SECTION 52 Laws Relating to One who Arrives Late at the Synagogue [when the Congregation is Approaching] Yishtabach. (1-2)

סימן נב דִּין מִי שֶׁשָּׁהָה לָבוֹא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת עַד "יִשְׁתַּבַּח" וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 Communal prayer is always considered desirable and is accepted, as [implied by] the verse,1 “The mighty [G‑d] does not spurn.” It is likewise written,2 “He redeemed my soul in peace from the battles against me, because of the many who were with me [in prayer].” Accordingly, if a person comes to the synagogue and finds that the congregation is reaching the end of Pesukei DeZimrah, he should skip Pesukei DeZimrah in order to recite Shemoneh Esreh with the congregation.3

[The rationale is that the recitation of] Pesukei DeZimrah was instituted only so that one’s [later] prayer4 be found desirable and acceptable because he prefaced the prayer [proper] with the praise of the Omnipresent.5 If so, it is preferable that he pray together with the congregation, for then his prayers will certainly be accepted.

How should he skip? If he has time to recite the psalm Tehillah LeDavid,6 the [recitation of] this psalm is sufficient [to warrant] the recitation of the blessing Baruch SheAmar before it and the blessing Yishtabach afterwards. Although [the Sages] ordained that one recite from Tehillah LeDavid until Kol HaNeshamah, nevertheless, since the practice was instituted primarily for this psalm, as explained in sec. 51[:1], reciting it [alone, framed by the above two blessings,] suffices — and one can [then proceed to] recite the Shema and [Shemoneh Esreh] with the congregation.

If one has more time, after Tehillah LeDavid he should recite two psalms of praise: Hallelu Es A-donai Min HaShamayim and Hallelu E-l BeKadsho.7 If he does not have time to recite them both, he should recite only Hallelu E-l BeKadsho. If he has more time, he should recite all the five psalms that open and close with the word Halleluyah. If he has [even] more time, he should also recite the passage8 Vayvarech David until LeShem Tifartecha and skip until Yishtabach. If he has more time, he should recite the passage9 Hodu L’A-donai Kir’u BiShmo until VeHu Rachum and skip until the VeHu Rachum that precedes Ashrei, for there is only a compilation of isolated verses between them.

If [when one arrives] the congregation has already begun [the blessing] Yotzer [Or] and he does not have the time to recite Pesukei DeZimrah even when skipping, he should recite the Shema and its blessings together with the congregation and then recite Shemoneh Esreh with them. Some authorities maintain that afterwards he should recite the entire Pesukei DeZimrah with the blessings that precede it and follow it. Others maintain that one need not do so at all, for [its recitation] was ordained only before Shemoneh Esreh.10 Accordingly, one should not recite the blessing beforehand or afterwards. If, however, one desires to recite these verses without their blessings, he is acting in a desirable manner; indeed, would that one recite [these psalms of praise] throughout the day.11

With regard to the [practical] halachic ruling, one should recite [Pesukei DeZimrah] after [Shemoneh Esreh] out of deference to the first opinion, but he should not recite the blessings Baruch SheAmar and Yishtabach, for when there is doubt concerning the recitation of a blessing, we do not recite it. Nevertheless,12 one should recite all the blessings he is obligated to recite in the morning as stated in sec. 46. One authority maintains that [in such a case] one should not recite the blessing E-lohai Neshamah, because he fulfilled his obligation with the blessing Mechayeh HaMeisim in [Shemoneh Esreh]. As an initial and preferred option it is advisable to defer to this opinion and recite this blessing [namely, E-lohai Neshamah, at its regular place, which is long] before Shemoneh Esreh.

א תְּפִלַּת צִּבּוּר הִיא רְצוּיָהּ וּמְקֻבֶּלֶתא לְעוֹלָם,ב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ג,1 "כַּבִּיר לֹא יִמְאָס", וְאוֹמֵר:ד,2 "פָּדָה בְשָׁלוֹם נַפְשִׁי מִקְּרָב לִי כִּי בְרַבִּים הָיוּ עִמָּדִי". לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁבָּא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וּמָצָא צִּבּוּר בְּסוֹף פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה – יֵשׁ לוֹ לְדַלֵּג פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָהה כְּדֵי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עִם הַצִבּוּר,3 שֶׁפְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה גַּם כֵן לֹא נִתַּקְּנוּ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל הַתְּפִלָּה4 שֶׁתִּהְיֶה רְצוּיָה וּמְקֻבֶּלֶתו עַל יְדֵי שֶׁמְּסַדֵּר שִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם תְּחִלָּה5 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל, וְאִם כֵן מוּטָב לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עִם הַצִּבּוּר שֶׁאָז תְּפִלָּתוֹ מְקֻבֶּלֶת וַדַּאי.ז

וְכֵיצַד מְדַלֵּג? אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁהוּת לִקְרוֹת מִזְמוֹר "תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד" – דַּי בְּמִזְמוֹר זֶהח לְבָרֵךְ לְפָנָיו "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָמַר" וְאַחֲרָיו "יִשְׁתַּבַּח". וְאַף שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ לְבָרֵךְ וְלִקְרוֹת מִ"תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד" עַד "כֹּל הַנְּשָׁמָה",ט מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר הַתַּקָּנָה לֹא הָיְתָה אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל מִזְמוֹר זֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"אי – דַּי לוֹ בְּמִזְמוֹר זֶה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּקְרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַעיא וְיִתְפַּלֵּל עִם הַצִבּוּר.

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁהוּת יוֹתֵר – יֹאמַר אַחַר "תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד"6 ב' מִזְמוֹרִים שֶׁל הִלּוּלִים, שֶׁהֵם: "הַלְלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם" וּמִזְמוֹר "הַלְלוּ אֵל בְּקָדְשׁוֹ".יב,7 וְאִם אֵין לוֹ שְׁהוּת לוֹמַר שְׁנֵיהֶם – יֹאמַר "הַלְלוּ אֵל בְּקָדְשׁוֹ" לְבַדּוֹ.יג

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁהוּת יוֹתֵר – יֹאמַר כָּל ה' מִזְמוֹרֵי "הַלְלוּיָהּ".יד

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁהוּת יוֹתֵר – יֹאמַר גַּם8 "וַיְבָרֶךְ דָּוִיד עַד "לְשֵׁם תִּפְאַרְתֶּךָ"טו וּמְדַלֵּג עַד "יִשְׁתַּבַּח".

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁהוּת יוֹתֵר – יֹאמַר9 "הוֹדוּ לַה' קִרְאוּ" עַד "וְהוּא רַחוּם", וּמְדַלֵּג עַד "וְהוּא רַחוּם" שֶׁלִּפְנֵי "אַשְׁרֵי",טז כִּי בֵּינְתַיִם אֵינָם רַק פְּסוּקִים מְלֻקָּטִים.יז

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁהוּת יוֹתֵר – יֹאמַר "הוֹדוּ לַה' קִרְאוּ" עַד "וְהוּא רַחוּם", וּמְדַלֵּג עַד "וְהוּא רַחוּם" שֶׁלִּפְנֵי "אַשְׁרֵי",טז כִּי בֵּינְתַיִם אֵינָם רַק פְּסוּקִים מְלֻקָּטִים.יז

וְאִם כְּבָר הִתְחִילוּ הַצִּבּוּר יוֹצֵר וְאֵין לוֹ שְׁהוּת לוֹמַר פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִלּוּג – יִקְרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ עִם הַצִּבּוּר וְיִתְפַּלֵּל עִמָּהֶם.יח

וְאַחַר כָּךְ, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיט שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִקְרוֹת כָּל הַפְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה עִם הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁלִּפְנֵיהֶם וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ כָּל עִקָּר, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נִתַּקְּנוּ אֶלָּא קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה10 לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לוֹ לְבָרֵךְ כְּלָל לֹא לִפְנֵיהֶם וְלֹא לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא אִם רוֹצֶה לִקְרוֹתָם בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה יָפֶה הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, וְהַלְוַאי שֶׁיֹּאמְרֵם כָּל הַיּוֹם.כא,11 וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה יֵשׁ לוֹ לִקְרוֹתָם אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה כְּדֵי לָחוּשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, אֲבָל לֹא יְבָרֵךְ לֹא "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָמַר" וְלֹא "יִשְׁתַּבַּח",כב שֶׁסָּפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם12 יֹאמַר כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁמְּחֻיָּב לְבָרֵךְ בַּבֹּקֶר,כג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן מ"ו.כד וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרכה שֶׁלֹּא יְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת "אֱלֹהַי נְשָׁמָה", מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּצָא בְּבִרְכַּת מְחַיֶּה הַמֵּתִים שֶׁבַּתְּפִלָּה. וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו לְכַתְּחִלָּהכו לְבָרֵךְ אוֹתָהּ קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה:

2 If one arrives [at the synagogue] when the congregation has already begun Yishtabach, it is desirable to listen to [its] recitation by the sheliach tzibbur. If one arrives [at the synagogue] close to the Reading of the Shema, but can [yet] begin [the blessing] Yotzer [Or] and reach Shemoneh Esreh and pray together with the congregation, he should do so even if he will not recite the Reading of the Shema together with [them], for the main concern is that he recite Shemoneh Esreh with [them].

All of the above applies after the fact, when one wrongfully arrived late at the synagogue. Initially, one is obligated to be prompt and arrive [there] in a way that will not require him to skip anything in order to recite Shemoneh Esreh together with the congregation.

ב אִם בָּא כְּשֶׁהִתְחִילוּ הַקָּהָל "יִשְׁתַּבַּח" – טוֹב שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע "יִשְׁתַּבַּח" מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר.כז וְאִם בָּא סָמוּךְ לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וְיָכוֹל לְהַתְחִיל "יוֹצֵר" וּלְהַגִּיעַ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל י"ח עִם הַצִּבּוּר – יַעֲשֶׂה כֵן,כח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע עִם הַצִבּוּר, כִּי עִקַּר הַקְפֵּדָה הִיא שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל י"ח עִם הַצִּבּוּר.כט

וְכָל זֶה בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁעָבַר וְשָׁהָה לָבֹא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה חַיָּב כָּל אָדָם לְזָרֵז אֶת עַצְמוֹ לָבֹא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְדַלֵּג כְּלוּם כְּדֵי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת י"ח עִם הַצִּבּוּר:ל