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The Destruction of the First Holy Temple

The Destruction of the First Holy Temple


Two Temples stood in succession on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.

The First Temple was constructed by King Solomon, based on detailed plans that G‑d had given to his father, King David through the prophet Nathan. King David had wanted to build it himself, but was told that his son would be the one to do it.

In the fourth year of his reign, 833 BCE, King Solomon found himself at peace with his neighbors and began the construction of the Temple. The site chosen by King David was the top of Mount Moriah, where Abraham had once proved his readiness to offer up his dearly beloved son in obedience to G‑d's command.

It was the archetype of the "dwelling for G‑d in the physical world" that is the purpose of creation.Tens of thousands of men were needed to perform the many tasks required for the gigantic undertaking. Men were sent to Lebanon to cut down cedar trees. Stones were hewn near the quarries, and then brought up to Moriah, there to be fitted together. In the valley of the Jordan the bronze was cast. Craftsmen were brought in from Tyre to help perfect the work. Ships set sail eastward and westward to bring the choicest materials for the adornment of the House of G‑d.

It took seven years to complete the Temple. In the twelfth year of his reign, in 827 BCE, King Solomon dedicated the Temple and all its contents. The Ark of the Covenant was brought into the Temple amidst inaugural celebrations that lasted for seven days.

For the next 410 years, the Jewish people would bring daily offerings in this magnificent edifice, and here the nation would gather three times a year to "see and to be seen by the face of G‑d." Here the Divine Presence was manifest. Ten daily miracles – such as the wind never extinguishing the fire on the altar – attested to G‑d's presence in the Temple. This was the archetype of the "dwelling for G‑d in the physical world" that is the purpose of creation.

Solomon's reign was a golden era. His capital became the center of wisdom, riches, and splendor. Monarchs as well as ordinary people came to gaze on all the marvels to be seen there, and left wide-eyed with amazement and awe. The Land of Israel developed into a great center of commerce. The Jews lived in peace and happiness, "every man under his vine and under his fig tree."

The Beginning of the End

At the end of King Solomon's life, he was guilty of indiscretions unbefitting his great stature. G‑d told him he would be punished. After his death, the kingdom would be torn in two.

Indeed, after Solomon's death, the ten northern tribes refused to accept his son Rehoboam as their king. In 796 BCE, the country was divided into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel in the north and the Kingdom of Judah (containing Jerusalem) in the south.

The kings of the Kingdom of Israel practiced idolatry, but so did many of the kings of the Kingdom of Judah. G‑d sent prophets repeatedly to admonish the Jews, but they refused to change their ways, choosing instead to deride these prophets as false messengers coming to discourage them with predictions of destruction.

G‑d sent prophets repeatedly to admonish the Jews, but they refused to change their waysIn one egregious example, in 661 BCE, the prophet Zechariah ben Jehoiada chastised the nation for their sins, warning them of the grave punishments that would befall them if they would not change their ways. Rather than accept his rebuke, the nation stoned Zechariah to death in the Temple courtyard. Incredibly, this occurred on Yom Kippur.

Rather than allowing Zechariah's blood to settle into the earth, G‑d caused it to bubble up. The people tried to cover it with earth, but it continued to seethe for the next 252 years, until the Destruction of the Temple (more on this later on).

As a result of the disobedient and corrupt behavior of the Jews, G‑d did not provide either kingdom with the peace and security that the united kingdom had enjoyed under Solomon's reign. Their common enemy was the Assyrian empire to the north.

In 555 BCE, Samaria, the capital of the northern kingdom, fell to the Assyrians, and the Kingdom of Israel came to an end. Scores of thousands of the conquered people were led into captivity. They were transported to distant provinces of the Assyrian empire, and they disappeared completely. The Assyrians repopulated the land with exiles that had been uprooted from other countries, whose descendants came to be called the Samaritans or Kuttim. No trace has been found of the Ten Tribes.

The Kingdom of Judah miraculously survived the Assyrian threat and lasted another 150 years. Their kings were not uniformly evil as the kings of the Kingdom of Israel had been; they had several truly righteous monarchs – notably among them Hezekiah and Josiah – and enjoyed occasional bouts of resurgent spiritual health. But eventually, they would fall victim to the Babylonians.

The Book of Lamentations

Beginning in 463 BCE, Jeremiah prophesized about the Babylonian threat and warned the Jews of the terrible devastation they would incur if they did not stop worshipping idols and mistreating each other. But his melancholic prophecies, recorded in the Book of Jeremiah, went largely unheeded by the Jews, who mocked and persecuted him.

Some eighteen years before the destruction of the Temple, Jeremiah was imprisoned by King Jehoiakim (apparently due to his persistent prophecies foretelling the fall of Jerusalem). G‑d then spoke to Jeremiah (Jeremiah ch. 36):

Children starving; cannibalism on the part of hunger-crazed mothers, the city abandoned..."Take for yourself a scroll and write upon it all the words that I have spoken to you concerning Israel and concerning Judah. . . . Perhaps the house of Judah will hear all the evil that I plan to do to them, in order that they should repent, each man of his evil way, and I will forgive their iniquity and their sin."

Jeremiah summoned his devoted disciple, Baruch ben Neriah, and dictated to him a heart-rending and graphic warning of the coming doom; this prophecy eventually became known as the Book of Lamentations ("Eichah").

In this scroll, Jeremiah described and mourned the devastation that G‑d would wreak upon Jerusalem and the Holy Land: children starving; cannibalism on the part of hunger-crazed mothers, the city abandoned.

Baruch ben Neriah followed Jeremiah's instructions. He publicly read the scroll in the Holy Temple.

When the king was informed of this event, he asked that the scroll be read to him. After hearing but a few verses, the king grabbed the scroll and callously threw it into the fireplace.

When Jeremiah was informed of the king's actions, he sat and composed another chapter that he added to the book. This Book of Lamentations is read in the synagogue every year on the eve of the Ninth of Av.

The Babylonians Are Coming

The Assyrians had long dominated the Middle East, but their power was waning. Even with the help of the Egyptians, who were getting stronger, they were not able to fight off the Babylonians. These three empires were engaged in a power struggle, and the Kingdom of Judah was caught in the middle.

In 434 BCE, the Kingdom of Judah tried to form an alliance with Egypt. The Jews thought, despite Jeremiah's prophecies, that this would keep them safe. But instead, the Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar, marched on Judah. He pillaged Jerusalem and deported tens of thousands of Jews to his capital in Babylon; all the deportees were drawn from the upper classes, the wealthy, and craftsmen. Ordinary people were allowed to stay in Judah, and Nebuchadnezzar appointed a puppet king over Judah, Zedekiah.

But Zedekiah, though G‑d fearing and righteous, was foolishly courageous, and (despite Jeremiah's repeated admonitions not to) he tried to break free from the Babylonians. So Nebuchadnezzar marched on Jerusalem again. This time he would not be content with making Judah into a vassal state. On the tenth of Tevet, 425 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar began the siege of Jerusalem.

The Destruction

"Zechariah, Zechariah! I have slain the best of them; do you want all of them destroyed?" Thirty months later, in the month of Tammuz, after a long siege during which hunger and epidemics ravaged the city, the city walls were breached. King Zedekiah tried to escape through an eighteen-mile long tunnel, but he was captured in the plains of Jericho by enemy soldiers who, while chasing a deer, saw him emerging. He was brought before Nebuchadnezzar in Riblah. There Zedekiah's sons and many other Jewish personages were slain before his eyes; then his eyes were put out, and he was led in chains to Babylon.

On the seventh day of Av, the chief of Nebuchadnezzar's army, Nebuzaradan, began the destruction of Jerusalem. The walls of the city were torn down, and the royal palace and other structures in the city were set on fire.

Our Sages say that when Nebuzaradan entered the Temple he found the blood of Zechariah seething. He asked the Jews what this phenomenon meant, and they attempted to conceal the scandal, but he threatened to comb their flesh with iron combs. So they told him the truth: "There was a prophet among us who chastised us, and we killed him. For many years now his blood has not rested."

Nebuzaradan said, "I will appease him." He then killed the members of the Great and Small Sanhedrins, then he killed youths and maidens, and then school-children. Altogether, he killed 940,000 people. Still the blood continued to boil, whereupon Nebuzaradan cried: "Zechariah, Zechariah! I have slain the best of them; do you want all of them destroyed?" At last the blood sank into the ground (Talmud, Gittin 57b).1

On the ninth day of Av, toward evening, the Holy Temple was set on fire and destroyed. The fire burned for 24 hours.

Our Sages taught: When the first Holy Temple was destroyed, groups of young priests gathered with the keys to the Sanctuary in their hands. They ascended the roof and declared: "Master of the World! Since we have not merited to be trustworthy custodians, let the keys be given back to You." They then threw the keys toward Heaven. A hand emerged and received them, and the priests threw themselves into the fire (Talmud, Ta'anit 29b).

Everything of gold and silver that still remained was carried off as loot by the Babylonian soldiers. All the beautiful works of art with which King Solomon had once decorated and ornamented the holy edifice were destroyed or taken away. The holy vessels of the Temple that could be found were brought to Babylon. The high priest Seraiah and many other high officials and priests were executed. In addition to the 940,000 people killed in the aforementioned incident, millions more were killed inside and outside of the city. Many thousands of the people that had escaped the sword were taken prisoner and led into captivity in Babylon, where some of their best had already preceded them. Only the poorest of the residents of Jerusalem were permitted to stay on to plant the vineyards and work in the fields.

All this had been predicted in the Torah, and it came to pass with all the horror of which Moses had warnedThus ended the empire of David and Solomon; thus the magnificent city and Holy Temple were destroyed. Thus G‑d punished His people for deserting Him and His laws. All this had been predicted in the Torah, and it truly came to pass with all the horror of which Moses had warned.

Jeremiah also promised that the Jewish people would return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple. That would come to pass seventy years later.

For this our heart has become faint, for these things our eyes have grown dim.
For Mount Zion, which has become desolate; foxes prowl over it.
But You, O G‑d, remain forever; Your throne endures throughout the generations.
Why do You forget us forever, forsake us so long?
Restore us to You, O G‑d, that we may be restored! Renew our days as of old.

Lamentations 5:17-21


Alternatively, according to the Midrash (Kohelet Rabbah 3:16), the blood of the young priests and the members of the Great and Small Sanhedrin poured until it reached the grave of Zechariah. Nebuzaradan cried to Zechariah's blood: "Is your blood better than theirs?" At that point G‑d was filled with compassion. He signaled to the blood and it settled into the ground.

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Anonymous September 23, 2017

what year was the first Temple destroyed, what year was the second built and what year was it destroyed? thank you. Also, if the Muslims could build the Dome of the Rock and their mosque why on G-d's green earth could we have not rebuilt the Temple?How on earth did our Holiest place become Muslim. This is very distressing Please someone explain. Thank you Reply

Yehuda Shurpin for November 5, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

The First Temple was by the Babylonians in the year 3338 from creation (423 BCE). The Second Temple was completed in 349 BCE. And destroyed in the year 69/70 CE (see Which Year Was the Second Temple Destroyed, 69 CE or 70 CE?

As for rebuilding the Holy Temple please see Why Haven’t Jews Rebuilt the Temple Yet? Reply

Luba Hannah nyc November 5, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

no one really answered my questions. Reply

Stephen Games London August 2, 2017

You talk also about the destruction of Jerusalem being God's punishment for the Jews' habitual waywardness, but they nonetheless enjoyed some 370 years, more or less, of stability and good fortune. The collapse of Judah after such a long period doesn't seem to signify anything other a fairly successful polity and the misfortune of having backed the wrong political partner: these things happen! Reply

Anonymous September 28, 2017
in response to Stephen Games:

When you read the inspired words of the prophets, you will clearly see that the destruction of Jerusalem and the carrying away of the inhabitants into Babylonian captivity were God's punishment for Judah's sins rather than the results of a mere mistake in political affiliations. Reply

Stephen Games London August 2, 2017

Please explain your dating. All other sources give the Siege of Jerusalem as 587 BCE but you give it as 425. Why? Reply

Yehuda Shurpin for November 2, 2016

Re:The altar of sacrifice Indeed, the Mishnah, in Ethics of the fathers (Avot) 5:5 states "Ten miracles were performed for our forefathers in the Holy Temple:.....The rains did not extinguish the wood-fire burning upon the altar..." Reply

Paul Bastier Malaysia October 12, 2016

The altar of sacrifice The altar of sacrifice was outside the temple. What happened when it rained? Was there a mobile canopy of sorts to cover the altar so that the sacrifice could continue? Was the area divinely protected so that it never rained on the altar? Reply

Yehuda Shurpin for August 1, 2016

Re: Hmm - Alexander the Great With regards to Alexander the great, there is agreement between the Seder Olam and conventional chronology on when he lived. The issue is the identity of the Persian king that he fought with, but not when Alexander lived. Reply

John Higgins July 30, 2016

Hmm In the Prophets, Almighty YHWH warned us about the lying pen of the scribes, so we should take rabbinic traditions with a grain of salt and a generous pinch of skepticism.

The bottom line is that Alexander the Great did not ravage the Middle East in 180 B.C. If he did, then we must move everything forward 150 years, such that, we are no longer living in 2016, but in the year 2166 of our Lord. We cannot, therefore, forget the chronological relationship and spacing between events. So, if one believes the Seder Olam is correct, then everything must be moved forward in the same manner, otherwise history is skewed and unreliable. Reply

Average Joe January 20, 2016

This is the first time that I've heard of the destruction of the first temple being destroyed in 425BCE and 586BCE. The Jehovah's Witnesses teach it was in 607BCE so there is yet another date. I like the Rabbi's explanation that dating is very complicated as we've only started to use a standard international calendar very recently so going back in time makes events hard to date. I agree though that if we are going to go by major events in Jewish history, then we should really take notice of what Jewish historians & scholars say. I would like to know if you could shed any light as to why the JWs think the destruction was in 607BCE though, if possible. Shalom. Reply Staff January 13, 2016

To Peter Good question. Please scroll down to prior reader comments on this page, which address and link to the response. Reply

Peter Chee Canada January 13, 2016

Destruction of 1st temple You said Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Jerusalem in 425 BC and destroyed the temple 30 months later. Wikipedia says 586 BCE
Can you tell me the reason for this discrepancy? Reply

Anonymous July 4, 2017
in response to Peter Chee:

Also I am interested in this answer. i think it was a typo. coz not only wikipedia says 586 BCE. but astronomers say the same Reply

Anonymous October 20, 2014

Is Mount Moriah and Mount Zion the same place? Reply

Michael S. vienna August 31, 2014

Jews have made an oath with and to Gd. Staying true to ourselfs by protecting the oath and to G'D so that we can achieve undreamed greatness, breaking the oath continuesly and we will suffer more thn future generations can bare. It is because of the we have made to G'D and no other nation/people has, that we have the possibility of an uncompareble wealthy spiritual and material life but also that only we who have to pass so much suffering. Yes you are right, there were and are nations who were/are more evil but these people are not bound to G'D by an oath nor are they chosen by G'D to be elevated into unknown heights. Reply

Bethy August 17, 2014

Did the Jews really deserve such anger?? The story of Jews suffering through the ages and of course even now.. Really? As bad and as evil they were where they really so evil and bad that this kind of annihilation could ever be visited on a people by their G-d? If so then one could daily come away feeling more G-d fearing than G-d loving always in a state of perpetual fear that G-d may strike down in such profuse anger. Not comfortable with such wrath..other groups who have been as evil or much more evil seem to endure rather nicely..This is madness how could one trust say, their own father if that father was so merciless and angry? This is too scary to me and certainly others.. I have no answers..The chosen people for what? to suffer this much??? Reply Staff\ July 15, 2014

To Anonymous Did you read Rabbi Shurpin's comment? It does not represent the Chabad view but the traditional Jewish view. I'm copying the comment here:
The traditional Jewish dating system is based primarily on the traditional chronology given in the Bible as well as the Seder Olam, an authoritative work dating back to Talmudic times, and the Talmud itself. The Seder Olam is founded on an uninterrupted tradition and forms the basis for such halachic determinations as the dating of Shemittah.
Secular historians, however, have adopted a sharply divergent chronological system for this period. They date the destruction of the First Temple and the construction of the Second Temple 167 years earlier than does Seder Olam and all other traditional Jewish sources. Secular history identifies 538 BCE (3223) as the year Cyrus conquered the Babylonian Empire, while our tradition puts this event at 371 BCE (3390). As Scripture states clearly (Ezra 1:1ff and II Chronicles 23:22-3) it was in the first year of Cyrus' reign that the Jewish exiles were permitted to return to Jerusalem. Cyrus' reign began a year after he and Darius the Mede conquered Babylon (see Daniel 9:2 with Rashi, Megillah 12a, and Seder Olam ch. 28-29). 18 years after that the Second Temple was built (see Seder Olam ch. 30, Megillah 11b).
Another discrepancy involves the duration of Persian domination of the near East. In the Rabbinic tradition, Persian rule spanned the relatively brief period of 52 years, from 370-318 BCE (3391-3443), 34 of these years being after the construction of the Second Temple. Secular history assigns 208 years to Persia, from 538-330 BCE (3223-3431). According to this latter version, ten Persian kings reigned during those years, Jewish tradition, however, recognizes no more than four Persians as rulers of the entire known civilized world: Cyrus, Achashvairsoh, Darius, and possibly Cambyses.
This discrepancy has been noted by numerous Jewish scholars throughout the centuries who have insisted that the traditional chronology is incontrovertibly supported by Scripture. Various jewish scholars have offered explanations about these inconstancies, for example, Rabbi Don Isaac Abarbanel (in his comm.. to Daniel) suggests that some of the Persian kings mentioned in the ancient sources may have ruled Persia prior to its conquest of Babylonia. The Talmudic reference to a 52-year Persian hegemony, however, refers only to the years when Persia ruled the former Babylonian Empire...."
It should be noted however, that contrary to what many think, the chronology used by modern historians is far from exact. It was not until the 20th century that the entire world recognized one universal calendar system -- the Christian calendar (also known as the Gregorian calendar). If we go back in time however, the calendar situation is far more chaotic. Accurate historical records were almost unheard of and every empire used its own calendar system which was often based on totally different criteria. With no unbroken historical traditional and no universally accepted standard for how to calculate time, there is no non-Jewish equivalent to Seder Olam Rabba nor for the Jewish calendrical calculation system passed down from antiquity. So how do we get the chronology that historians use today? Historians in the late 19th and early 20th centuries worked backward and pieced it together.
This was done primarily through comparing what little historical records survived from ancient Rome, Greece, Mesopotamia and Egypt, together with archaeological finds and radio carbon dating. Because there are margins of error in all of these methods and much is open to interpretation, significant debates erupted between different scholars which continue to this day. Therefore, the chronologies used by modern historian can best be described as well-educated guesses.
Because our site is written from the traditional Jewish perspective, and because Jewish chronology makes a stronger case for historical accuracy, we use the traditional Jewish dates (some of the above is quoted from the appendix in the back of Artcroll Publication's "History of the Jewish People: The Second Temple Era") Reply

Anonymous July 15, 2014

This does not really answer my question. Most sources say that the first temple was destroyed in 586 but chabad believes it happened in 425? How is this possible, that link by the way did not answer my question Reply Staff July 15, 2014

To Anonymous Please see Rabbi Shurpin's response at this link which addresses your question. Reply

Anonymous July 14, 2014

I thought the first temple was destroyed in 586 BCE?? Is this not correct Reply

KSL Tulsa, OK June 24, 2014

Jeremiah's Prophecy's of Cannibalism Reading Jeremiah regarding cannibalism and I wondered when this prophesy became true. I found my answer and so much more in this very informative article. It was easy to ready and easy to understand the historical events that played out as decried by Jeremiah.

Thank you. Reply

Aida Brooklyn, NY February 6, 2014

Made me feel very sad because we always break God's heart, then and now. Reply

pamela December 30, 2013

so the only part of solomon's temple remaining now in jerusalem is the wailing wall? Reply

Hasan Dubai August 28, 2017
in response to pamela:

And that wall is not of Solomon's temple wall but rather Herod the great's wall Reply