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The Jews of Iran

The Jews of Iran


I am embarrassed to admit it, but when I met my husband I had no idea there were ever any Jews in Iran. I really thought he was joking. I really thought that even if there had been Jews in Iran, they would be gone, just like the Persian Empire was gone too. I thought that just like Persepolis lay in ruins, any trace of the descendants of Queen Esther and her people were laid in ruins. However, now I know that what would seem a logical course of history for other nations is simply not applicable to Jews. The chosen nation is inextinguishable. Unbreakable. Eternal.

The Jews of Iran have an incredibly long history that begins over 2,400 years ago and continues through today. They first arrived in the region during the Achaemenid period, after King Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem and Judea, exiling tens of thousands of their Jewish inhabitants, who were expelled to lands all across the east, including today’s Iran. Later Cyrus of Anshan invaded, liberating Babylon and causing many Jewish leaders to hail him as the figure described in The Jews of Iran have a history that begins over 2,400 years ago and continues through todayIsaiah (45:1–6) who would redeem them and provide them with the hope of returning to Judea. Indeed, when he became ruler, Cyrus sent a group of Jews to Jerusalem to rebuild the Holy Temple; but while some returned, many more remained in Iran.

Famous figures in the Jewish Bible are cited as living in or traversing the areas of Iran, and its populations are described in numerous books of the Bible. The prophet Daniel, for example, who is more widely known for his interactions with Nebuchadnezzar, lived in Shushan (Susa). Chavakuk, another biblical navi (prophet), was a descendant of Jews exiled from Babylonia who traveled to Iran. Shushan was also home to Esther, the most celebrated Persian heroine of the Jewish tradition, and it was the site of the story of Purim. As written in Megillat Esther, Esther and Mordechai saved the Jews of the 127 provinces under King Achashverosh’s rule from a decree for their total annihilation issued by the royal vizier Haman.

By the time of the story of Purim, the Megillah relates that in every province there existed a Jewish presence. But the Purim victory didn’t solidify universal tolerance for Jews by any means, and they still had many threatening enemies. After the miraculous salvation of the population under King Achashverosh, Jews were able to continue to live in their respective communities in Persia, but their numbers have alternately increased and decreased over the years.

Since the times of Queen Esther, however, Jews have maintained a strong presence in Iran. Just at the beginning of the Common Era there were many converts to Judaism in the Middle East, and Jews are said to have made up over 20% of the Empire’s inhabitants.

Less than a millennium later, in 693 CE, through wars, invasions, and conquests, the Jewish presence in Iran was still extant, and Shiraz was established as the capital of the Fars province. Though it would not grow to shelter as many Jews as other cities (such as Tehran, Iran’s capital), over the centuries Shiraz flourished into a religious, cultural, and socioeconomic center for Persian Jewry, even amidst enduring harsh anti-Semitism and persecution. The Islamic conquest of Persia, which would span 600 years, shook the sociopolitical and cultural dynamics of the entire region and made conditions exceedingly difficult for Jews and others practicing non-Islamic faiths. By the 12th century, near the end of the conquest, Shiraz alone is said to have been home to 10,000 Jews, a majority of whom were manufacturing wine for Europeans.

The pattern of relative calm followed by intense anti-Semitism continued for hundreds of years. Intolerance always resurfaced, and under Shah Abbas of the Safavid era in the late 16th century and beyond, Jews were actively forced to wear identifying garments and eventually required to convert to Shiism. In Ketab-e anusi (The Book of a Forced Convert), 17th-century author Babai ben Lotf discusses the circumstances of Jews in Iran at the time, and writes of his experience as one of the many anusim, outward converts who kept Judaism in secret. At the rise of Shah Abbas’ grandson, Shah Safi I, a few decades later, Jews were free to readopt their faith; but not long afterward, under Shah Abbas II, they were once again persecuted by those who disagreed with the removal of the ban.

The victimized communities, however small, maintained a presence in Iran—even when their leaders were imprisoned or torturedIntolerance resurfaced in every dynasty throughout Iran’s history, and by the 18th and early 19th centuries the Jewish population had been reduced significantly. The approximately 3,000 Jews living in Shiraz by 1830 had shrunk to a mere 500 over the next twenty years, and historians have concluded that around 2,500 of them converted to Islam to escape persecution (Jewish Encyclopedia, “Shiraz”). Nonetheless, the victimized communities, however small, maintained a presence in Iran—even when their leaders were imprisoned or tortured.

The Challenges of Spiritual Leadership

The viziers of Iran would arrest Jews such as Mullah Elijah, then chief rabbi of Shiraz, and require them to pay an exorbitant fee or convert to Islam. At first, Elijah said he would convert and become a Muslim, but he would need time to prepare for the transformation. However, when his time was up he refused to convert, so he was locked in a dungeon and brutally whipped. Unsurprisingly, missionaries who visited Shiraz at the time found that many of Shiraz’s outward converts were both socioeconomically and religiously miserable, held an inward contempt for Islam, and maintained the appearance of being identical to their Muslim neighbors while they continued to practice Judaism within their own homes.

Rab Yusef, also known as Ohr Shraga, was an Iranian mystic and Jewish leader for the community in Yazd during the late 18th century. A direct descendant of King David, he is known for performing many miracles, and his tomb in Yazd is considered a religious holy site for Jews and Muslims alike even today (Lalezar 2006). His counterparts were Mullah Mosheh Halevi of Kashan, a Kabbalist, rabbi, and author of books on Jewish mysticism, and later Mullah Rabbi Isaac of Tehran, one of the first rabbis to contact the Alliance Israelite Universelle in search of protection for the Jews of Iran from persecution by Shiite government officials.

Preserved marriage contracts show that intermarriage was also common among Persian Jews, even in ancient times. Ezra and Nechemiah, two of the later Jewish figures of the Tanach, publicly banned intermarriage and issued punishments to those who married outside the faith (Price 1996). In the century and a half that followed the construction of the Second Temple, the final codification of Jewish law—with its clear rule against intermarriage—was one of the prominent factors ensuring the continuation of the Jewish people in the Middle East, and Iran in particular. While it has not always been adhered to, the law, combined with a nearly constant threat of persecution, has been integral to the continued survival of Iranian Jewry (Bard 2010). The mass emigration of Jews from Iran in the mid to late twentieth century has proven the most trying to its preservation of faith and custom; hence, the more isolated communities that opted not to emigrate, such as the Jews of Mashhad, have seen lower rates of intermarriage than others.


Last names in Iran were not customarily used until the early 20th century, when Reza Shah, in an effort to modernize the country, decreed that everyone should take on last names. Family names of Persian descent usually end in suffixes that connote something of their relation to others, or contain the names of the cities from which their ancestors presumably hail. Suffixes such as “-i”, meaning “of,” would be added to a city name, such as Shiraz, to form “Shirazi,” a common Persian last name. Israel now hosts the largest population of Iranian Jews, at more than 47,000Those indicating family ties are “-zadeh,” born of; “-pour,” son of; or “-nejad,” from the race of. These suffixes would be added to the former first names of ancestral antiquity. Some have the suffixes “-ian” or “-stan,” traditionally indicating that the family is from Iran. Still others are more difficult to place, possibly indicating some quality or feature that may have distinguished an ancestor, or used as a marker of unknown symbolic significance. A last name such as Ghermezi, for instance, translates to mean “of red.” In the case of our family, the name Simnegar means silversmith, indicating the trade for which the family was known. Our other last name is Rabizadeh, indicating “born of rabbis,” which would mean my husband is a descendant of both working people and rabbis.

Persian Jews Today

In the decades following the Islamic Revolution of 1979, an estimated 85% of the Jews living in Iran (over 60,000) emigrated to Israel and America. Israel now hosts the largest population of Iranian Jews, at more than 47,000, with an additional 87,000 descendants of paternal lineage only, and 65–70,000 of maternal lineage (CBS Statistical Abstract 2008). Kfar Saba is a social center for Persian Jewry, while many also settled in Jerusalem, Netanya, and Tel Aviv. Immigration to the United States brought entire communities to coastal cities, most prominently Great Neck, New York, and Los Angeles, California, where Jewish traditions have been maintained more potently than were upheld by immigrants of European countries. The estimated number of Persian Jews in America is in the high tens of thousands, but it’s not certain the numbers will continue to increase.

Assimilation is rising very rapidly, especially among the younger generation of Iranian Jews. Sadly, many Persian Jews are today losing their heritage and customs that date back thousands of years and for which so many of their ancestors perished. Today, as in my case, many Persian Jews are also marrying non-Persian Jews. In addition, many Persian Jews have also returned to Torah through various types of outreach programs. However, while this is completely wonderful, many have embraced the more widely known customs of our Ashkenazi brethren. I strongly feel Jewish Persian customs are in jeopardy if we don’t educate our children and make them aware of the beauty and riches of the Persian Jewish heritage.

Reyna Simnegar, the author of Persian Food from the Non-Persian Bride, was born and raised in Venezuela. Her family history dates back to the Spanish Inquisition when her family fled from Spain and ultimately arrived in Venezuela. Reyna moved to the United States in 1995 to pursue higher education. She now lives with her wonderful husband and vivacious five boys in Boston, MA
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David July 13, 2017


I'm of persian jewish decent and lately my parents have been saying that some of our ancestors that settled in Kashan may have migrated from Spain. Is this true? Anyone know?

Thanks Reply

Jacob August 9, 2017
in response to David:

Hi David, I have heard this from a few different people as well. Reply

Maryam USA April 6, 2017

Hi, I am Maryam Moezzi, the former associate professor of Mashhad University, and now live in the US. One of my colleague in Iran is researching about the history of Mashhad Jews. She asked me to send her a copy of تاريخ يهوديان مشهد. Would you please let me know how I can get a copy of this book? Reply

reza iran February 5, 2017

galehdar city hi
galeh dar is a small city in fars province. that is your original place. i am glad you remeber it now. Reply

moti israel August 5, 2017
in response to reza:

I will be glad if you send me pictuers of gallehdar. Reply

mali September 2, 2016

Moti Glaladhar How strange, Glaladhar is next to my village. They Galadahri have also gone to Persian Gulf countries. Your Grandfather would probably classify himself as khodomoni , He might have spoken laristani or bastaki. Sad to see them leave Iran though. Reply

Ezra Dayanim Silver Spring, Mayland June 6, 2015

Historically Inaccurate I'd like to have you know Mullah Elijah was the chief rabbi of Hamedan. My great-grandfather and his fathers before him were the first Chief Rabbis of Shiraz. It started with Mullah Shlomo, then Mullah Darvish, then Mullah Pinchas, then Mullah Rachamim, then Mullah Yitzchak, then Mullah Yosef, then Mullah Shlomo, and then the last Chief Rabbi of Shiraz, my great-grandfather, Mullah Meir Moshe. I am very insulted that you would dare to denounce the fact that my forefathers were the Chief Rabbis and this Mullah Elijah was. Please email me back about the subject. Reply

David March 30, 2015

My Great-Great-Great Grandfather and two of his brothers were executed in the Shiraz pogroms between 1820's and 1840's because they did not convert to shia. Many Jews did, especially widows and orphans when the sword was at their throat. The name thing won't help because many later took "muslim" names. Reply

armin los Angeles August 27, 2014

to Galehdar community Dear Moti,
My grandmother was from galehdar you can contact me via the editor. Reply

moti israel August 5, 2017
in response to armin:

I saw your reply right now.
I will be gled to to speak with you.
Are you speak or read hebrew? Reply

Moti Israel October 31, 2017
in response to armin:

I will happy to hear from you if you have an interesting information about Galehdar Reply

לאה Lea FL June 28, 2014

Article תודה על המאמר הכתוב היטב.
Thank you for the well written article. Reply

Anonymous March 17, 2014

Persian minhagim Persian minhagim will never be lost. There are several websites in Hebrew which talk about the minhagim of the Jews of Iran, and also 99% of their customs come Rabbi Yosef Chaim's book "Ben Ish Hai." As a baal teshuva Persian Jew, I have cross-examined the rulings and customs of the Ben Ish Hai with customs of my grandparents and other family members as well as with a prominent Persian rabbi in Great Neck and they are strikingly similar. Examples include not wearing black on Shabbat, method of tying Tzitzit, and Holiday customs. Reply

Mai USA October 23, 2013

Persian Jewish last name Could "Teherani-Ami" a Persian Jewish last name? Reply

Mojtaba Talaian Bergen, Norway September 25, 2013

Regarding "Persian Jewish culture" Iam a non-Jew Iranian. I second the idea of Mr. Moshe
from Tel Aviv, Israel. i am not familiar with the how about of Persian Jews in Israel, so I cannot comment that. But, for Iran's sake, I wish after the collaps of the current regime, As many as possible Persian Jews return home. It is of enourmous important for Persian culture to have jews back. persian Jews are one of the most ancient groups of Iranians and have a great share of what we know as Iranian hitory today. It's very sad that Iran looses this part of it's civilization. Reply

Moti July 26, 2013

Galehdar Community My father came from Galehdar, a small village in Iran.

He died 4 years ago.

I will be happy if someone have any information about Galehdar and share it with me.


Man Galehdar October 10, 2017
in response to Moti :

Hi dear Moti
im from galehdar
i glad to help you and contact you and share about my city galehdar Reply

Moti Israel October 31, 2017
in response to Man:

saw your reply right now.
I will be gled to to speak with you.
Are you speak or read hebrew? Reply

PJ California July 5, 2013

"i" at then end Fun fact:

I am a Persian Jew and my family names ends with "i" also there are some many Persian Jews that they pick their children's name from the most authentic old persian names like: Koorosh, Daroush. Persian jews would never pick their kids arabic names like Ahmad, Reza , Ali and ext. Reply

Danielle March 12, 2013

I hardly think Jewish life in Europe was nothing but "butchery". They would not have gone in the millions to Poland, for example, were that the case. We know that proscriptions on owning property was ignored more often than not, by the Gentile officials. A significant number could not have gained so much influence and financial wealth were they threatened with butchery at every turn. Christians were often busy killing each other over various conflicts, and Jews were major victims of the Cossack revolt, 1600s; but the persecutions of the first half of the 20th c. were a shock precisely because that kind of murderousness was anomalous. We have enough real history to sort out without the hyperbole. Reply

Brian Burr October 29, 2017
in response to Danielle:

Excuse the 'hyperbole,' but do yourself the favor of finding Funk & Wagnall's 'Jewish Encyclpedia.' It's first published in 1910. The one I own is a 4th edition, published in 1916. It's 10 thick, 4" volumes give you a view of the world from exactly one century ago, making it exceedingly interesting and exceedingly detailed. Mot a single city in Europe - or at least not in France, Germany, Spain, England, Italy, etc. - can be looked up without a discussion of the persecution, taxation, burning of families, and other horrors that were constant threats that Jews suffered from. In each and every one of these countries, Jews have been expelled at some point. The Inquisition was, f.ex., was the means by which Ferdinand filled state coffers with Jewish money by expropriation of Jewish assets, as sanctioned by the Pope. The Crusades saw tens of thousands of Jews butchered first, on the way to Jerusalem. During the Plague, Jews were butchered and seen as responsible, etc., etc, etc. Reply

B. Burr Denmark December 24, 2012

The history of the Persian Jew Thank you so much for this article. I am in the midst of reading yet again, about the horrible, inhuman, and unspeakable life Jews had to endure in Europe from well, the year 314 CE onward. Here, we speak of 1800 years of systemic persecution - all for the sake of establishing a new Christian 'business,' ironically focused on a avid, dedicated Jew who seemed to be staunch in his aversion of the very 'reform' that resulted in Catholicism. The horror, butchery and persecution had little other than revisionism, wealth, power and dogma as it's task, and that extended everywhere in Europe. Convert, die or leave, was the call ever since Christianity acquired the armies of the Roman Empire behind it. Your research into an area of the world with an old, vivid and rich Jewish presence should be of interest to everyone. Thank you again Reyna! Reply

David New York December 22, 2012

I am from Shiraz and learned so much from your article. Thank you for doing such a extensive research. I love your cook book but after reading your article I see a very good potential in journalism.

. Reply

Dalia September 27, 2012

really good I think this article is awesome! And it filled my life with culture. Reply

Jerry ikhimiukor Benin city , Nigeria December 21, 2011

Wonderful work ma'am, thanks for the piece of information.may God bless you. Reply

Moshe Tel Aviv, Israel July 21, 2011

Persian Jewish culture I believe that Persian Jews should stay in Iran, the regime will collapse on itself anyways, Persian Jews in Israel should move back as well.

All going to Israel does is destroys Persian Jewish culture, traditions, and so on. Israel is a great nation, if you want to become an assimilated Israeli Jew who loses his entire history and culture. Reply

Anonymous Denver, CO/USA July 19, 2011

Jadid Reference Suggestion to Commentator NK - Contact Wikipedia for correction of "Jahid" definition (after correcting spelling mistakes) Reply

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