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What Happens After We Die?

What Happens After We Die?


One of the fundamental beliefs of Judaism is that life does not begin with birth, nor does it end with death. This is articulated in the verse in Kohelet (Ecclesiastes), “And the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to G‑d, who gave it.”1

The Lubavitcher Rebbe would often point out that a basic law of physics (known as the First Law of Thermodynamics) is that no energy is ever “lost” or destroyed; it only assumes another form. If such is the case with physical energy, how much more so a spiritual entity such as the soul, whose existence is not limited by time, space, or any of the other delineators of the physical state. Certainly, the spiritual energy that in the human being is the source of sight and hearing, emotion and intellect, will and consciousness does not cease to exist merely because the physical body has ceased to function; rather, it passes from one form of existence (physical life as expressed and acted via the body) to a higher, exclusively spiritual form of existence.

While there are numerous stations in a soul’s journey, these can generally be grouped into four general phases:

  1. the wholly spiritual existence of the soul before it enters the body;
  2. physical life;
  3. post-physical life in Gan Eden (the “Garden of Eden,” also called “Heaven” and “Paradise”);
  4. the “world to come(olam haba) that follows the resurrection of the dead.

What are these four phases, and why are all four necessary?

To See or Not to See: The Free Choice Paradox

As discussed at length in chassidic teaching,2 the ultimate purpose of the soul is fulfilled during the time it spends in this physical world making this world “a dwelling-place for G‑d” by finding and expressing G‑dliness in everyday life through its fulfillment of the mitzvot.

But for our actions in this world to have true significance, they must be the product of our free choice. If we were to experience the power and beauty of the divine presence we bring into the world with our mitzvot, we would always choose what is right, and thereby lose our autonomy. The obvious becomes robotic. Our accomplishments would not be ours, any more than it is an “accomplishment” that we eat three meals a day and avoid jumping into fire.

Hence, this crucial stage of our lives is enacted under the conditions of almost total spiritual blackout: in a world in which the divine reality is hidden, in which our purpose in life is not obvious; a world in which “all its affairs are severe and evil, and wicked men prevail.”3 In such a world, our positive and G‑dly actions are truly our own choice and achievement.

On the other hand, however, how would it be possible at all to discover, and act upon, goodness and truth under such conditions? If the soul is plunged into such a G‑dless world, and cut off from all knowledge of the divine, by what means could it ever discover the path of truth?

This is why the soul exists in a purely spiritual state before it descends in to this world. In its pre-physical existence, the soul is fortified with the divine wisdom, knowledge and vision that will empower it in its struggles to transcend and transform the physical reality.

In the words of the Talmud: “The fetus in its mother’s womb is taught the entire Torah . . . When its time comes to emerge into the atmosphere of the world, an angel comes and slaps it on its mouth, making it forget everything.”4

An obvious question: If we’re made to forget it all, why teach it to us in the first place? But herein lies the entire paradox of knowledge and choice: we can’t see the truth, we can’t even manifestly know it, but at the same time we do know it, deep inside us. Deep enough that we can choose to ignore it, but also deep enough that wherever we are and whatever we become, we can always choose to unearth it. This, in the final analysis, is choice: our choice to pursue the knowledge implanted in our soul, or to suppress it.

The Mutual Exclusivity of Achievement and Reward

Thus the stage is set for phase 2: the tests, trials and tribulations of physical life. The characteristics of the physical—its finiteness, its opaqueness, its self-centeredness, its tendency to conceal what lies behind it—form a heavy veil that obscures virtually all knowledge and memory of our divine source. And yet, deep down we know right from wrong. Somehow we know that life is meaningful, that we are here to fulfill a divine purpose; somehow, when confronted with a choice between a G‑dly action and an unG‑dly one, we know the difference. The knowledge is faint—a dim, subconscious memory from a prior, spiritual state. We can silence it, or amplify it—the choice is ours.

Everything physical is, by definition, finite; indeed, that is what makes it a concealment of the infinitude of the divine. Intrinsic to physical life is that it is finite in time: it ends. Once it ends—once our soul is freed from its physical embodiment—we can no longer achieve and accomplish. But now, finally, we can behold and derive satisfaction from what we have accomplished.

The two are mutually exclusive: achievement precludes satisfaction; satisfaction precludes achievement. Achievement can take place only in the spiritual blindness of the physical world; satisfaction can take place only in the choice-less environment of the spiritual reality.

The Talmud quotes the verse: “You shall keep the mitzvah, the decrees and the laws which I command you today to do them.”5 “Today to do them,” explains the Talmud, “but not to do them tomorrow. Today to do them, and tomorrow to receive their reward.”6 The Ethics expresses it thus: “A single moment of repentance and good deeds in this world is greater than all of the world to come. And a single moment of bliss in the world to come is greater than all of this world.”7

It’s as if we spent a hundred years watching an orchestra performing a symphony on television—with the sound turned off. We watched the hand movements of the conductor and the musicians. Sometimes we asked: why are the people on the screen making all these strange motions to no purpose? Sometimes we understood that a great piece of music was being played, but didn’t hear a single note. After a hundred years of watching in silence, we watch it again—this time with the sound turned on.

The orchestra is ourselves, and the music—played well or poorly—is the deeds of our lives.

What is Heaven and Hell?

Heaven and hell are where the soul receives its reward and punishment after death. Yes, Judaism believes in, and Jewish traditional sources extensively discuss, punishment and reward in the afterlife (indeed, it is one of the “Thirteen Principles” of Judaism enumerated by Maimonides). But these are a very different “heaven” and “hell” than what one finds described in medieval Christian texts or New Yorker cartoons. Heaven is not a place of halos and harps, nor is hell populated by those red creatures with pitchforks depicted on the label of non-kosher canned meat.

After death, the soul returns to its divine Source, together with all the G‑dliness it has “extracted” from the physical world by using it for meaningful purposes. The soul now relives its experiences on another plane, and experiences the good it accomplished during its physical lifetime as incredible happiness and pleasure, and the negative as incredibly painful.

This pleasure and pain are not reward and punishment in the conventional sense—in the sense that we might punish a criminal by sending him to jail, or reward a dedicated employee with a raise. It is rather that we experience our own life in its reality—a reality from which we were sheltered during our physical lifetimes. We experience the true import and effect of our actions. Turning up the volume on that TV set with that symphony orchestra can be intensely pleasurable, or intensely painful8—depending on how we played the music of our lives.

When the soul departs from the body, it stands before the heavenly court to give a “judgment and accounting” of its earthly life.9 But the heavenly court does only the “accounting” part; the “judgment” part—that, only the soul itself can do.10 Only the soul can pass judgment on itself; only it can know and sense the true extent of what it accomplished, or neglected to accomplish, in the course of its physical life. Freed from the limitations and concealments of the physical state, it can now see G‑dliness; it can now look back at its own life and experience what it truly was. The soul’s experience of the G‑dliness it brought into the world with its mitzvot and positive actions is the exquisite pleasure of Gan Eden (the “Garden of Eden”—Paradise); its experience of the destructiveness it wrought through its lapses and transgressions is the excruciating pain of Gehinnom (“Gehenna” or “Purgatory”).

The truth hurts. The truth also cleanses and heals. The spiritual pain of Gehinnom—the soul’s pain in facing the truth of its life—cleanses and heals the soul of the spiritual stains and blemishes that its failings and misdeeds have attached to it. Freed of this husk of negativity, the soul is now able to fully enjoy the immeasurable good that its life engendered, and “bask in the divine radiance” emitted by the G‑dliness it brought into the world.

For a G‑dly soul spawns far more good in its lifetime than evil. The core of the soul is unadulterated goodness; the good we accomplish is infinite, the evil but shallow and superficial. So even the most wicked of souls, say our sages, experiences at most twelve months of Gehinnom, followed by an eternity of heaven. Furthermore, a soul’s experience of Gehinnom can be mitigated by the action of his or her children and loved ones, here on earth. Reciting kaddish and engaging in other good deeds “in merit of” and “for the elevation of” the departed soul means that the soul, in effect, is continuing to act positively upon the physical world, thereby adding to the goodness of its physical lifetime.11

The soul, for its part, remains involved in the lives of those it leaves behind when it departs physical life. The soul of a parent continues to watch over the lives of his or her children and grandchildren, to derive pride (or pain) from their deeds and accomplishments, and to intercede on their behalf before the heavenly throne; the same applies to those to whom a soul was connected with bonds of love, friendship and community. In fact, because the soul is no longer constricted by the limitations of the physical state, its relationship with its loved ones is, in many ways, even deeper and more meaningful than before.

However, while the departed soul is aware and cognizant of all that transpires in the lives of its loved ones, the souls remaining in the physical world are limited to what they can perceive via the five senses as facilitated by their physical bodies. We can impact the soul of a departed loved one through our positive actions, but we cannot communicate with it through the conventional means (speech, sight, physical contact, etc.) that, prior to its passing, defined the way that we related to each other. (Indeed, the Torah expressly forbids the idolatrous practices of necromancy, mediumism and similar attempts to “make contact” with the world of the dead.) Hence, the occurrence of death, while signifying an elevation for the soul of the departed, is experienced as a tragic loss for those it leaves behind.

Reincarnation: A Second Go

Each individual soul is dispatched to the physical world with its own individualized mission to accomplish. As Jews, we all have the same Torah with the same 613 mitzvot; but each of us has his or her own set of challenges, distinct talents and capabilities, and particular mitzvot which form the crux of his or her mission in life.

At times, a soul may not conclude its mission in a single lifetime. In such cases, it returns to earth for a “second go” to complete the job. This is the concept of gilgul neshamot—commonly referred to as “reincarnation”—extensively discussed in the teachings of Kabbalah.12 This is why we often find ourselves powerfully drawn to a particular mitzvah or cause and make it the focus of our lives, dedicating to it a seemingly disproportionate part of our time and energy: it is our soul gravitating to the “missing pieces” of its divinely ordained purpose.13

The World to Come

Just as the individual soul passes through three stages—preparation for its mission, the mission itself, and the subsequent phase of satisfaction and reward—so, too, does creation as a whole. A chain of spiritual “worlds” precedes the physical reality, to serve it as a source of divine vitality and empowerment. Then comes the era of olam hazeh (“this world”), in which the divine purpose of creation is played out. Finally, once humanity as a whole has completed its mission of making the physical world a “dwelling-place for G‑d,” comes the era of universal reward—the “world to come” (olam haba).

There is a major difference between a soul’s individual “world of reward” in Gan Eden, and the universal reward of the world to come. Gan Eden is a spiritual world, inhabited by souls without physical bodies; the world to come is a physical world, inhabited by souls with physical bodies14 (though the very nature of the physical will undergo a fundamental transformation).

In the world to come, the physical reality will so perfectly “house” and reflect the divine reality that it will transcend the finitude and temporality which define it today. Thus, while in today’s imperfect world the soul can experience “reward” only after it departs from the body and physical life, in the world to come the soul and body will be reunited and will together enjoy the fruits of their labor. Thus, the prophets of Israel spoke of a time when all who died will be restored to life: their bodies will be regenerated15 and their souls restored to their bodies. “Death will be eradicated forever,”16 and “the world will be filled with the knowledge of G‑d as the water covers the seabed.”17

This, of course, will spell the end of the “Era of Achievement.”18 The veil of physicality, rarefied to complete transparency, will no longer conceal the truth of G‑d, but will rather express it and reveal it in an even more profound way than the most lofty spiritual reality. Goodness and G‑dliness will cease to be something we do and achieve, for it will be what we are. Our experience of goodness will be absolute. Body and soul both, reunited as they were before they were separated by death, will inhabit all the good that we accomplished with our freely chosen actions in the challenges and concealments of physical life.

Tanya, chapter 6.
Talmud, Niddah 30b.
Talmud, Eruvin 22a.
Ethics of the Fathers 4:17.
Thus the sages speak about a “Gehenna of fire,” in which we experience the full destructive “heat” of our illicit desires, anger and hatreds; and a “Gehenna of snow,” in which we are exposed to the “coldness” of our moments of indifference to G‑d and to our fellows.
Ethics of the Fathers 3:1, et al.
Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov.
This is why there is a greater emphasis on the recitation of kaddish and other actions for the elevation of a departed soul during the first year after death.
Indeed, the Kabbalists say that these days—after nearly six thousand years of human history—a “new” soul is a rarity; the overwhelming majority of us are reincarnated souls, returned to earth to fill the gaps of a previous lifetime.
For more on the subject, see our articles on reincarnation.
This is actually a matter of contention between two great Jewish thinkers and Torah authorities, Maimonides and Nachmanides; the teachings of Kabbalah and Chassidism follow the approach of Nachmanides, who sees the ultimate reward as occurring in a world of embodied souls. For more on this, see The Resurrection of the Dead.
Interestingly, long before the discovery of genetics and DNA, the Talmud talks about a tiny, indestructible bone in the body called luz, from which the entire body will be “rebuilt” after it returned to dust.
Ibid. 11:9.
The Talmud goes so far as to quote the verse (Ecclesiastes 12:1), “There will come years of which you will say: I have no desire in them,” and declare: “This refers to the days of the messianic era, in which there is neither merit nor obligation” (Talmud, Shabbat 151b).
Yanki Tauber served as editor of
Rabbi Shlomo Yaffe is a frequent contributor of articles and media to, is Dean of the Institute of American and Talmudic Law in New York, N.Y., and Rabbi of Congregation B'nai Torah in Springfield. Mass. Rabbi Yaffe has lectured and led seminars throughout North America, as well as in Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa.
Artwork by Sarah Kranz.
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louise leon Pennsylvania, USA December 15, 2017

Thought that I had read this incredible article a while ago and I am correct. I must admit that my comment on May 3, 2016 gave me a big smile. Reply

Lyyli Lehtinen Los Angeles December 12, 2017

Shlomo and Yanki: I have just read the above. Mozaltof! How wonderful you have presented this! So comprehensable. Reply

Manatheon Thomasville NC November 14, 2017

First of all, I'm not Jewish. I was raised Southern Baptist. For the longest time I tried to live under the doctrine I've been taught all my life. It left too many unanswered questions, and depended on faith for the solutions. When the convention announced that we should take the message exactly as written I quit. I'll never forget the look on my mother's face when I told her.
My search led me down many roads. Although not a theologian, I found many (including Jews) with doubts no matter how much faith was in their hearts.
I started to draw conclusions on my own. I talked with many more people and no one could dispute my findings. But I heard the same thing over and over. "My church doesn't teach that, so it has to be wrong"
Then I read your paper. Your explanation is almost a word for word of the way I believe. I've used the first law of physics to explain how I feel and to demonstrate how our souls are created. I can add to your findings extensively, but not here. Thanks Reply

Rabbi Liebowitz January 1, 2018
in response to Manatheon:

Good goyim! Reply

Leona Hawkins Petersburg July 8, 2017

Body and soul reunited, there is one soul that has lived in multiple bodies, so which body is the final home? Reply

Marta Amazon June 16, 2017

I want to live eternally! G'd bless my soul! Reply

Anonymous Windsor May 8, 2017

I am very disturbed by the thought of reincarnation. If my departed loved one re-incarnates, how will I ever meet him again? He will forget me by his second time around, and will have other loved one. Yes or No? Reply

Rachel Heysel United States of America via June 8, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

I have the same question. If I am reincarnated because I have to fulfill my souls mission, will I know another family? If I had children the first time and a husband and animals, pets, will I be reunited again? Reply

Mendel Adelman via June 9, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

Well, I have great news for you! You will be reunited again, whether any of you are reincarnated or not.

A soul is like a flame. It can divide endlessly and never be lessened. Each soul can enliven multiple bodies, with each body having a unique life force given to them, just that they are all rooted in the same soul.

So actually, every reincarnation of a soul will come back. We will all find out which people in previous generations have the same root soul as us. But deep down, the person we are now is unique.

Our reincarnations are hewn from the same stone as we are, but we are not the same being. We just share a mission.

Please see in In which body will a reincarnated soul return? Reply

Tonna Chavez June 9, 2017
in response to Mendel Adelman:

What a beautiful answer... Reply

Mark Grewar Beaconsfield December 9, 2017
in response to Mendel Adelman:

awesome response - i can accept this Reply

Robyn Florida December 14, 2017
in response to Mendel Adelman:

I’m very interested in this topic Reply Staff December 14, 2016

To Spirit over matter Please see In which body will a reincarnated soul return? for a response Reply

suzy handler woodland hill, ca December 13, 2016

Concentrate on his life and the world to come will be rewarding.
Read the Sh'ma and In the Beginning. Believe in G-d and our life has a way of working out. Reply

Mark Grewar Beaconsfield December 9, 2017
in response to suzy handler:

Thank you - awesome Reply

Spirit over matter Kurdistan December 11, 2016

Just one small question. In that world to come, which body will be given back to us? From which life (I suppose to have more than one for sure). Reply

louise leon PA, USA September 12, 2016

I'm waiting Although not in a rush, I am more than curious as to what will be will be ! Reply

Douglas Alencar Dublin August 23, 2016

Reincarnation and the World to Come Shalom! Very nice article, but I'm curious as to which physical body the soul will be reunited in the World to Come, if the person had more than one reincarnation. Will it be a brand new body? Reply

Eliyahu Bronx July 6, 2016

What happens after death Doesn't this contradict what Rashi said?
"For the living know that they will die: "and perhaps their hearts will return on the day of death and they will repent of their ways, but after they die, they do not know anything, and they have no more reward for the actions that they do from their deaths and onwards, for whoever toils on the eve of the Sabbath will eat on the Sabbath." Reply

Eliezer Zalmanov for May 31, 2016

Re: eternal hell There are indeed forms of hell for the extremely wicked that last longer than 12 months. But as far as we know, this is rarely meted out. In fact, the previous Lubavitcher Rebbe even prescribed a simple method to avoid them. See: Hayom Yom: Tevet 7 Reply

Anonymous Philadelphia May 30, 2016

eternal hell I've read that there are different categories, one of which is the extremely wicked, and that they are not cleansed after the 12 months. Not sure what happens after that, but it's not limited to 12 months. Can you elaborate? (Tractate Rosh Hashanah 17A) Reply

Anonymous May 9, 2016

suit yourselves, your life speechless Reply

louise leon PA, USA May 3, 2016

To Murray of Anonymous Ottawa Murray....oy vay iz are one wild and meshugeh guy !
Can't stop laughing at your comments.
Anon. Ottawa...boy are you erudite. I had to look up both the "Mandela effect" and the word "sheol". Interesting to say the least.
I do believe that I am alive and not in sheol. Biologically speaking (I just realized that there is "logic" in the word biologically !!) all laws of nature as I know it, I'm alive. There is a good possibility that I have a recycled soul, however, as I do have "other" memories.
As to our changing universe...yup, it's constantly changing.
Science fiction often becomes science fact...look at Jules Verne or Michelangelo or many others.
Just goes to show that everything changes, however one trusts that the basic essentials of life, such as love, compassion, respect for the rights of all etc. etc. remain constant. Reply

anonymous ottawa December 26, 2017
in response to louise leon:

Hi Louise, no one has ever called me erudite before. I like it. I like what you said about the unchanging essentials of life as well. I have always agreed with that, in principal. Up until the last year or so, I never really cared about what happened to people that I never met, or would never meet all that much. I cared more about animals and the planet. But now I care about all the people I will never meet as well. So more than just principle at this point. I just wish everyone would start caring about animals and the planet. Reply

Will H. Physical Life April 21, 2016

That was an outstanding post. Awesome post! Reply

Murray Gewirtz BROOKLYN April 14, 2016

To Robyn Yogi Berra said "It's deja vu all over again!" Reply

Anonymous Ottawa April 13, 2016

What if.. What if we're already dead? What if we are in sheol now? Anyone heard of the Mandela effect? Those who have experienced it will swear up and down that things are different now. Those who haven't will swear up and down that things are the same. There's lots of room for error too as I could cite in some examples of possible Mandela effects. I hope this isn't too much off topic. I'm a believer that things are different, and reality has changed enough to make me question where I am, exactly. It looks like the same earth, same sky, but is it? Notwithstanding the ever changing nature of matter - are we still in the same place and time? Did you know that galaxies are receding away from one another at the speed of light now? Did you know that they weren't moving apart at that speed just a few years ago? As for soul recycling, how bad can it be? I am consoled by the notion that nothing lasts forever and also by the bible passage "...everything that will be has already been..." I paraphrase. Reply

Robyn West Palm Beach April 11, 2016

Have you ever done something and say I've done this before or been here before. I noticed it happened more as a child. Reply

Introduction: Dealing with Death; The Jewish Approach
Life to Life Library


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