ל שם. מ"א שם.
עולת תמיד ס"ק יא. אליה רבה ס"ק ו.
אגור סי' קסח בשם מהרי"ל. רמ"א שם. מ"א ס"ק ח.
סעיף כב וש"נ.
ריקאנטי פ' קרח. צרור החיים עמ' יח. מהר"י אבוהב. ש"ע ס"ג.
מ"א ס"ק ט.
ובנוסח הסידור אבינו מלכנו הוא אחר נפילת אפים.
ב"י. ט"ז ס"ק ח.
צרור החיים. מהר"י אבוהב וש"ע שם. ואין מנהג חב"ד כן. ראה ס' המנהגים – חב"ד ע' 55.
ריקאנטי ומ"א שם.
טור וש"ע ס"ד.
רמ"א שם.
ראה מרדכי מגילה רמז תתח.
שבלי הלקט סי' ל. ש"ע שם.
שבת קל, א. שבלי הלקט שם. ב"י.
שבלי הלקט וש"ע שם.
רקח סי' שטז. שבלי הלקט שם. ב"י. ועי' ט"ז ס"ק ט.
מו"ק טו, ב.
עמוס ח, י.
רקח סי' שטז. שבלי הלקט שם בשם רבי יצחק ב"ר יהודה. שו"ע ס"ה. מ"א ס"ק יג.
ט"ז ס"ק י.
ראה עד"ז לעיל סי' עא ס"א.
ט"ז ס"ק י דלא כמו שכתב בס"ק ט.
ובסידור הנוסח לאמרו אחר נפ"א, עפ"י פע"ח שער הסליחות פ"ט.
סימן זה בשוע"ר לא הגיע לידינו. ועי' בטור ושו"ע ס"א.
רוקח סי' שטז. תניא סי' סח. מ"א ס"ק י. ט"ז סי' תכב ס"ק ב.
מגילה כ, ב. רמב"ם הל' חנוכה פ"ג ה"ט.
סימן זה בשוע"ר לא הגיע לידינו. ועי' מ"א שם ס"ק ו. לקמן סי' תפח ס"ג.
ראה שו"ע סי' תכב ס"ב.
ר"ה לב, ב. רש"י מגילה כ, ב. ד"ה כל היום. וראה גם לקמן סי' קנו סי"ז וש"נ.
תהילים קטו, יז.
ט"ז סי' תכב שם בשם הרוקח שם. וראה לעיל סי' כג ס"א וש"נ. וראה תניא אגה"ת פ"ז.
ראה לעיל סי' עא ס"ו. סי' עב ס"ג וש"נ.
תענית כח, ב. רמב"ם הל' חנוכה פ"ג ה"ז.
מ"א שם בשם התניא שם ומשמעות הרוקח שם. אליה רבה ס"ק ט.
תענית שם. ערכין י, א. רמב"ם שם ה"ג.
שו"ת מהרי"ל סי' כב. אליה רבה סוף סי' תקפב. ומנהג חב"ד שביום שיש בו מוסף אינו יורד לפני התיבה (ס' המנהגים – חב"ד ע' 36). ובחנוכה הוא יורד לפני התיבה, מלבד לאמירת הלל (שם ע' 71).
מהרא"י תרומת הדשן פסקים סי' פא. רמ"א ס"ד.
ראה לקמן סי' שלח ס"ח. סי' שמז ס"ז. סי' תקפד ס"ט. סי' תרכא ס"ג. סידור סדר מילה.
כנסת הגדולה (הגב"י). מ"א ס"ק יא,
רמ"א שם.
מ"א ס"ק יב. וראה גם תרומת הדשן שם סי' פ. מובא בד"מ ס"ק ו ובמ"א שם.
כנסת הגדולה (הגב"י). מ"א שם. ועי' ט"ז ס"ק י.
רש"י כתובות ד, א ד"ה ופורש וד"ה מסייע. רמב"ם הל' אבל פי"א ה"ז.
ב"ח בשם רש"ל. ט"ז ס"ק יא. מ"א שם.
הגהות מנהגים הלכות שבת אות מד. מ"א ס"ק יא. וראה גם לקמן סי' רצב ס"ז וש"נ.
השלמת הסימן נדפסה בדברי נחמי' חאו"ח.
כך נדפס בדפוס ווארשא תקצ"ח ואילך.
כך נדפס בדפוס זיטאמיר תרט"ז ואילך.
Translated by Rabbi Eliyahu Touger and Uri Kaploun.
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