Such was Rabbi Shmuel's conduct in all his communal work. He was not deterred by the rich capitalists or the sophisticated Intellectuals of the “Haskalah” movement, who wanted to secularize the Jewish religion, nor was he intimidated even by the highest Government officials. He voiced his views clearly, forcefully and with dignity on every occasion that it was necessary to do so in the interests of the Jewish people and his outstanding leadership was reflected by the respect shown for his pronouncements and interventions. During this time the adherents to Chabad increased in number and like the leaders of Chabad since the inception of the movement he ministered to their individual needs and enquiries, strengthening their devotion to Torah in the especially difficult times in which they lived. He was the author of many volumes of Chassidic literature.

Rabbi Shmuel’s short but vital and purposeful period as leader of Chabad also heralded the next phase of its work, which is characterized by the campaign to spread the knowledge and study of Torah and the spirit of tradition and G‑dliness among the Jews of the world.

This world-wide activity was spurred by the growing mass emigration of Russian Jews. While concentrating on Russia, including its outlying provinces of Georgia, Uzbekistan and Caucasia, Chabad activities spread to the land of Israel, Poland and the Baltic countries and, more recently, to the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, North Africa, South America, Africa and elsewhere.

It is noteworthy that these activities have been carried out with equal zeal and determination whether the Jews concerned have been of Oriental, Sephardic or Ashkenazi origin, once again emphasizing the all-embracing character of the Chabad movement as one belonging to the whole People of Israel.