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Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 1 - Laws Relating to Rising in Morning

Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 1 - Laws Relating to Rising in Morning

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SECTION 1 Laws Relating to Rising in the Morning. (1–19)

סימן א דִּין הַשְׁכָּמַת הַבֹּקֶר, וּבוֹ יט סְעִיפִים:

1 With1 the strength of a lion,2 one should rise in the morning for the service of his Creator, blessed be He, because for this he was created, and for this purpose He returns his soul to him. Even if one’s [evil] inclination should tempt him by saying, “You have not yet had your fill of sleep,” he should overcome it and rise, so that it is he that will wake the dawn.3

He should consider in his heart before Whom he is lying,4 being aware that the King of kings — the Holy One, blessed be He — is hovering over him, as it is written,5 “‘Do I not fill the heaven and the earth?’ says G‑d.” Were he to lie before a king of flesh and blood who was standing over him, he would be liable for his life. How much more does this apply with regard to the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He! He should therefore rise immediately and energetically for the service of his Creator, praised be He.

One should not say to himself, “I will lie in bed and study [the Torah].” Instead, he should rise and dress himself, for it is written,6 “Prepare to greet your G‑d, O Israel.”

א יִתְגַּבֵּר1 כָּאֲרִי א, 2 לַעֲמֹד בַּבֹּקֶר לַעֲבוֹדַת בּוֹרְאוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ, שֶׁלְּכָךְ נִבְרָא,ב וּלְכָךְ מַחֲזִיר לוֹ נִשְׁמָתוֹ. וְאַף אִם יְסִיתֶנּוּ יִצְרוֹ לֵאמֹר: עֲדַיִן לֹא שָׂבַעְתָּ מִשְּׁנָתֶךָ – יִתְגַּבֵּר עָלָיו לָקוּם, שֶׁיְּהֵא הוּא מְעוֹרֵר הַשַּׁחַר.3 וְיַחְשֹׁב בְּלִבּוֹ לִפְנֵי מִי הוּא שׁוֹכֵב,ג, 4 וְיֵדַע שֶׁמֶּלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא חוֹפֵף עָלָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ד, 5 "הֲלוֹא אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ אֲנִי מָלֵא נְאֻם ה'", וְאִלּוּ הָיָה שׁוֹכֵב לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁעוֹמֵד עָלָיו הָיָה מִתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ – קַל וָחֹמֶר לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא. וְלָכֵן יָקוּם מִיָּד בִּזְרִיזוּת לַעֲבוֹדַת בּוֹרְאוֹ ה יִתְבָּרֵךְ וְיִתְעַלֶּה.ו וְאַל יֹאמַר: הִנְנִי שׁוֹכֵב בְּמִטָּתִי וְאֶלְמֹד ז – אֶלָּא יַעֲמֹד וְיִלְבּשׁ מַלְבּוּשָׁיו, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ח, 6 "הִכּוֹן לִקְרַאת אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל".

2 One should keep this in mind in all of his affairs and concerns.7 For the manner in which a person sits and moves about and conducts his affairs when he is alone at home is not the same as the manner in which he sits and moves about when he is in the presence of a great king. Similarly, the way he speaks freely in the company of the members of his household and his family is not the same as the way he speaks in the dwelling of a king.

How much more does this apply when one earnestly considers that the great King — the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, Whose “glory fills the entire earth”8 — is standing over him and observing his deeds. As it is written,9 “‘If a man hides himself in secret places, will I not see him?’ says G‑d.” [When one earnestly considers this] he will immediately be affected by awe and submissiveness from a fear of the Creator, and will be constantly abashed before Him.10

ב וְכֵן יַחְשֹׁב בְּכָל עֲסָקָיו וְעִנְיָנָיו,ט, 7 כִּי אֵין יְשִׁיבַת הָאָדָם וּתְנוּעוֹתָיו וַעֲסָקָיו וְהוּא לְבַדּוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ כִּישִׁיבָתוֹ וּתְנוּעוֹתָיו וְהוּא לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ גָּדוֹל, וְאֵין דִּבּוּרוֹ וְהַרְחָבַת פִּיו כִּרְצוֹנוֹ וְהוּא עִם אַנְשֵׁי בֵּיתוֹ וּקְרוֹבָיו כְּדִבּוּרוֹ בְּמוֹשַׁב הַמֶּלֶךְ. כָּל שֶׁכֵּן כְּשֶׁיָּשִׂים הָאָדָם אֶל לִבּוֹ, שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ הַגָּדוֹל, מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, אֲשֶׁר "מְלֹא כָל הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ",8 עוֹמֵד עָלָיו וְרוֹאֶה בְּמַעֲשָׂיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: י, 9 "אִם יִסָּתֵר אִישׁ בַּמִּסְתָּרִים וַאֲנִי לֹא אֶרְאֶנּוּ נְאֻם ה'" – מִיָּד יַגִּיעַ אֵלָיו הַיִּרְאָה וְהַהַכְנָעָה מִפַּחַד הַבּוֹרֵא יִתְבָּרֵךְ, וְיֵבוֹשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ תָּמִיד.10

3 One should not be embarrassed when confronted by people who mock him while he is serving his Creator. Nevertheless he should not retort brazenly, lest he acquire the habit of acting insolently even when this is not done in His service.

ג וְלֹא יִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם הַמַּלְעִיגִים עָלָיו יא בַּעֲבוֹדַת בּוֹרְאוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא יַעֲנֶה דִּבְרֵי עַזּוּת כְּנֶגֶד הַמַּלְעִיגִים,יב שֶׁלֹּא יִקְנֶה קִנְיָן בְּנַפְשׁוֹ לִהְיוֹת עַז פָּנִים אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם עֲבוֹדָתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ.

4 If one cannot rise before dawn, he should at least not pray later than the time at which the congregation prays.11

ד וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁכִּים קֹדֶם אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר יג – מִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא יְאַחֵר זְמַן הַתְּפִלָּה שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר מִתְפַּלְלִין.11

5 Immediately upon waking it is proper to say Modeh Ani...:12 “I offer thanks to You, living and eternal King, for You have mercifully restored my soul within me; great is Your faithfulness.”13

One does not have to wash one’s hands before reciting this statement, even if they are unclean, because there is no sanctity in its words, since they do not include any of the Divine names (see sec. 85[:3]) that may not be erased.14 By contrast, it is forbidden to utter any words of Torah before washing one’s hands, for there is sanctity in the words themselves. To meditate upon words of Torah is permissible,15 even with unclean hands.16

ה טוֹב לוֹמַר מִיָּד כְּשֶׁיֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹ: יד, 12 "מוֹדֶה אֲנִי לְפָנֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ חַי וְקַיָּם, שֶׁהֶחֱזַרְתָּ בִּי נִשְׁמָתִי בְּחֶמְלָה, רַבָּה אֱמוּנָתֶךָ".13 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לָזֶה נְטִילַת יָדַיִם, אַף אִם יָדָיו מְטֻנָּפוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין קְדֻשָּׁה בְּתֵבוֹת נֻסָּח זֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שׁוּם שֵׁם (עַיֵּן סִימָן פה) טו מֵהַשֵּׁמוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן נִמְחָקִין.14

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה מִפִּיו טז אִם לֹא נָטַל יָדָיו עֲדַיִן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבַּתֵּבוֹת עַצְמָן יֵשׁ בָּהֶן קְדֻשָּׁה. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַרְהֵר בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה15 בְּיָדַיִם מְטֻנָּפוֹת.יז,16

6 When a person wakes up and immediately stands on his feet, he is closer to death than to life.17 He should therefore wait momentarily before he stands.18

ו הַנֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹ וְעָמַד תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּד עַל רַגְלָיו – הוּא קָרוֹב לַמִּיתָה יוֹתֵר מִן הַחַיִּים,יח, 17 אֶלָּא יִשְׁהֶה מְעַט קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד.18

7 According to the law as prescribed by the Talmud,19 one is not obligated to wash his hands immediately upon arising from sleep, but may walk before doing so. Similarly, according to the law as prescribed by the Talmud, one may touch his clothes before washing his hands. Nevertheless, the Sages of the Zohar20 earnestly cautioned against walking even four cubits without washing one’s hands in the morning, and they likewise cautioned21 against touching one’s clothes22 before washing the hands. Accordingly,23 every G‑d-fearing person should impose this stringency of the Zohar upon himself.24 Moreover, whoever is meticulous in his observance should make a point of washing his hands immediately upon awakening,25 even if he continues to lie down. By doing so, he will protect himself against the wasteful emission of seed.26

ז אַף־עַל־פִּי שֶׁמִּדִּין יט הַתַּלְמוּד כ, 19 אֵין צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּד כְּשֶׁנֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹ, אֶלָּא רַשַּׁאי לְהַלֵּךְ בֵּינְתַיִם, וְכֵן מֻתָּר מִדִּין הַתַּלְמוּד לִגַּע בְּמַלְבּוּשָׁיו קֹדֶם נְטִילַת יָדַיִם – מִכָּל מָקוֹם חַכְמֵי הַזֹּהַר כא, 20 הִזְהִירוּ מְאֹד שֶׁלֹּא לֵילֵךְ אֲפִלּוּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת קֹדֶם נְטִילַת יָדַיִם שַׁחֲרִית, וְכֵן הִזְהִירוּ כב, 21 שֶׁלֹּא לִגַּע בְּמַלְבּוּשָׁיו22 קֹדֶם נְטִילַת יָדַיִם. וְכָל יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ24 כְּדִבְרֵי הַזֹּהַר.כג, 23 וְכָל מְדַקְדֵּק בְּמַעֲשָׂיו יִזָּהֵר שֶׁמִּיָּד שֶׁנֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹ יִטֹּל יָדָיו כד, 25 אַף־עַל־פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר מֻשְׁכָּב, וּבָזֶה יִנָּצֵל מֵהוֹצָאַת שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע לְבַטָּלָה.כה, 26

8 It is desirable that one rise before dawn to petition his Creator, preferably at the times at which the watches change, i.e., the end of the first third of the night,27 the end of the second third of the night, and the end of the night. For at these times the Holy One, blessed be He, recalls the Destruction of the Beis HaMikdash, and so on.28 Therefore prayers concerning the Destruction and the exile that are offered at these hours are willingly accepted.

Accordingly, it is appropriate at these times for every G‑d-fearing person to be troubled and distressed and to pour out supplications over the Destruction of the Beis HaMikdash, as it is written,29 “Arise, cry out in the night, at the beginning of the watches.” Nevertheless, [one’s subsequent] Torah study and prayer must be undertaken joyously, as it is written,30 “Serve G‑d with joy.” One should study the Oral Law [at this time].31 [Moreover,] it is praiseworthy to link the day and the night with Torah study or prayer, both in the morning and in the evening.

ח טוֹב לְהַשְׁכִּים קֹדֶם אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר,כו לְהִתְחַנֵּן לִפְנֵי בּוֹרְאוֹ. וְטוֹב שֶׁיִּתְחַנֵּן בְּשָׁעוֹת שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּנּוֹת הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת, שֶׁהֵן: לְסוֹף שְׁלִישׁ הַלַּיְלָה,כז, 27 וּלְסוֹף שְׁנֵי שְׁלִישֵׁי הַלַּיְלָה, וְלִבְסוֹף הַלַּיְלָה, שֶׁבְּאֵלּוּ הַזְּמַנִּים הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא זוֹכֵר לְחֻרְבַּן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וכו',28 לָכֵן הַתְּפִלָּה שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל הָאָדָם בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה עַל הַחֻרְבָּן וְהַגָּלוּת – רְצוּיָה וּקְרוֹבָה לְהִתְקַבֵּל. לָכֵן רָאוּי לְכָל יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם שֶׁיְּהֵא מֵצֵר וְדוֹאֵג בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה כח וְלִשְׁפֹּךְ תַּחֲנוּנִים עַל חֻרְבַּן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: כט, 29 "קוּמִי רֹנִּי בַלַּיְלָה לְרֹאשׁ אַשְׁמֻרוֹת". וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם הַתּוֹרָה וְהַתְּפִלָּה צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת בְּשִׂמְחָה,ל כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: לא, 30 "עִבְדוּ אֶת ה' בְּשִׂמְחָה". וְיֵשׁ לַעֲסֹק בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה.לב, 31 וְטוֹב לְחַבֵּר יוֹם וָלַיְלָה בְּתוֹרָה אוֹ בִּתְפִלָּה,לג הֵן בַּבֹּקֶר הֵן בָּעֶרֶב.

9 A modest measure of supplication with concentrated intent is preferable to a greater quantity with less earnest focus. [This principle] also applies to Torah study.

One who has the capacity to understand and to study should study rather than supplicate at length, for Torah study is more meritorious than devout prayer.32

ט טוֹב מְעַט תַּחֲנוּנִים בְּכַוָּנָה – מֵהַרְבּוֹת שֶׁלֹּא בְּכַוָּנָה.לד וְכֵן בְּתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה.לה וּמִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לֵב לְהָבִין לִלְמֹד – טוֹב לוֹ לִלְמֹד מִלְּהַרְבּוֹת בְּתַחֲנוּנִים,לו כִּי תַּלְמוּד תּוֹרָה גָּדוֹל מֵעִיּוּן תְּפִלָּה.לז, 32

10 It is proper to recite every day the passage of the Akeidah (the Binding of Yitzchak)33 to recall the merit of the Patriarchs before the Holy One, blessed be He. This also serves to make one’s [evil] inclination submit to the service of G‑d, just as Yitzchak sacrificed himself.

[One should also read] the passage concerning the manna, to fortify his faith that all his provisions are granted to him by Divine Providence,34 for the Holy One, blessed be He, specifically provided every man with an omer35 [of manna] for every member of his household. As it is written,36 “When they measured it by the omer, he who had gathered much had no excess, and he who had gathered little was lacking nothing.”

[In addition one should recite] the Ten Commandments,37 for this will remind him every day of [the Giving of the Torah at] Mount Sinai, and will reinforce his faith. [Indeed,] the Sages sought to include the Ten Commandments as part of the daily recitation of the Shema.38 [This intention, however,] was withdrawn because of the heretics, lest they tell the unlettered people that the remainder of the Torah is not true. “As you can see,” [they would tell them, “every day] we read only what the Holy One, blessed be He, said and what we heard from His mouth on [Mount] Sinai.”39

Therefore, even if the Ten Commandments are not bracketed by the blessings of the Shema but are introduced before Baruch SheAmar, it is forbidden to recite them communally as a fixed daily practice. They may, however, be read privately. For the reason given above, on account of the heretics, it is also customary not to print them as a distinct document for the community.

י טוֹב לוֹמַר בְּכָל יוֹם פָּרָשַׁת הָעֲקֵדָה,לח, 33 כְּדֵי לִזְכֹּר זְכוּת הָאָבוֹת לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,לט וְגַם כְּדֵי לְהַכְנִיעַ יִצְרוֹ לַעֲבֹדַ[ת] מ הַשֵּׁם יִתְבָּרֵךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁמָּסַר יִצְחָק נַפְשׁוֹ; וּפָרָשַׁת הַמָּן,מא כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּאֲמִין שֶׁכָּל מְזוֹנוֹתָיו בָּאִין לוֹ בְּהַשְׁגָּחָה,34 שֶׁכֵּן הָיָה בַּמָּן מב שֶׁהִשְׁגִּיחַ הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא לָתֵת לְכָל אֶחָד "עֹמֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת"35 לְכָל נַפְשׁוֹת בֵּיתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: מג, 36 "וַיָּמֹדּוּ בָעֹמֶר וְלֹא הֶעְדִּיף הַמַּרְבֶּה וְהַמַּמְעִיט לֹא הֶחְסִיר"; וַעֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת,מד, 37 שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כֵּן יִזְכֹּר מַעֲמַד הַר סִינַי בְּכָל יוֹם מה וְתִתְחַזֵּק אֱמוּנָתוֹ. וּבִקְּשׁוּ חֲכָמִים לִקְבֹּעַ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע,מו, 38 וּבִטְּלוּם מִפְּנֵי הַמִּינִים, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ לְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵין שְׁאָר תּוֹרָה אֱמֶת, וְתֵדְעוּ שֶׁאֵין קוֹרִין אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא וְשָׁמְעוּ מִפִּיו בְּסִינַי.מז, 39 לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְאָמְרָם בְּצִבּוּר דֶּרֶךְ קְבִיעוּת בְּכָל יוֹם,מח אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּתוֹךְ בִּרְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע מט אֶלָּא קֹדֶם "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָמַר",נ רַק כָּל יָחִיד מֻתָּר לִקְרוֹתָם לְעַצְמוֹ.נא וְלָכֵן אֵין נוֹהֲגִים גַּם כֵּן לְכָתְבָם עַל קוּנְטְרֵס נב מְיֻחָד נג לַצִּבּוּר, מִפְּנֵי הַמִּינִים.

11 Our Sages declare:40 “Whoever occupies himself with the laws of the burnt-offering is considered to have brought a burnt-offering, and whoever occupies himself with the laws of the sin-offering is considered to have brought a sin-offering.” It is therefore desirable to recite every day the Biblical passages pertaining to the burnt-offering, the meal-offering, the peace-offering, the thanksgiving-offering, the sin-offering, the definite guilt-offering, the provisional guilt-offering, and the adjustable guilt-offering spoken of in the passage beginning,41 “[If a person will sin] and accept a charge with an oath...”42

Since every voluntary sacrifice must be accompanied by a libation, [the passages concerning] the burnt-offering, the peace-offering and the thanksgiving-offering should be followed by the passage concerning the libation. Neither a sin-offering nor a guilt-offering requires a libation.

יא ואָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים: נד, 40 כָּל הָעוֹסֵק בְּתוֹרַת עוֹלָה – כְּאִלּוּ הִקְרִיב עוֹלָה, וְכָל הָעוֹסֵק בְּתוֹרַת חַטָּאת – כְּאִלּוּ הִקְרִיב חַטָּאת. לְפִיכָךְ,נה טוֹב לוֹמַר בְּכָל יוֹם נו פָּרָשַׁת הָעוֹלָה, וּמִנְחָה, וּשְׁלָמִים, וְתוֹדָה, וְחַטָּאת, וְאָשָׁם וַדַּאי, וְאָשָׁם תָּלוּי, וְקָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד,נז דְּהַיְנוּ פָּרָשַׁת41 "וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וגו'".נח, 42 וּלְפִי שֶׁכָּל קָרְבָּן הַבָּא בִּנְדָבָה טָעוּן נְסָכִים, לְפִיכָךְ אַחַר עוֹלָה וּשְׁלָמִים וְתוֹדָה – יֹאמַר פָּרָשַׁת נְסָכִים,נט אֲבָל חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם אֵין טְעוּנִים נְסָכִים.

12 If a person knows that he is obligated to bring a sin-offering, he should first recite the passage concerning the sin-offering and then the one concerning the burnt-offering, because the sin-offering atones entirely for the sin concerned, while the burnt-offering is a gift [to evoke G‑d’s favor]. Atonement should precede the gift, because until a king is appeased he will not accept a gift.

יב אִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב חַטָּאת ס – יֹאמַר תְּחִלָּה פָּרָשַׁת חַטָּאת וְאַחַר־כָּךְ פָּרָשַׁת עוֹלָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַחַטָּאת מְכַפֶּרֶת לְגַמְרֵי עַל אוֹתוֹ עָוֹן שֶׁהִיא בָּאָה עָלָיו, וְהָעוֹלָה הוּא דּוֹרוֹן, וְיֵשׁ לְהַקְדִּים הַכַּפָּרָה קֹדֶם הַדּוֹרוֹן, שֶׁקֹּדֶם שֶׁיִּתְרַצֶּה אֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ – לֹא יְקַבֵּל הַדּוֹרוֹן.

13 The passages describing the sacrifices should be recited only during the day, because no sacrifices were offered at night. However, the passages describing the Basin43 [for washing] and the removal of the ashes [from the Altar]44 may be recited before dawn, because [the Kohanim would wash and would remove the ashes] at night.

יג פָּרָשַׁת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת – לֹא יֹאמַר אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם,סא לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַקְרִיבִין קָרְבָּן בַּלַּיְלָה.סב אֲבָל פָּרָשַׁת הַכִּיּוֹר סג, 43 וּפָרָשַׁת תְּרוּמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן44 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיוּ נַעֲשִׂים בַּלַּיְלָה – יָכוֹל לְאָמְרָם קֹדֶם אוֹר הַיּוֹם.

14 The passages concerning the sacrifices should be recited while standing,45 and likewise Mizmor LeTodah (“A Thanksgiving Psalm”),46 for these sacrifices were offered while standing.

יד צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר פָּרָשַׁת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת מְעֻמָּד,סד, 45 וְכֵן "מִזְמוֹר לְתוֹדָה" סה, 46 – דֻּגְמַת הַקְרָבָתָן שֶׁהָיְתָה מְעֻמָּד.

15 After reciting the passage concerning the burnt-offering,47 one should say: “May it be Your will that this [recitation] be considered and accepted by You as if I had offered a burnt-offering.” He should make similar statements after reciting the passages for the meal-offering, the peace-offering, and the thanksgiving-offering, for these [offerings] may also be brought voluntarily, even if a person is not obligated to bring them.

One should not, however, make such a state­ment after reciting the passages concerning the sin-offering, the definite guilt-offering, the provisional guilt-offering, or the adjustable guilt-offering, for these may not be offered voluntarily. Hence, if in fact he was not obligated to bring such a sacrifice, his recitation would be equivalent to offering a non-sacrificial animal in the courtyard [of the Beis HaMikdash].48

Nevertheless, after reciting the passages for the definite guilt-offering and the conditional guilt-offering, one should say: “May it be Your will that if I have become liable to bring a guilt-offering or a conditional guilt-offering, this be considered as if [I had brought these offerings].” In this manner, if in fact he had not been obligated to bring them, his recitation is not considered as offering a sacrifice at all, but as reading a passage in the Torah.

He should not, however, make such a statement after reciting the passage concerning the sin-offering, for unless one definitely knows that he violated a transgression requiring a sin-offering, he may not bring such an offering. This applies even when he actually violated such a transgression, [but was unaware of it. Indeed,] if he would bring a sacrifice, it would not atone for him unless he first had definite knowledge that he sinned, for the verse stipulates,49 “If the sin becomes known to him...”

Nevertheless, there are some who follow the custom of saying, “[May it be Your will,] that if I have become liable...” after reciting the passage concerning the sin-offering too, for a sin could have been once known and later forgotten.

טו כְּשֶׁיְּסַיֵּם פָּרָשַׁת הָעוֹלָה סו, 47 – יֹאמַר: "יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ, שֶׁיְּהֵא זֶה חָשׁוּב וּמְקֻבָּל לְפָנֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ הִקְרַבְתִּי עוֹלָה". וְכָךְ יֹאמַר אַחַר פָּרָשַׁת הַמִּנְחָה וְהַשְּׁלָמִים וְהַתּוֹדָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם בָּאִים בִּנְדָבָה אַף אִם לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב בָּהֶם. אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר כָּךְ סז אַחַר פָּרָשַׁת הַחַטָּאת וְהָאָשָׁם סח וַדַּאי וְתָלוּי וְקָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, שֶׁמָּא לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב בָּהֶן סט – וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַקְרִיב חֻלִּין בָּעֲזָרָה,ע, 48 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין בָּאִים בִּנְדָבָה.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אַחַר פָּרָשַׁת אָשָׁם וַדַּאי וְתָלוּי עא – יֹאמַר: "אִם נִתְחַיַּבְתִּי אָשָׁם וַדַּאי וְתָלוּי,עב יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ שֶׁיְּהֵא זֶה חָשׁוּב כו'", שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אִם לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב בָּהֶן עג – אֵין קְרִיאָתוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה כְּהַקְרָבָה כְּלָל, וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּקוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה.

אֲבָל אַחַר פָּרָשַׁת חַטָּאת – לֹא יֹאמַר כֵּן,עד לְפִי שֶׁאִם אֵין הוּא יוֹדֵעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁעָבַר עֲבֵרָה שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ חַטָּאת – אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהָבִיא קָרְבָּן, אַף־עַל־פִּי שֶׁבֶּאֱמֶת עָבַר עֲבֵרָה שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ חַטָּאת, וְאִם הֵבִיא – אֵין מִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה לוֹ תְּחִלָּה יְדִיעָה בְּרוּרָה שֶׁחָטָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: עה,49 "אוֹ הוֹדַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתוֹ". וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין עו לוֹמַר גַּם אַחַר פָּרָשַׁת חַטָּאת: "אִם נִתְחַיַּבְתִּי כו'", כִּי שֶׁמָּא נוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁחָטָא וְחָזַר וְשָׁכַח.עז

16 On Shabbos and on festivals one should not recite [this prayer], “May it be Your will...,” because the sacrifices of private individuals are not offered on these days.50 There is, however, no difficulty with his reciting the Scriptural passages themselves, for he is, [after all,] reading the Torah. Nevertheless, unless he is unlearned,51 it is preferable that he study that day’s Torah reading.52

טז בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב – לֹא יֹאמַר "יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ שֶׁיְּהֵא זֶה כו'",עח לְפִי שֶׁאֵין קָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד קְרֵבִים בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב,50 אֲבָל הַפָּרָשִׁיּוֹת אֵין הֶפְסֵד לְאָמְרָן כְּקוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם אֵינוֹ עַם הָאָרֶץ51 – מוּטָב שֶׁיַּעֲסֹק בְּפָרָשַׁת הַיּוֹם.52

17 On the day preceding Pesach, likewise during Chol HaMoed Pesach, and on the day preceding Yom Kippur, one should not read the passage concerning the thanksgiving-offering,53 because that offering was not brought on those days,54 as will be explained in sec. 429[:13] and sec. 604[:6].55

יז בְּעֶרֶב הַפֶּסַח וּבְחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד שֶׁל פֶּסַח וּבְעֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים – לֹא יֹאמַר פָּרָשַׁת תּוֹדָה,עט, 53 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה תּוֹדָה קְרֵבָה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם,פ, 54 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תכט פא ותרד.פב, 55

18 Together with [the passages describing] the sacrifices, it is desirable to recite the verse,56 “He shall slaughter it on the north side of the altar [before G‑d...].” For the Midrash states:57 “The Holy One, blessed be He, says, ‘I take as witnesses heaven and earth, that when the phrase on the north... before G‑d is recited, I recall [the everlasting merit of] the Binding of Yitzchak, the son of Avraham.’”

יח טוֹב לוֹמַר עִם הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת פג פָּסוּק: 56 "וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ עַל יֶרֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ צָפֹנָה וגו'",פד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּמִּדְרָשׁ: פה, 57 אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מֵעִיד אֲנִי עָלַי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁקּוֹרִין מִקְרָא זֶה "צָפוֹנָה לִפְנֵי ה'" – אֲנִי זוֹכֵר עֲקֵדַת יִצְחָק בֶּן אַבְרָהָם.

19 There are those who customarily recite the passage concerning the Basin [for washing],58 then the passage concerning the removal of the ashes [from the Altar],59 then the passage concerning the daily burnt-offering,60 then the passage concerning the Incense Altar,61 and then the passage describing the spices for the incense-offering and their preparation,62 for this was the order of the Temple service.

יט יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין פו לוֹמַר פָּרָשַׁת הַכִּיּוֹר,58 וְאַחַר־כָּךְ פָּרָשַׁת תְּרוּמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן,פז, 59 וְאַחַר־כָּךְ פָּרָשַׁת הַתָּמִיד,פח, 60 וְאַחַר־כָּךְ פָּרָשַׁת מִזְבֵּחַ מִקְטַר קְטֹרֶת,61 וְאַחַר־כָּךְ פָּרָשַׁת סַמָּנֵי הַקְּטֹרֶת וַעֲשִׂיָּתָן,62 כִּי כָּךְ הָיָה סֵדֶר הָעֲבוֹדוֹת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ.

The Alter Rebbe first began composing his Shulchan Aruch in about 5531 (1771) at the request of his mentor, the Maggid of Mezritch. This version became known as Mahadura Kama (“The First Edition”). Late in life he sought to revise the text and emend many of its rulings. Of that later edition, entitled Mahadura Basra, only the four chapters reproduced at the beginning of this volume are extant.

When the entire work was first published as a unit, its publishers introduced those four later chapters with a significant note (“This [manuscript] was found...”; reproduced on p. 2 above). This introduction explained that “though many matters had already been stated [in the earlier edition], we felt that they should not be passed over, so that nothing would be lacking, and the [original] teaching would not be laid aside.” The closing phrase echoes a Talmudic principle (see Rashi on Shevuos 4a): once the text of a mishnah had been disseminated among scholars, then even when its author, R. Yehudah HaNasi, had since revised its content the original version was not discarded. Nevertheless, while both versions were thus preserved for posterity, discerning students knew that the later teaching was the one accepted as law. The same principle applies with regard to the four revised chapters of the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch.

See also the above Overview and the Prefaces by the author’s sons.

For further annotation, in addition to that appearing in sec. 1-4 below, see the footnotes to the corresponding passages in Mahadura Basra above.
Cf. Tehillim 57:9: “I will wake the dawn,” implying (Talmud Yerushalmi, Berachos 1:1), “I will wake the dawn; the dawn will not wake me.”

In Likkutei Sichos, Vol. 16, p. 361ff., the Rebbe notes that only here, in (the later) Mahadura Basra, though not in (the earlier) Mahadura Kama, the Alter Rebbe completes the quotation: “the dawn will not wake me.”

This phrase is also omitted in the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro. In Taz 1:2 this omission is explained as follows: The dawn alludes to the spiritual influence from above that stirs a person to Divine service. King David was stating that even without its help he was able to spur himself to Divine service on his own initiative. And since such a rung is beyond the reach of most people it is omitted by the Shulchan Aruch.

If so, the Alter Rebbe’s inclusion of the phrase would appear problematic, for his Shulchan Aruch, too, is a halachic text applicable to everyone — and can such a level be demanded of everyone? To resolve this, the Rebbe explains how from the mystical perspective of pnimiyus haTorah, on which basis Mahadura Basra was written, even this rung of Divine service is within the potential of every Jew.
Moreh Nevuchim III, ch. 52.
Yirmeyahu 23:24.
Amos 4:12.
Moreh Nevuchim, loc. cit.; Darchei Moshe, loc. cit.; Rama, sec. 1.
Yeshayahu 6:3.
Yirmeyahu, loc. cit.
At the corresponding point in Mahadura Basra, end of 1:5, the Alter Rebbe goes on to advise what one should do “if he is not immediately affected in this manner.”
Tur; see also 90:10 below.
Seder HaYom.
The Rebbe Rayatz directed that when saying this, one should place one hand against the other and lower the head. (See Sefer HaMaamarim 5710, p. 244; Sefer HaMinhagim — The Book of Chabad-Lubavitch Customs, p. 3.) Many chassidim understand this to mean that one should say Modeh Ani while lying on his side with his hands held palm to palm above his chest, inclined slightly toward his head, and with the head bent towards his hands. Others understand the beginning of the instruction to mean that one should place his left hand flat on his chest and place his right hand upon it.
From a positive perspective, the Rebbe explains in Kuntreis Inyanah shel Toras HaChassidus (translated as On the Essence of Chassidus) that Modeh Ani emanates from a point in a Jew’s soul that cannot be affected by ritual impurity.
Lying in bed, however, is not considered the most reverent posture for this; see end of subsection 1 above, and the end of Mahadura Basra 1:6.
Rabbeinu Yonah on Berachos, ch. 2, cited in Beis Yosef, sec. 85.
Gittin 70a, et al.
Mahadura Basra 1:6 states that waiting the length of time it takes to recite Modeh Ani is sufficient. See also below, Hilchos Shemiras Guf VeNefesh, subsection 5.
Berachos 60b.
In the Introduction, p. 10b, and in Parshas Vayeishev, I, 184b; Bayis Chadash, sec. 4.
Seder HaYom.
Nor food and drink; see sec. 4:2 in Mahadura Basra above and sec. 4:6 in Mahadura Kama below.
Eliyah Rabbah 4:4.
Washing negel-vasser by one’s bed has in fact become one of the hallmarks of chassidic conduct.
Shelah, p. 124b.
Baer Heiteiv, subsection 2.
Berachos 3a. In Mahadura Basra 1:3 these times are listed only as alternatives to the ultimate auspicious hour, which is actual midnight. The footnotes there explain that the times of the changing of the watches are determined according to the principle of “seasonal hours.”
The term “and so on” refers to the dispersion of the Jews among the non-Jews; see the Tur, which was the Alter Rebbe’s source.
Eichah 2:19.
Tehillim 100:2.
Kisvei HaAriZal, et al.
Peah 1:1; see also the Alter Rebbe’s Hilchos Talmud Torah 4:4-5.
Tur. In Likkutei Sichos, Vol. 26, p. 95ff., the Rebbe compares the wording here with the wording in Mahadura Basra 1:9.
The Alter Rebbe did not include this passage in his Siddur.

In Likkutei Sichos, loc. cit., the Rebbe compares the wording here with the wording in Mahadura Basra 1:9.
A unit of dry measure.
Shmos 16:18. See also Likkutei Sichos, loc. cit., footnote 12.
Tur. Rama (Orach Chayim 1:5) states that although it is desirable for an individual to recite the Ten Commandments, they should not be recited communally.

Significantly, the Alter Rebbe’s Siddur includes the passage of the Akeidah, but neither the passage concerning the manna nor the Ten Commandments, though they are included in many other Siddurim.
Berachos 12a.
Rashi there.
Menachos 110a.
Vayikra 5:1.
The Alter Rebbe’s Siddur does not include the Biblical verses that describe these sacrifices, though they are all enumerated in the Talmudic passage Eizehu Mekoman (Zevachim 5:1-8) which he does include. See Mahadura Basra 1:9.
This passage does not appear in the Alter Rebbe’s Siddur.
See subsection 19 below, and sources there.
Mahadura Basra 1:9 differs and rules that there is no need to stand.
I.e., Tehillim 100. The Chabad custom (according to the view cited in Yad Aharon) is to stand while reciting this psalm. In Likkutei Sichos, Vol. 12, p. 28, footnote 52, the Rebbe explains that Mahadura Basra refers only to the passages concerning the sacrifices and not to Mizmor LeTodah.
Tur and Shulchan Aruch, sec. 7.
This is forbidden, as explained in Rambam, Hilchos Shechitah, ch. 2.
Vayikra 4:23.
Labors ordinarily forbidden on those days were permitted for the offering of communal sacrifices only. Since the sacrifices brought by private individuals were therefore not offered on Shabbos and the festivals, it is not appropriate on those days to ask that our recitation of these passages be considered as if we had offered such sacrifices.
A person who is incapable of independent study beyond the straightforward reading of the Written Law should simply read the passages concerning the sacrifices.
Being better equipped, he should devote his energies to study.
I.e., the Biblical passage concerning the Todah sacrifice, which appears in certain Siddurim (though not in the Alter Rebbe’s Siddur). Mizmor LeTodah (Tehillim 100), whose recitation parallels the above sacrifice, is likewise not recited on those days.
Nor is Mizmor LeTodah recited on Shabbos or Yom-Tov; see sec. 51:1 below.
The thanksgiving-offering was not brought on Chol Hamoed Pesach because some of the loaves of bread that accompanied it were chametz, which may not be eaten during those days. If it were to be brought on the day before Pesach and the day before Yom Kippur, one would not have been able to partake of it for the full amount of time granted by the Torah. The Sages therefore suspended it altogether on those two days.
Vayikra 1:11.
Vayikra Rabbah 2:10.
Many Siddurim (though not the Alter Rebbe’s Siddur) include the passage describing the fashioning and use of the Basin in the Sanctuary (Shmos 30:17-21). See Beis Yosef, citing Orchos Chayim, loc. cit.; Shulchan Aruch, sec. 9.
Vayikra 6:1-6. See HaManhig (ed. Raphael), Dinei Tefillah, sec. 15, citing Rabbeinu Eliyahu of Paris.
Bamidbar 28:1-8. See also sec. 48:1 below.
Shmos 30:7-8.
Loc. cit., vv. 34-36. The Alter Rebbe states explicitly that the passages should be recited in this order. Nevertheless, in his Siddur — and in other Siddurim as well — the passage concerning the spices and their preparation in fact precedes the passage concerning the Incense Altar.
טור. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"א.
לבוש סעיף א.
מורה נבוכים ח"ג פ' נב. הובא בדרכי משה. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ד.
ירמיה כג, כד.
רמ"א סעיף א.
בדפוס ראשון: ית' וית'. ובדפוסים הראשונים של הרמ"א: יתעלה ויתרומם.
עולת תמיד ס"ק ב. אלי' זוטא ס"ק ב. אלי' רבה ס"ק א. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ו.
עמוס ד, יב.
מורה נבוכים שם. דרכי משה שם. רמ"א סעיף א. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ה.
ירמיה שם.
טור. רמ"א ס"א. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"א.
טור. רמ"א ס"א. ועי' לקמן סי' צ ס"י.
סדר היום. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ו וש"נ.
סעיף ג.
עי' אלי' זוטא סי' ד ס"ק יא. אלי' רבה שם ס"ק טז. ב"י סי' פה בשם רבינו יונה.
הרב רבינו יונה ברכות פ"ב, מובא בב"י סי' פה.
גיטין דף ע, א. וראה גם מהדו"ב ס"ו וש"נ.
מ"א סי' ד ס"ק א.
ברכות דף ס, ב.
ב"ח סי' ד. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ז וש"נ.
סדר היום.
אלי' רבה ס"ק ד.
של"ה קכד, ב [הובא בעטרת זקנים ס"ק א. באר היטב ס"ק ב. אלי' רבה שם].
באר היטב ס"ק ב.
ברכות ג, א. ובמהדוב"ת ס"ג ובסידור בסדר השכמת הבוקר ובהערה לתיקון חצות פסק שעיקר זמן העת רצון הוא בחצות האמיתי, ורק כשאינו יכול אזי לפחות בראש האשמורה כו'. ועי' קובץ ד"ת חי"ג ע' נב.
רא"ש ברכות פ"א סי' ב. ב"י.
איכה ב, יט.
מקור חיים (לר' חיים כהן) טור אודם סעיף ג. סולת בלולה ס"ק ג.
תהלים ק, ב.
כתבי האריז"ל. עולת תמיד ס"ק א ואלי' זוטא ס"ק ב בשם לבנת הספיר. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ב וש"נ.
של"ה. מ"א ס"ק א.
טור שם. ושו"ע סעיף ד. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ב.
מקור חיים סי' א סעיף ד. סולת בלולה ס"ק ד. אלי' רבה ס"ק א.
לחם חמודות פ"ט דברכות ס"ק פד. אלי' זוטא ס"ק ה. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ט.
פאה רפ"א. וראה הלכות תלמוד תורה פ"ד ה"ד־ה.
טור. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ט.
כ"ה בכת"י ובב"י.
וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ט, ואינו בנוסח הסידור. ועי' לקו"ש חכ"ו ע' 95 ואילך אודות שינוי הנוסח שביניהם.
לבוש סעיף ה. ועי' מהדו"ב ס"ט.
שמות טז, יח. ועי' לקו"ש שם ע' 96 הע' 12.
טור. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ואינו בנוסח הסידור.
ברכות יב, א.
רש"י שם.
שו"ת רשב"א ח"א סי' קפד.
ראה דרישה ס"ק ו בשם מהרש"ל (בשו"ת סי' סד). עולת תמיד ס"ק ו.
ב"י. רמ"א סעיף ה.
לחם חמודות ברכות פ"א ס"ק ט. מ"א ס"ק ט.
בכת"י ובמ"א: המיוחד.
מנחות קי, א.
ב"י. ט"ז סק"ד.
טור ושו"ע סעיף ה. וכ"ה במהדו"ב ס"ט. ואינו בנוסח הסידור.
מ"א ס"ק ח.
ויקרא ה, א.
של"ה מסכת תענית. מ"א שם.
מ"א שם.
המנהיג דיני תפלה סי' יב. ארחות חיים הלכות מאה ברכות סי' טז. כל בו סי' ב. שו"ע סעיף ו. ועד"ז במהדו"ב ס"ט וש"נ.
ארחות חיים וכל בו שם. ב"י. ט"ז ס"ק ו.
מ"א ס"ק י. וכ"ה בסדור אודות פרשת תרומת הדשן. וראה לקמן סי"ט וש"נ.
עולת תמיד ס"ק ח. וכ"ה לקמן סי' מח סעיף א וש"נ. אבל במהדו"ב ס"ט פסק שאצ"ל מעומד וש"נ.
יד אהרן. וכ"ה מנהג חב"ד. ראה לקו"ש חי"ב ע' 28-29.
טור ושו"ע סעיף ז.
טור. מ"א ס"ק יא.
מ"א שם.
לבוש סעיף ז.
מ"א שם.
רש"ל (בהגהותיו לטור ובשו"ת סי' סד).
מ"א ס"ק יא.
ויקרא ד, כח.
עולת תמיד ס"ק ז. אלי' זוטא ס"ק י.
תבואות שור אות ט. מור וקציעה.
מ"א שם בשם של"ה (מסכת תענית). וראה הגהות יש נוחלין אות ט.
מ"א שם.
וכ"ה באמירת מזמור לתודה, כדלקמן סי' נא ס"א, ושם, שגם בשוי"ט אין לאומרה, ועי' קובץ יגדי"ת (נ.י.) ח"ו ע' נ.
סעיף יג.
סעיף ו.
ארחות חיים הלכות מאה ברכות סי' יד בשם הרב יהודה בר יקר. שו"ע סעיף ח.
ויקרא א, יא. וכ"ה בנוסח הסידור.
ויקרא רבה ב, י.
ב"י בשם ארחות חיים שם. שו"ע סעיף ט. ואינו בנוסח הסידור.
ראה ס' המנהיג (מהדורת רפאל) דיני תפלה סי' טו בשם רבינו אלי' מפריש. וכ"ה בסידור בתפלת שחרית (ד"ה נכון מאד).
ראה גם לקמן סי' מח ס"א.
Translated by Rabbi Eliyahu Touger and Uri Kaploun.
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