Here's a great tip:
Enter your email address and we'll send you our weekly magazine by email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life, week after week. And it's free.
Oh, and don't forget to like our facebook page too!
Printed from
Contact Us

What Did the Tablets Look Like?

What Did the Tablets Look Like?



I read in the Torah that Moses came down from the mountain with two tablets of stone,1 but did not see anything about their size, shape, or what kind of stone they were made of. Can you shed some light?


The Dimensions:

Tradition tells us that they were thick square blocks of stone, six handbreadths tall, six handbreadths wide, and three handbreadths deep. In modern measurements, that is about 18″ × 18″ × 9″. The sages of the Talmud demonstrate how tablets of this size—along with a few other relics—fit neatly into the Ark of the Covenant that Moses made as described in Exodus.2

It is interesting to note that nowhere is there any mention of them having the rounded tops that are so common in the popular drawings of Moses and the tablets. This design appears to be the invention of non-Jewish artists.

The Material:

The tradition is that both sets of tablets were made of sapphire. After Moses broke the first set, G‑d revealed a large deposit of sapphire under Moses’ tent. Moses used some of the stone to carve the second tablets, and was permitted to keep the remainder.3

The Writing:

The most common understanding is that the first five commandments were written on one tablet, and the other five commandments were on the second.4

The Torah describes the writing as “inscribed from both their sides; on one side and on the other side they were inscribed.”5

This means that the inscription was engraved through and through. As such, the words were clearly legible on one side and written in mirror writing on the other. Now there are two Hebrew letters, the ם and the ס, that are closed from all sides. The centers of these letters, Rav Chisda concludes, must have been miraculously suspended in place.6

Others teach that the writing was miraculously legible on each side—in other words, although the letters were engraved all the way through, they could nevertheless be read from right to left on both sides. Rabbeinu Bechayei explains that this is because the Torah can be understood on two levels, one revealed and one hidden.


Talmud, Bava Batra 14a.


Rashi to Exodus 34:1.


This is the tradition of Rabbi Chanina ben Gamliel, Jerusalem Talmud, Shekalim 6:1.


Talmud, Shabbat 104a; Rashi ad loc.
Chizkuni explains that it was these holes that rendered the tablets so easily breakable.

Rabbi Menachem Posner serves as staff editor for
© Copyright, all rights reserved. If you enjoyed this article, we encourage you to distribute it further, provided that you comply with's copyright policy.
Join the discussion
1000 characters remaining
Email me when new comments are posted.
Sort By:
Discussion (32)
May 29, 2016
No shapes, only G-d's writings!
People forget that the tablets were created on a mount surrounded by the desert where I'm sure no other stones were to be found but only rocks, maybe some nicer than others...
How could it have been carved that fast as to give it shapes other than the writings!
Boca Raton FL
May 28, 2016
Tables of stone .
Why are people splitting hairs ,By saying ( It did not say it had rounded tops ?) It most probably did not say it had a chip in the bottom of one but who is going to put that to the quize ?. All I know is that one cannot see all the commandments when they are laid flat .
May 24, 2016
I have great respect for Rabbi Posner's scholarliness demonstrated by his ability to cite relevant classical religious sources to research. But modern sources are also helpful. Even Moses could not see Eretz Yisroel but ordinary people can see what Moses could not see even though he wanted to see Israel very badly. I think the Tablets had rounded tops even if some old time Old World rabbis were clueless. Google " Mesha Stele" and then Google "images of Mesha Stele" and see if you don't think that round topped stone tablets were probably the norm in biblical times.
Hersh N. Goldman
Swampscott, MA
May 22, 2016
I do not agree with the writings going right through the stone , if that was the case how could one read them from the other side ?
February 7, 2016
Two copies of the same "contract"
Some years ago I read an article that suggested that in ancient times when two parties made a contract, their scribes would write in clay the "bullet points" of the contract, not every fine detail. The bullet points were sufficient to remind them of the details. Each party would have a copy of it upon completing negotiations. The Torah text suggests this is possible, since both sides of the tablets were written on, which could be duty to G-d on one side, and to man on the other. So neither side went all the way through as is commonly thought. In this scenario, G-d was so attached to Israel and trusting of Moses, He gave Moses both His copy and the one for Moses (representing Israel) to keep in the Ark of the Covenant. Of course the text is clear, they were of sapphire, as if cut from G-d's throne (see Ezekiel 1:26 & 10:1). If so, this is an amazing testimony to G-d's trust in Israel, His forgiveness of their failings, and His willingness to put His reputation on the line.
Dennis Worthington
Ruidoso, NM
June 1, 2014
I liked Rabbi Menachem Posner's scholaryly article because he identifies Torah and Talmud sources. G-d carved and wrote on the Tablets Himself so there was no need to give description just as there was no need for Hashem to give himself directions what to do. But the Ark containing the Commandments was made by people so those measurements are a good starting point for figuring out the specs. on the the tablets. We know the Tablets can't be bigger than the box they fit in. The Sages of the Talmud offer conflicting opinions of the tablets and I think they were trying to work out something they weren't really sure of. I think that Rabbi Posner shows himself as scholarly but totally lacking in imagination when he assumes that pictures of the ten commandments with rounded tops must be from non Jewish artists because there is no religious source for it. Messages written in stone are seldom flat on top. Notice at a cemetery how many stones are rounded and how many are perfectly flat
Hersh Goldman
Swampscott, MA 01907
September 1, 2013
Sapphire - Ribbon of Blue
The Sapphire makes much better sense than just a rock or something. This would explain why the Most High commanded the thread of blue for the tzitzit. When Israel would look at the blue color of the thread, it really would remind them of the blue color of the tablets of stone which the mitzvot were upon.
Matthew Janzen
February 16, 2012
Sapphire Tablets
Sapphire is not a common stone like quartz-granite or shale or slate. Just the rareity of sapphire to be carved this huge approx 18x18x9 is massive and quite heavy to carry. The physical viewing of tablets this large with ambient light shining on them had to be quite majestic.

Also the tools needed to carve stone is one thing, however sapphire is in a unique class in and of itself, just ask your local gemologist. Along with the dialogue with Moses while on Sinai, it would take almost the span of 40 days to carve the second set of tablets.
Dennis M Schuemaker
El Cajon, CA
January 2, 2012
Underground chamber beneath the Holy of Holies
I have read that the Knights Templar excavated the Temple Mount extensively but found nothing or did they? Apparently they also had knowledge of an underground "safe place" for the Ark. So, about rebuilding the Temple I understand that Mount Moriah is the Temple Mount and that the Holy of Holies was positioned right under the Dome of the Rock. That is correct right? So, to rebuild the 3rd Temple we need the Dome removed, the Ark "brought up" and I understand that we have everything else in place. I heard that we have the Red Heifer breed and all the vessels for worship ready. When do the Arabs give up the Mount for us to rebuild?
Bradenton, FL
January 1, 2012
To Anonymous
About where the ark is now, I suggest that you have a look at this wonderful <a href="/article.asp?aid=144580" target="_blank">article</a>.
Rabbi Menachem Posner
Related Topics