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Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 4 - Laws Relating to Washing Hands

Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 4 - Laws Relating to Washing Hands

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SECTION 4 Laws Relating to Washing the Hands. (1–21)

סימן ד דִּינֵי נְטִילַת יָדַיִם, וּבוֹ כא סְעִיפִים:

1 When one gets up in the morning,1 whether he relieves himself or not, he must wash his hands with [at least] a quarter of a lug2 of water from a container.3 [This applies] even if he does not desire to pray until several hours later,4 because when the Holy One, blessed be He, restores one’s soul, he becomes like a newly-created being,5 as in the verse,6 “They are new every morning...” [When retiring at night] a person entrusts his weary soul to the Holy One, blessed be He, Who returns it to him [when he rises in the morning] renewed and rested,7 so that he can exert himself on behalf of G‑d with all his potential and serve Him throughout that day — “for this is the entire purpose of man.”8

We should therefore sanctify ourselves in His holiness by washing our hands from a container [to prepare] to carry out His service and minister to Him, like a kohen who would sanctify his hands from the Basin [in the Beis HaMikdash] every day before [beginning] his service.

The blessing to be recited is Al netilas yadayim, not Al rechitzas yadayim,9 for the Sages call the container used for washing10natla.11 By choosing the term netilah for the blessing, they indicate that a container must be used.12

א כָּל אָדָם הַקָּם מִמִּטָּתוֹ שַׁחֲרִית,א, 1 בֵּין עָשָׂה צְרָכָיו בֵּין לֹא עָשָׂה צְרָכָיו – צָרִיךְ לִרְחֹץ יָדָיו בִּרְבִיעִית הַלֹּג מַיִם2 מִן הַכְּלִי,ב, 3 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל ג עַד לְאַחַר כַּמָּה שָׁעוֹת,4 לְפִי שֶׁכָּל אָדָם כְּשֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מַחֲזִיר לוֹ נִשְׁמָתוֹ – נַעֲשֶׂה כִּבְרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה,ד, 5 כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: ה, 6 "חֲדָשִׁים לַבְּקָרִים כו'", שֶׁהָאָדָם מַפְקִיד נִשְׁמָתוֹ עֲיֵפָה, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מַחֲזִיר לוֹ חֲדָשָׁה וּרְגוּעָה,ו, 7 כְּדֵי לַעֲבֹד לְהַשֵּׁם יִתְבָּרֵךְ בְּכָל יְכָלְתּוֹ, וּלְשָׁרְתוֹ כָּל הַיּוֹם, כִּי זֶה כָּל הָאָדָם.ז, 8

לְפִיכָךְ, צְרִיכִים אֲנַחְנוּ לְהִתְקַדֵּשׁ בִּקְדֻשָּׁתוֹ, וְלִטֹּל יָדֵינוּ מִן הַכְּלִי, כְּדֵי לַעֲבֹד עֲבוֹדָתוֹ וּלְשָׁרְתוֹ, כְּמוֹ כֹּהֵן שֶׁהָיָה מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו מִן הַכִּיּוֹר בְּכָל יוֹם קֹדֶם עֲבוֹדָתוֹ.

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו מִן הַכְּלִי דַּוְקָא, לָכֵן יְבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם", וְלֹא "עַל רְחִיצַת יָדָיִם",9 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַכְּלִי שֶׁמִּמֶּנּוּ נוֹטְלִין לַיָּדַיִם ח,10 – נִקְרָא "נַטְלָא"11 בְּלָשׁוֹן חֲזַ"ל,ט לָכֵן תִּקְּנוּ בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ לְשׁוֹן נְטִילָה, לְהוֹרוֹת דְּצָרִיךְ כְּלִי.י,12

2 With regard to this washing,13 it is not necessary that the water be poured over one’s hands by a person. Even if one swashed his hands inside a container of water, this is considered as washing.14

ב בִּנְטִילָה זוֹ13 אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ הַמַּיִם עַל יָדָיו מִכֹּחַ אָדָם דַּוְקָא,יא אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ שִׁפְשֵׁף יָדָיו בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל מַיִם – עָלְתָה לוֹ נְטִילָה.14

3 If one does not have a container at all [available]15 but instead washes his hands without a container with water that has been drawn,16 or if the water he has does not amount to a reviis of a log, he should nevertheless not refrain from reciting the blessing Al netilas yadayim for this reason. Since he did wash his hands with water that is valid for washing, the Sages did not draw a distinction [and bar the recitation of the blessing in this case].17

[Different rules apply,] however, if one does not have any water that meets the required standards,18 as is explained in sec. 160. If he does not intend to pray until much later, his attention will no doubt be diverted from guarding his hands [from impure contact] and then he will have to wash his hands again before praying.19 In such a case he should not recite any blessing at all on this [first] washing.

If one does not have any water at all,20 but wishes to pray immediately, he should clean his hands with pebbles, with dust, on a beam,21 or with any substance that cleans. In such a case he should recite the blessing [praising G‑d] “Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the cleanliness of the hands.”22

If one does not intend to pray immediately, then should he have slept in his clothes he need not clean his hands at all, and he may recite all the Morning Blessings without washing his hands.23 For unless there is positive knowledge that one’s hands came in contact with a source of impurity, they are not assumed to be in a state that precludes the recitation of a blessing.24 It was only for the recitation of Shema and Shemoneh Esreh that [the Sages] instituted [the requirement of] washing one’s hands.25

If, however, one slept unclothed,26 he is forbidden to pronounce any of the seven names of G‑d which cannot be erased or to utter any words of Torah27 until he cleans his hands, using any substance which serves that purpose. For since his hands are presumably active,28 he probably touched29 parts of his body that [are usually] covered,30 such as the thighs and legs, where there is dried perspiration.

ג אִם אֵין לוֹ כְּלִי כְּלָל,יב, 15 אֶלָּא רוֹחֵץ יָדָיו בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִים16 שֶׁלֹּא מִן הַכְּלִי, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַיִם כְּדֵי שִׁעוּר רְבִיעִית הַלֹּג – לֹא יִמָּנַע בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה מִלְּבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם", מִשּׁוּם דְּלֹא פְּלוּג רַבָּנָן,17 כֵּיוָן שֶׁרוֹחֵץ יָדָיו בְּמַיִם הַכְּשֵׁרִים לִנְטִילָה.

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ כְּלָל מַיִם הַכְּשֵׁרִים לִנְטִילָה,יג,18 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן בְּסִימָן קס, אִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַד לְאַחַר זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה,יד בְּאֹפֶן שֶׁיַּסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁמִירַת יָדָיו וְיִצְטָרֵךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת כְּדֵי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל טו,19 – אֲזַי לֹא יְבָרֵךְ כְּלָל עַל נְטִילָה זו ֹ.טז

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מַיִם כְּלָל,יז,20 אִם רוֹצֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִיָּד – צָרִיךְ לְנַקּוֹת יָדָיו קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה בִּצְרוֹר אוֹ בְּעָפָר אוֹ בְּקוֹרָה יח,21 אוֹ בְּכָל מִידֵי דִּמְנַקֵּי, וִיבָרֵךְ "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל נְקִיּוּת יָדָיִם".22

וְאִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִיָּד – אֵין צָרִיךְ אֲפִלּוּ לְנַקּוֹת אֶת יָדָיו, אִם שָׁכַב בְּמַלְבּוּשָׁיו, וְיָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ כֵּן בְּלִי נְטִילַת יָדַיִם יט,23 כָּל בִּרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר, דִּסְתָם יָדַיִם שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לָהֶם שׁוּם טֻמְאָה – אֵינָן פְּסוּלוֹת לִבְרָכָה,כ,24 שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ רְחִיצַת יָדַיִם אֶלָּא לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה בִּלְבַד.כא,25

אֲבָל אִם הָיָה יָשֵׁן עַל מִטָּתוֹ עָרֹם כב,26 – אָסוּר לְהַזְכִּיר [שׁוּם] שֵׁם מִשִּׁבְעָה שֵׁמוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן נִמְחָקִין, אוֹ לְהוֹצִיא דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה מִפִּיו,כג,27 עַד שֶׁיְּנַקֶּה אֶת יָדָיו בְּכָל מִידֵי דִּמְנַקֵּי, מִשּׁוּם דְּמִסְּתָּמָא נָגַע כד בִּמְקוֹמוֹת הַמְכֻסִּים כה,30 שֶׁבָּאָדָם, כְּגוֹן: שׁוֹק וְיָרֵךְ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מִלְמוּלֵי זֵעָה, שֶׁהַיָּדַיִם עַסְקָנִיּוֹת הֵן.כו,28

4 Our Sages teach31 that when anyone sleeps sixty [consecutive] breaths at night,32 his soul departs from him and a spirit of impurity comes and rests upon his body. As soon as he awakes from sleep, the spirit of impurity departs from his entire body with the exception of his hands, for it does not depart from them until he pours water over each hand separately three times.33 He should not pour water over each hand three times consecutively,34 but should alternate — first right, then left,35 three times.

ד אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים: כז, 31 כָּל הַיָּשֵׁן בַּלַּיְלָה שִׁשִּׁים נְשִׁימוֹת כח, 32 [כֵּיוָן] שֶׁנִּסְתַּלְּקָה מִמֶּנּוּ נִשְׁמָתוֹ – בָּאָה רוּחַ הַטֻּמְאָה וְשׁוֹרָה עַל גּוּפוֹ, וּמִיָּד שֶׁנֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹ – נִסְתַּלְּקָה רוּחַ הַטֻּמְאָה מִן כָּל גּוּפוֹ חוּץ מִן יָדָיו, שֶׁאֵין רוּחַ הַטֻּמְאָה מִסְתַּלֵּק מֵעֲלֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁפֹּךְ מַיִם עַל יָדָיו שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים,33 עַל כָּל יָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.כט וְלֹא יִשְׁפֹּךְ עַל יָד אַחַת שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים רְצוּפִים,34 אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת עַל יָמִין וּפַעַם אַחַת עַל שְׂמֹאל,ל, 35 וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים.

5 Before he washes his hands in this manner he should not touch his mouth, lest he become dumb, nor his ears, lest he become deaf, nor his eyes, lest he become blind, nor his nose or mouth, lest he bring about an unpleasant odor.36

ה וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְּלֵם עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר – לֹא יִגַּע בְּיָדָיו לַפֶּה שֶׁלֹּא יִתְאַלֵּם, וְלֹא לָאָזְנַיִם שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחָרֵשׁ, וְלֹא לָעֵינַיִם שֶׁלֹּא יִסְתַּמֵּא, וְלֹא לַחֹטֶם וְלֹא לַפֶּה שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בַּעַל פּוֹלִיפּוּס, דְּהַיְנוּ רֵיחַ הַחֹטֶם וְהַפֶּה.לא, 36

6 Similarly, before washing his hands, a person should not touch a place from which blood has been let, nor should he touch any food37 or drink38 lest he make them impure.

ו וְכֵן לֹא יִגַּע בְּיָדָיו קֹדֶם נְטִילָה בִּמְקוֹם הַקָּזָה.לב וְכֵן לֹא יִגַּע לְשׁוּם מַאֲכָל לג, 37 אוֹ מַשְׁקֶה,לד, 38 שֶׁלֹּא יְטַמְּאֵם.

7 There is no necessity to dry one’s hands after washing in the morning;39 it is permissible to recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim — and similarly, all the other blessings — without having dried one’s hands.40 All that is necessary is to wash the fingers,41 though it is preferable to wash up to the wrist.42

ז אֵין צָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב הַיָּדַיִם אַחַר הַנְּטִילָה שֶׁל שַׁחֲרִית.לה, 39 וּמֻתָּר לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" בְּלִי נִגּוּב. וְהוּא הַדִּין שְׁאָר כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת.40 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל אֶלָּא הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת.לו, 41 וּמִיהוּ טוֹב שֶׁיִּטְּלֵם עַד פֶּרֶק הַזְּרוֹעַ.לז, 42

8 One should not wash one’s hands in the morning over the ground, but rather into a receptacle, preferably an offensive one.43

ח נְטִילַת יָדַיִם שַׁחֲרִית – אֵין נוֹטְלִין עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע,לח אֶלָּא לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי. וְטוֹב שֶׁיְּהֵא כְּלִי הַתַּחְתּוֹן מָאוּס.לט, 43

9 Water that was used for washing the hands in the morning44 may not be used for any other purpose: any benefit from it is forbidden because of the spirit of impurity that rests upon it. It should therefore not be left in the house,45 nor should it be poured out [on the floor] in the house, nor in any place where people pass, lest someone touch it and be harmed.46

ט מַיִם שֶׁל נְטִילַת יָדַיִם שַׁחֲרִית מ, 44 – אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם, מִפְּנֵי רוּחַ רָעָה שֶׁשּׁוֹרָה עֲלֵיהֶן. וְלָכֵן לֹא יְלִינֵם בַּבַּיִת.45 וְכֵן יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁפְּכֵם בַּבַּיִת, וְלֹא בְּשׁוּם מָקוֹם שֶׁעוֹבְרִים שָׁם בְּנֵי אָדָם, שֶׁמָּא יִגַּע בָּהֶם אָדָם וְיֻזַּק.46

10 The right hand should be washed first, for the reason explained in sec. 2[:4]. Since it is desirable that the water which purifies one’s hands come from the right hand, as explained in the Zohar,47 the container of water should be picked up with the right hand and then passed on to the left, so that one can pour water on his right hand first.48

י כְּשֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל יָדָיו – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יַד יְמִינוֹ תְּחִלָּה, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ב.מא וּלְפִי שֶׁטּוֹב הוּא שֶׁמִּן יַד יָמִין יָבוֹאוּ הַמַּיִם עַל יָדָיו לְטַהֲרָם, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בַּזֹּהַר,מב, 47 לְפִיכָךְ יִטֹּל כְּלִי שֶׁל מַיִם בְּיַד יְמִינוֹ וְנוֹתְנוֹ לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁפֹּךְ מַיִם עַל יְמִינוֹ תְּחִלָּה.מג, 48

11 A person who himself has not yet washed his hands that morning should not pour water over another person’s hands,49 as is implied by the verse,50 “And the pure shall sprinkle on the impure.”

יא וְלֹא יִשְׁפֹּךְ לוֹ עַל יָדָיו מִי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נָטַל יָדָיו שַׁחֲרִית,מד, 49 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: מה, 50 "וְהִזָּה הַטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא".

12 If one swashed his hands three times in one container of water,51 this washing is not effective in removing the spirit of impurity from his hands, for as soon as he placed them there the first time, he made all the water impure,52 like drainage water.

If he swashed his hands three times, but each time in a different body of water,53 or if he swashed them in a flowing stream whose water at any given point was being constantly replaced, it is doubtful whether this is sufficient to remove the spirit of impurity that rests on them. It is advisable that he wash them again as the law requires, because it is possible that the spirit of impurity cannot be removed from them unless water is poured [over them] three times from a container.54

יב אִם שִׁכְשֵׁךְ יָדָיו לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל מַיִם מו, 51 שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בִּכְלִי אֶחָד – לֹא עָלְתָה לוֹ נְטִילָה לְהַעֲבִיר רוּחַ רָעָה מֵעֲלֵיהֶן, שֶׁמִּיָּד שֶׁשִּׁכְשֵׁךְ יָדָיו פַּעַם רִאשׁוֹנָה בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי – נִטְמְאוּ כָּל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי,מז, 52 וְהַוְיָן כְּמֵי שׁוֹפְכִין. וְאִם שִׁכְשֵׁךְ יָדָיו שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה מֵימוֹת מְחֻלָּפִים,מח, 53 אוֹ בַּנָּהָר מט דְּקַמָּאִי קַמָּאִי אַזְלֵי לְהוּ וְהַנֵּי אַחֲרִינֵי נִינְהוּ – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם עָלְתָה לוֹ נְטִילָה לְהַעֲבִיר רוּחַ רָעָה שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן. וְטוֹב שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר וְיִטְּלֵם כְּדִינָם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁאֵין רוּחַ רָעָה מִסְתַּלֶּקֶת מֵהַיָּדַיִם אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים מֵהַכְּלִי.נ, 54

13 If a person remained awake all night55 he must wash his hands as soon as day breaks, even though throughout the night he guarded them uninterruptedly against impurity — by wearing gloves, for example.56 Even so he should wash his hands from a container, without reciting a blessing, at daybreak.57 The rationale is that perhaps when our Sages ordained that the hands be washed in the morning for the reason stated above in subsection 1, they did not intend to differentiate between an instance in which a person slept, thereby becoming a newly-created being, and an instance in which he did not sleep at all.58

יג אִם הָיָה נֵעוֹר כָּל הַלַּיְלָה נא, 55 – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו מִיָּד כְּשֶׁיֵּאוֹר הַיּוֹם, אַף־עַל־פִּי שֶׁבְּכָל הַלַּיְלָה לֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁמִירַת יָדָיו, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִנִּיחָן בְּבָתֵּי יָדַיִם56 – אַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו מִן הַכְּלִי בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה כְּשֶׁיֵּאוֹר הַיּוֹם,נב, 57 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר דִּכְשֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים נְטִילַת יָדַיִם בְּכָל שַׁחַר מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסָעִיף א – לֹא רָצוּ לְחַלֵּק בֵּין יָשַׁן דְּנַעֲשָׂה בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה, לְלֹא יָשַׁן כְּלַל.נג, 58

14 If one wakes up before dawn59 and washes his hands, it is desirable that at sunrise he again wash his hands three times as required.60 For it is possible that it is the night itself that causes the spirit of impurity to rest upon one’s hands, even if he does not sleep.

Nevertheless, even if he went back to sleep and slept for a significant period,61 in which instance the spirit of impurity undoubtedly rests upon his hands and he is required to wash his hands three times again when he rises, he should not recite a blessing over this [second] washing.62 For [our Sages] instituted a blessing over the washing of the hands only when one becomes a newly-created being, as stated above in subsection 1 — and the second sleep does not make him a newly-created being, for this takes place only once [a day], not twice.63

יד הַמַּשְׁכִּים קֹדֶם עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר59 וְנָטַל יָדָיו – טוֹב שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר וִיעָרֶה עַל יָדָיו שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים כְּדִינָם כְּשֶׁיֵּאוֹר הַיּוֹם,נד, 60 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלַּיְלָה הִיא גּוֹרֶמֶת שֶׁיִּשְׁרֶה רוּחַ רָעָה עַל הַיָּדַיִם אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא שֵׁנָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֲפִלּוּ הִשְׁכִּיב עַצְמוֹ אַחַר־כָּךְ לִישֹׁן פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה שְׁנַת קֶבַע,נה, 61 דְּוַדַּאי שׁוֹרָה רוּחַ רָעָה עַל יָדָיו וְצָרִיךְ לְעָרוֹת עֲלֵיהֶן שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים כְּשֶׁיָּקוּם מִמִּטָּתוֹ – אַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל נְטִילָה זוֹ,נו, 62 דְּלֹא תִּקְּנוּ בִּרְכַּת "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסָעִיף א, וּבְשֵׁנָה זוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה, דְּפַעַם אַחַת נַעֲשֶׂה בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה וְלֹא שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים.63

15 If one slept for a duration of at least sixty [consecutive] breaths during the day,64 it is desirable that he pour water over his hands [alternately] three times, for possibly it is sleep that causes the spirit of impurity to rest upon his hands, even during the day.65

טו אִם יָשַׁן בַּיּוֹם שִׁעוּר שִׁשִּׁים נְשִׁימוֹת נז, 64 – טוֹב שֶׁיְּעָרֶה עַל יָדָיו מַיִם שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים,מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהַשֵּׁנָה [הִיא] גּוֹרֶמֶת שֶׁתִּשְׁרֶה רוּחַ רָעָה עַל הַיָּדַיִם אֲפִלּוּ בַּיּוֹם.נח, 65

16 King David, may he rest in peace, made a point of never sleeping as much as sixty consecutive breaths at night,66 so that he would not experience the taste of death. Until midnight67 he would doze briefly, as a horse does, and at midnight he would muster the strength of a lion.

טז דָּוִד הַמֶּלֶךְ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם הָיָה נִזְהָר שֶׁלֹּא לִישֹׁן כָּל הַלַּיְלָה שִׁשִּׁים נְשִׁימוֹת רְצוּפִין,נט, 66 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעֹם טַעַם מִיתָה, רַק הָיָה מִתְנַמְנֵם כְּסוּס עַד חֲצוֹת לַיְלָה,ס, 67 וּבַחֲצוֹת לַיְלָה הָיָה מִתְגַּבֵּר כָּאֲרִי.

17 There are those who are accustomed to rinse their mouths68 of mucus in the morning, so that they will be able to bless the great name [of G‑d] in holiness and purity.

יז יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לִרְחֹץ פִּיהֶם שַׁחֲרִית,סא, 68 מִפְּנֵי הָרִירִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּה, כְּדֵי לְבָרֵךְ אֶת שֵׁם הַגָּדוֹל בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וּבְטָהֳרָה.סב

18 Certain situations require that the hands be washed with water specifically69 and not merely be cleaned with other substances,70 though it is not required that the water be poured over them three times.71 This requirement [to wash with water] applies to a person who has gotten up from bed,72 or who has left a lavatory or a bathhouse,73 or who has trimmed his nails,74 removed his shoes with his hands,75 touched his feet, touched his body76 with his hands, washed his hair,77 touched a louse, engaged in marital relations,78 checked his clothes for lice — even if he did not actually touch a louse because he did not find any, walked among graves,79 or touched a corpse. If, however, he merely walked next to a corpse, he does not have to wash his hands. Nevertheless, it has become customary to wash one’s hands even [after leaving a house in which] a corpse [is lying] or after one has accompanied it [on the way to burial].80

If a Torah scholar in one of the above situations neglects to wash his hands, he will forget his studies; if someone who is not a Torah scholar neglects to wash his hands in these situations, his mind will be jeopardized.81

יח אֵלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכִין נְטִילָה בְּמַיִם דַּוְקָא,סג, 69 וְלֹא בְּכָל מִידֵי דִּמְנַקֵּי,סד, 70 אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לְעָרוֹת עַל יָדָיו שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים,סה, 71 אֵלּוּ הֵן: הַקָּם מֵהַמִּטָּה,סו, 72 וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הַכִּסֵּא וּמִבֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ,73 וְהַנּוֹטֵל צִפָּרְנָיו,74 וְהַחוֹלֵץ מִנְעָלָיו בְּיָדָיו,סז, 75 וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּרַגְלָיו, וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּגוּפוֹ76 בְּיָדוֹ, וְהַחוֹפֵף רֹאשׁוֹ,77 וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּכִנָּה, וְהַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ,סח, 78 וּמִי שֶׁמְּפַלֶּה כֵּלָיו אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נָגַע בְּכִנָּה שֶׁלֹּא מָצָא,סט וְהַהוֹלֵךְ בֵּין הַקְּבָרוֹת,ע, 79 וּמִי שֶׁנָּגַע בְּמֵת. אֲבָל אִם הָלַךְ אֵצֶל מֵת עא – אֵין צָרִיךְ נְטִילָה, וּמִיהוּ נָהֲגוּ לִטֹּל אֲפִלּוּ נִכְנַס לְמֵת אֶחָד,עב וְהוּא הַדִּין הַמְלַוִּין אוֹתוֹ.80 וּמִי שֶׁעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל אֵלּוּ וְלֹא נָטַל יָדָיו,עג אִם תַּלְמִיד חָכָם הוּא – תַּלְמוּדוֹ מִשְׁתַּכֵּחַ, וְאִם אֵינוֹ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם – יוֹצֵא מִדַּעְתּוֹ.81

19 If a person lets blood from his shoulders82 and does not wash his hands thereafter, he will be afraid for seven days without knowing the reason for his fear. If he cuts83 his hair without washing his hands, he will be afraid for three days. If he cuts his nails without washing his hands, he will be afraid for one day.

יט הַמַּקִּיז דָּם מֵהַכְּתֵפַיִם עד, 82 וְלֹא נָטַל יָדָיו אַחַר־כָּךְ – מְפַחֵד שִׁבְעָה יָמִים וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מִמַּה מְּפַחֵד. הַמְגַלֵּחַ שְׂעָרוֹ83 וְלֹא נָטַל יָדָיו – מְפַחֵד שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים. הַנּוֹטֵל צִפָּרְנָיו וְלֹא נָטַל יָדָיו – מְפַחֵד יוֹם אֶחָד.

20 When one washes his face but does not dry it well,84 his facial skin will crack or develop sores. This may be remedied by frequent washing with the juice of beets.

כ הָרוֹחֵץ פָּנָיו וְלֹא נִגְּבָם יָפֶה עה, 84 – פָּנָיו מִתְבַּקְּעוֹת, אוֹ עוֹלֶה בָּהֶם שְׁחִין, וּרְפוּאָתוֹ לִרְחֹץ הַרְבֵּה בְּמֵי תְּרָדִין.

21 A person should wash his hands, face, and feet85 every day out of reverence for his Creator,86 as it is written,87 “For in the image of G‑d He created man.”

כא רוֹחֵץ אָדָם פָּנָיו וְרַגְלָיו85 בְּכָל יוֹם – בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹד קוֹנוֹ,עו, 86 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: עז, 87 "כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם".

Footnotes
1.
Levush, sec. 1.
2.
According to Shiurei Torah by R. Avraham Chayim Naeh (sec. 3:6), a quarter (reviis) of a log comes to 86 cc. As a mnemonic, he notes that the Hebrew word כוס (“cup”) is numerically equivalent to 86.
3.
Responsa of Rashba, Part 1, sec. 191. As stated in sec. 159 below, for washing to be ritually significant one must use a container that meets certain standards. For example, it is disqualified if a crack allows water to seep in or if it cannot stand upright.
4.
I.e., the morning washing is not merely a preparation for prayer, enabling a person to recite his prayers with purified hands. Rather, it prepares him for his Divine service throughout the day, empowering him to carry out all his activities — not only prayer — in holiness.

To explain: Rambam (in Hilchos Tefillah 4:1) rules that “the purity of one’s hands” is one of the prerequisite conditions without which one may not pray. Accordingly, he requires that one wash his hands before praying (loc. cit. 4:2). In subsection 1 above, the Alter Rebbe does not emphasize purity (taharah) but sanctification (kedushah). What is the difference between the two?

Purification emphasizes the removal of factors that would disqualify an individual from serving G‑d in prayer, just as the Kohanim were commanded to purify themselves before the service in the Beis HaMikdash. Sanctification, by contrast, is a more comprehensive process by which one upgrades his present level of holiness — not only for prayer, but for every element of his direct and indirect Divine service throughout the day. See Likkutei Sichos, Vol. 31, p. 185ff.
5.
Rashba, loc. cit.
6.
Eichah 3:23.
7.
Tur, sec. 46; cf. Midrash Tehillim 25:1.
8.
Koheles 12:13.
9.
Rechitzah means “washing,” while netilah literally means “taking.” Nevertheless, the term netilah is used for the reason stated above. Rabbeinu Bachaye understands this term to mean “raising,” in the spirit of the phrase (Tehillim 134:2), “Raise your hands in holiness.”
10.
Rosh, sec. 23, on Berachos, ch. 9.
11.
Chullin 107a, and elsewhere.
12.
Responsa of Rashba, Vol. 1, sec. 190 and 595.
13.
In contrast, the requirement that the water be poured over one’s hands, whether by oneself or another, does apply to washing the hands for a meal (159:14).

In his Piskei HaSiddur (see Seder HaNetilah), the Alter Rebbe revised his thinking on this issue, stating: “It is desirable to be particular, even to the point of disqualifying [an alternative procedure], that the water used [for the morning washing] be acceptable for washing one’s hands for a meal, that it be poured over one’s hands from a container, and that it be poured by a person. [One must also be careful] that once a hand is washed it should not touch the water on the edge of the container, lest this water was rendered impure by the touch of an unwashed hand. Similarly, one must ensure that there are no substances [adhering to the hands] that would intervene [between them and the pure water to be poured over them], and one must be particular about any [other] factor that disqualifies the washing of hands for a meal — for if a washing would not be acceptable for a meal, no blessing should be recited over it in the morning.”
14.
From a comparison of this subsection with subsec. 12 below and Mahadura Basra 4:1-2, the following becomes evident: (a) According to this subsection, even without the use of a container the spirit of impurity would depart from the hands, though not completely; (b) according to the wording of subsec. 12 (“It is advisable that he wash them again..., because it is possible that the spirit of impurity cannot be removed from them unless water is poured [over them] three times from a container”), it is preferable to use a container because otherwise this spirit of impurity does not depart completely; while (c) Mahadura Basra 4:1-2 states outright that the spirit of impurity does not completely depart from the hands unless they are washed three times alternately from a container. (See responsum by R. David Shapiro in Bnei Tziyon, Vol. 1, sec. 10:3.)
15.
Rama, sec. 7.
16.
Tapwater is generally considered as mayim sheuvim, water that has been drawn. Were a person to immerse his hands in rainwater that collected on the ground or in the water of a stream, different laws would apply. See 4:12 and 159:21.
17.
According to the passage from the Alter Rebbe’s Piskei HaSiddur cited in footnote 13 above, a blessing should not be recited in this instance (Piskei HaSiddur of R. Avraham Chayim Naeh, sec. 17).
18.
Shulchan Aruch, subsection 1.
19.
As in 92:5; see also 164:1.
20.
Rosh, loc. cit.; Tur and Shulchan Aruch, sec. 22; see also end of 92:4 below.
21.
Sefer Chassidim, sec. 18.
22.
I.e., instead of the usual text of the blessing, because he is not washing his hands. According to the passage from the Alter Rebbe’s Piskei HaSiddur cited in footnote 13 above, a blessing should not be recited in this instance (Piskei HaSiddur of R. Avraham Chayim Naeh, sec. 18).
23.
Responsa of Rashba, Vol. 1, sec. 153; Shulchan Aruch, subsection 23.
24.
So, too, in Mahadura Basra 1:7.
25.
Rosh, sec. 23, on Berachos, ch. 9; Shulchan Aruch, subsection 23; see also 92:5 below.
26.
Rashba, loc. cit.; Shulchan Aruch, loc. cit.
27.
He may, however, think about words of Torah (Piskei HaSiddur). See Rama 92:7.
28.
Shabbos 14a; Responsa of Rashba, Vol. 1, sec. 153.
29.
Rama, subsection 27.
30.
Responsa of Rashba, Vol. 1, sec. 193 and 755; Shulchan Aruch, subsection 21.
31.
Beis Yosef; Zohar, Vol. I, Parshas Vayigash, p. 207a, and Parshas Vayeishev, p. 184b.
32.
The Sages term a sleep of more than 60 breaths shnas keva, i.e., a sleep that lasts a significant period. This is variously held to indicate a time period as short as three minutes or as long as 72 minutes. Sefer HaMaamarim 5568, p. 543, speaks of periods of 12 minutes and one hour. Ketzos HaShulchan (Badei HaShulchan 2:1) adopts the average time of approximately half an hour.
33.
Shabbos 109a. Piskei HaSiddur adds that if not enough water is available, one should wash once and recite a blessing.
34.
As is done before washing for a meal.
35.
Shaar HaKavanos, Inyan Birkas HaShachar. Indeed, Piskei HaSiddur rules that without this alternation the washing cannot be deemed effective, even after the event.
36.
Tur, Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro and Levush, sec. 3; Shabbos 108b; ibid. 109a and Rashi’s commentary there. For further items, see also Mahadura Basra 4:2. In Mahadura Kama 1:7 above, with regard to touching one’s clothes before negel-vasser, the Alter Rebbe writes that “every G‑d-fearing person should impose this stringency of the Zohar upon himself.”
37.
Rashi on Yoma 77b. Mahadura Basra adds that “women in particular should be alerted about this, because food is mostly prepared by them.”
38.
Rashi on Shabbos 109a.
39.
In contrast, when washing for a meal, drying the hands is necessary, as stated in 158:17.
40.
The accepted Lubavitch practice for the morning washing (though not before a meal; see 158:16 below) is to dry one’s hands before the blessing Al netilas yadayim. This is recited while the hands are held apart at the height of the peyos, i.e., at the height of the temples. See Sefer HaMinhagim — The Book of Chabad-Lubavitch Customs, p. 5.
41.
Seder HaYom, Seder Kavanas Netilas Yadayim, cited in Magen Avraham, subsection 7.
42.
Throughout the year, the universal custom is to wash up to the wrist. (This is the ruling in the sources cited in the above footnote, and so too in Baer Heiteiv. In his Siddur the Alter Rebbe makes this mandatory.) On Tishah BeAv and Yom Kippur, and also in situations in which only a minimal amount of water is available, only the fingers are washed.
43.
In this way the water will not be used for any other purpose, as stated in the following law, and no harm will result from the spirit of impurity that rests upon it. See: Zohar (Parshas Vayeishev), Vol. I, p. 184b; Shulchan Aruch 4:8; Seder HaYom, loc. cit., cited in Magen Avraham, loc. cit.
44.
Zohar, loc. cit.; Shulchan Aruch and Levush, subsection 9.
45.
Ketzos HaShulchan 2:5 states that neither a blessing nor words of Torah may be recited in a place where this water is left uncovered.
46.
Nor should it be poured out in a place in which it can come in contact with food. If it is poured down a sink or the like, that place should be rinsed before further use (R. Avraham of Butshash, Eshel Avraham 4:9).
47.
II, 154b. This enables the Divine attribute of Chessed (“kindness”), which is associated with the right hand, to modify the Divine attribute of Din (“strict judgment”), associated with the left (Taz 4:6).
48.
Shulchan Aruch, subsection 6.
49.
Berachos 51a; Shulchan Aruch, subsection 11; Zohar Vol. I, Parshas Vayeishev, p. 184b.
50.
Bamidbar 19:19.
51.
Shulchan Aruch, subsection 12.
52.
Beis Yosef.
53.
Shulchan Aruch, loc. cit.
54.
Beis Yosef, as implied by Zohar, loc. cit.; Taz, loc. cit.; cf. Mahadura Basra 4:2. See also Seder Netilah in the Alter Rebbe’s Piskei HaSiddur (s.v. Lechat’chilah). The same source (s.v. HaMehalech) states: “A traveler who does not have a container [from which to pour water on his hands] may immerse them in a pond which contains 40 seah,* or in a spring even if it does not contain 40 seah,** and recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim. Afterwards, when a container and water become available, he should pour water over [his hands] three times. Moreover, in a pressing situation, if one does not expect that he will have a container and water accessible before the deadline for reciting Shema and Shemoneh Esreh, he may immerse his hands in the water of a pond, even if it does not contain 40 seah, and recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim.”***

* The minimum requirement for a kosher mikveh.

** Since the water of a stream is continuous with its source, the minimum of 40 seah is not required, even according to Rabbinic Law.

*** For according to some opinions such an immersion is acceptable according to Scriptural Law for the hands, though not for the entire body.
55.
Shulchan Aruch and Rama, subsection 13.
56.
And thus he is certain that they did not touch anything or any covered part of his body that would necessitate washing.
57.
In his Piskei HaSiddur the Alter Rebbe differs, and states that when a person remains awake the entire night he does not have to wash his hands three times, but only once, as is required for prayer. (Implied is that if he is certain that he did not touch any portion of his body or foreign substance that necessitates washing — e.g., he was wearing gloves — he would not be required to wash.)

In a letter (dated 9 Tishrei, 5709, and published in Likkutei Sichos, Vol. 9, p. 276) the Rebbe writes: “If one remains awake all night, the directive to be given in public is that the blessings Al netilas yadayim and Elokai neshamah should not be recited, as the Alter Rebbe writes in his Siddur. Certainly, one may listen to the blessings as recited by someone who slept [and answer Amen with the intention of thereby fulfilling one’s obligation]. (The directive to be given privately is that [these blessings] should be recited. I heard this from my revered father-in-law, the Rebbe Shlita.)”

Based on this letter, the common Lubavitch practice after staying awake all night (and after having visited the bathroom) is to recite all the Morning Blessings at dawn, beginning with the blessing Al netilas yadayim.
58.
Subsection 14 below states that possibly it is the passage of the night, regardless of sleep, that brings the spirit of impurity.
59.
“Dawn” translates amud hashachar — the appearance, well before sunrise, of the first morning twilight (Rambam, Commentary on the Mishnah, Berachos 1:1). See sec. 18, footnote 14 below.
60.
Shulchan Aruch and Rama, subsection 14; Orchos Chayim, Hilchos Netilas Yadayim, sec. 11.
61.
On the length of this period, see footnote 32 above.

The standard Lubavitch practice is to wash negel-vasser as is done upon rising in the morning whenever one wakes at night, regardless of how briefly one slept, though without reciting a blessing.
62.
Nevertheless, if one did not recite a blessing over the first washing, he should recite a blessing over the second washing. (Regarding its preferred time, see sec. 6:1 below.) Also, if the first time a person woke up was before midnight, he should not recite a blessing at that time but should do so over the second washing.
63.
From this statement, one can also derive that Modeh Ani should be recited when rising the first time, even when one intends to go back to sleep, for it is with this rising that G‑d “returns one’s soul.” It is also common practice to recite it again when rising a second time. See sec. 6:8.
64.
Shulchan Aruch and Rama, subsection 15.
65.
The common practice is to be more lenient with regard to walking four cubits without washing after sleeping during the day, and not to require that negel-vasser be washed by one’s bed (R. Avraham of Butshash, Eshel Avraham 4:1). See also sec. 55:8 in Vol. 3 of the present work.
66.
Shulchan Aruch, subsection 16.
67.
Berachos 3b.
68.
Shulchan Aruch, subsection 17. (See also Sefer HaMinhagim — The Book of Chabad-Lubavitch Customs, p. 4, footnote 14.) This is common practice today, except on public fastdays.
69.
Shulchan Aruch, subsection 18.
70.
Mordechai on Berachos, ch. 8.
71.
In practice customs vary, and in some of the situations enumerated some people wash their hands three times alternately as is done for negel-vasser in the morning. When returning from a funeral, for example, the Rebbe was repeatedly observed washing his hands in this way — and, as is explained in the introduction (“On the Observance of Customs”) to Sefer HaMinhagim: The Book of Chabad-Lubavitch Customs, a custom made public by one’s Rebbe is intended to be emulated.

In Seder Netilas Yadayim LiSeudah in his Piskei HaSiddur, the Alter Rebbe writes that if one touches a part of the body which is usually covered, one must wash that hand — i.e., one hand. A similar ruling is found in the gloss of Pri Megadim: Mishbetzos Zahav 4:18.
72.
See: Ketzos HaShulchan, in the glosses appended to 2:11; Kovetz Oholei Shem, Vol. 8, p. 133.
73.
This applies even if a person does not relieve himself, bathe, or touch parts of his body which are ordinarily covered, for these locations convey a spirit of impurity which rests on one’s hands. There is, however, some debate as to whether today’s lavatories and bathhouses are considered as such in the halachic sense of the terms. Nevertheless, when there is no difficulty in doing so, the common practice is to wash one’s hands after leaving such places.
74.
This refers to both fingernails and toenails and applies whether one uses a utensil or not (Ketzos HaShulchan 2:11).
75.
Or puts on his shoes with his hands, regardless of whether his shoes are dirty (see 128:27).
76.
I.e., those parts of the body which are usually covered (see 164:2).
77.
This also applies if one scratches his scalp. Merely touching his hair, however, does not obligate him to wash his hands (see sec. 164:2 below).
78.
One should make a point of washing Netilas Yadayim both before and after relations. See Piskei HaSiddur (p. 46 [350] of Vol. 1 in the pre-5760 editions of the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch), reproduced in Siddur Tehillat HaShem (Kehot, N.Y., 1979), p. 409.
79.
Teshuvas Maharil, sec. 23.
80.
Customarily, people returning from a funeral procession (a levayah) do not pass on the water container to each other but leave it overturned; also, the hands are not dried.
81.
Orchos Chayim, Hilchos Netilas Yadayim, sec. 9; Shulchan Aruch, loc. cit.
82.
Shulchan Aruch, subsection 19; cf. Pesachim 112a.
83.
This Hebrew term can also be translated as “shaves.” Thus, if a person shaves, he also should wash his hands afterwards.
84.
Shulchan Aruch, subsection 20; cf. Shabbos 133b-134a, and Rashi there.
85.
This applied only in times when people commonly walked barefoot (R. Avraham of Butshash, Eshel Avraham, sec. 4). A hint of this may be found in the marginal gloss to sec. 75:1 below, which refers the reader to the present text (sec. 21).
86.
Shabbos 50b and Rashi there. See also: Likkutei Sichos, Vol. 16, p. 279 (footnotes); Kovetz Yagdil Torah (N.Y.), Vol. 6, p. 48.
87.
Bereishis 9:6; see also Rashi on Shabbos, loc. cit.
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לבוש סעיף א.
ב.
שו"ת רשב"א ח"א סי' קצא.
ג.
מ"א ס"ק ה.
ד.
רשב"א שם. טעם זה לנט"י גם במהדו"ב סוף ס"א (ולא נזכר בריה חדשה). לקמן רס"י ז. סידור ד"ה לכתחלה וסד"ה אם עשה. ועי' לקו"ש חל"א ע' 185 ואילך. יד שאול.
ה.
איכה ג, כג.
ו.
טור סי' מו ע"פ מדרש תהלים כה, א. וראה לקמן סי' מו ס"ו.
ז.
קהלת יב, יג.
ח.
רא"ש ברכות פ"ט סי' כג. רבינו ירוחם נתיב טז חלק ו. וראה גם לקמן סי' קנט סכ"ד.
ט.
ראה חולין קז, א ובכ"מ.
י.
שו"ת רשב"א ח"א סי' קצ, תקצה.
יא.
שו"ת רשב"א ח"א סי' קצא שגם בנט"י לסעודה סגי בשכשוך ידיו בכלי, כדיעה הא' דלקמן סי' קנט סי"ז. וכאן הקיל רבינו אף לכתחלה. ועי' קובץ העו"ב תשעה ע' 75. וראה מהדו"ב סי' ד ס"א "זריקת מים טהורים מן הכלי". וראה גם לקמן סי' קכח סוס"ח. ובסידור סד"ה לכתחלה פסק שכל נטילה הפסולה לסעודה אין לברך עליה בשחר. ולענין העברת רוח טומאה עי' לקמן סי"ב.
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יג.
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טו.
כדלקמן סי' צב ס"ה. וראה לקמן סי' קסד ס"א.
טז.
ובמהדו"ב ס"א ובסידור (ד"ה אם ניעור וד"ה אם עשה) פסק שלא יברך על נט"י לתפלה.
יז.
 רא"ש שם. טור ושו"ע סכ"ב. וראה לקמן סי' צב סוס"ד. ועי' יד שאול.
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שו"ת רשב"א ח"א סי' קנג. שו"ע סעיף כג.
כ.
מ"א ס"ק כו. וכ"ה במהדו"ב סי' א ס"ז וש"נ.
כא.
רא"ש פ"ט דברכות סי' כג. שו"ע סעיף כג. וראה לקמן סי' צב ס"ה וש"נ.
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כד.
מ"א סקכ"ז.
כה.
שו"ת רשב"א ח"א סי' קצג, תשנה. שו"ע סעיף כא. וראה גם לקמן סי' צב ס"ז. ועי' קובץ העו"ב תשעז ע' 91. תשפב ע' 90.
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לו.
סדר היום סדר כוונת נטילת ידים הובא במ"א ס"ק ז. וראה גם מהדו"ב סי' ד' ס"א וש"נ.
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נא.
שו"ע ורמ"א סעיף יג. וראה ט"ז סוס"ק ט. וראה סידור ד"ה אם ניעור.
נב.
ראה גם לקמן סי' תצד ס"ג. וכ"ה בסידור שם שלא יברך על נטילת ידים. אבל עי' אג"ק ח"ג עמ' ד.
נג.
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נז.
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נח.
ט"ז ס"ק יא.
נט.
שו"ע סעיף טז. מ"א ס"ק טז. וראה חדות יהושע ב, א.
ס.
ברכות ג, ב.
סא.
שו"ע סעיף יז. אבודרהם דיני נט"י הובא בב"י סי' ד. כל בו סי' א וארחות חיים הלכות נט"י סוס"י לא בשם ר' אשר מלוניל בספר המנהגות. רבינו מנוח הלכות תפלה פ"ז ה"ז. וראה גם ספר המנהגים – חב"ד ע' 1 וש"נ.
סב.
ספר המנהגות שם. אבודרהם וארחות חיים וכל בו שם. רבינו מנוח שם.
סג.
שו"ע סעיף יח.
סד.
מ"א ס"ק יז. מרדכי פ"ח דברכות. ועי' לקמן סי' צז ס"ג.
סה.
מ"א שם. סדר היום סדר כוונת נט"י.
סו.
עי' קצוה"ש בהערות שבסופו לסי' ב סי"א. קובץ אהלי שם ח"ח ע' קלג.
סז.
מ"א ס"ק יט. והיינו אף אם אינן מטונפות, כדלקמן סי' קכח סכ"ז.
סח.
ראה גם סידור סדר ק"ש שעל המטה.
סט.
מ"א ס"ק כב.
ע.
מ"א ס"ק כ. תשובת מהרי"ל סימן כג.
עא.
מ"א ס"ק כא.
עב.
מ"א שם.
עג.
ארחות חיים הלכות נטילת ידים אות ט. שו"ע שם.
עד.
שו"ע סעיף יט. פסחים קיב, א.
עה.
שו"ע סעיף כ. שבת קלג, סע"ב. רש"י שם קלד רע"א.
עו.
שבת נ, ב וברש"י שם. מ"א ס"ק א. ועי' לקו"ש חט"ז ע' 279 בשוה"ג. קובץ יגדי"ת (נ.י.) ח"ו ע' מח.
עז.
בראשית ט, ו. וראה רש"י שבת שם.
Translated by Rabbi Eliyahu Touger and Uri Kaploun.
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