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What Is Wrong with Intermarriage?

What Is Wrong with Intermarriage?


We live today in a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. We mix freely with, and respect, people of all faiths. Many Jews today grow up fully assimilated and comfortable in a secular society and environment. Why is it such a tragedy if a Jewish man finds a non-Jewish woman (or vice versa) with whom he feels totally compatible and decides to marry her? He claims that she is a genuinely lovely person with a fine character – often much nicer than any Jewish woman he has met. She is at home with his Jewish background and culture and both share the same values, hobbies and pursuits. A perfect match, yet not made in Heaven. Why not?

The decision to marry out is perhaps the most telling moment, when a person must consider what being Jewish actually means. Is being Jewish simply an accident of birth? Is there a difference between a Jew and a non-Jew? Can one retain full Jewish identity if married to a non-Jewish partner? What if one finds the perfect partner – loving, caring, considerate, good fun – but unfortunately non-Jewish? If one has found true love, does religion really matter?

Where do you come from?

No person just arrives on the scene. We are all the product of bygone generations; in the case of the Jews, descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Jacob's family descended to servitude in Egypt and after 210 years was miraculously redeemed by G–d through Moshe, His faithful servant. The Children of Israel were subsequently constituted as a nation at the stand at Sinai – the Torah being their "wedding contract" with G–d.

To date, Jewish history spans over 3,300 years. To be born a Jew today is not an accident of birth but the sum total of over 3,300 years of ancestral self-sacrifice, of heroes who at times gave their very lives for their beliefs. Greeks, Romans, Crusaders, Nazis and Communists all tried to obliterate Jewish practice and faith, but failed. The indomitable Jewish spirit survived and clung to its traditions despite all odds.

And now, the very latest link of that glorious tradition has the option of severing the chain in one fell swoop – or not!

A story was told by Mr. George Rohr, an American philanthropist, at a convention for the Lubavitcher Rebbe's emissaries in 1996. Mr Rohr related how he had the privilege to meet the Rebbe on one occasion just after Rosh Hashanah. Mr. Rohr thought it appropriate to present the Rebbe with a "spiritual" gift. A short time before, he had set up a beginners service at his shul in Manhattan, and on Rosh Hashanah 120 Jews attended this new service. Mr. Rohr decided to announce this to the Rebbe and was sure the Rebbe would receive much nachas from this good news. When his turn arrived, he confidently strode up to the Rebbe and said, "Thank G–d, this Rosh Hashanah we set up a beginners service in our shul and had 120 Jews with no Jewish background participate!"

Until that point the Rebbe had a broad smile on his face, but when Mr. Rohr told him the news the Rebbe's face dropped, and Mr. Rohr searched his words for anything he may have said that had upset the Rebbe.

"What?!" said the Rebbe.

Mr. Rohr repeated, "… 120 Jews with no Jewish background."

"No Jewish background?" asked the Rebbe. "Go and tell those Jews that they are all children of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob."

Now Mr. Rohr understood. The Rebbe objected to these Jews being described as having no Jewish background. Every Jew has a very illustrious background – they are all sons of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob!

The Chosen People

One may ask, however, why must I continue this chain, to pass on the traditions and to carry the baton just because my mazal was that I was born Jewish? There are plenty of others who will carry on the traditions. What difference does it make if I sidetrack a little and shunt myself into a dead-end?

Jews are called Bnai Yisrael. The word Yisrael is an acronym for the phrase, "Yesh Shishim Ribo Otiot LeTorah" which means that there are 600,000 letters in the Torah. Every Jew is compared to a letter in a Torah scroll. Even if only one letter is missing the entire scroll is incomplete and invalid. Every Jew is an ambassador of his people in his echelon in society. That is his G–d-given responsibility and privilege. To shirk this responsibility is to deny oneself the ultimate privilege.


The Torah explicitly forbids intermarriage. The source is in Deuteronomy 7:3-4,

You shall not intermarry with them; you shall not give your daughter to his son, and you shall not take his daughter for your son, for he will cause your child to turn away from after Me and they will worship the gods of others.

This is also the Scriptural source for the law of matrilineal descent. Since the verse states "for he (ie a non-Jewish father) will cause your child to turn away ... ", this implies that a child born to a Jewish mother is Jewish whereas, if a Jewish man marries a non-Jewish woman, the child is not Jewish.

A Jewish woman who has already married out and borne children should be encouraged to give them a full Jewish education. There are today thousands of practising Jews who only have a Jewish mother. However, to a couple contemplating intermarriage, the facts speak for themselves. Except in a small number of cases in which the mother is very determined and gives the child a very positive, strong Jewish education, in many cases the child grows up with a mixed and confused identity; in simple English, half-Jewish. Technically, there is no such thing – one is either 100% Jewish or not. However, in terms of identity, the child feels only half-Jewish. Even if the mother is a proud Jew, the father, whether atheist, agnostic, Protestant, Catholic, Muslim etc., does not share the same beliefs and values. Even if he is sympathetic, or even agrees to the child being brought up Jewish, there are bound to be differences. Does one celebrate Chanukah or Xmas, both or neither? Whichever one chooses is confusing or even contradictory. Many intermarried couples today celebrate both – but what sort of message does this give the child? Is the child Jewish, thus rejecting the notions of Christianity, or is the child a Christian with Jewish roots? It causes great confusion for the child and in many cases the child sees both faiths only on a superficial level, distanced by his parents from true belief.

The child is also given the test of mixed allegiances. All passages of life create a problem. Should the child be circumcised, christened, both or neither? Should the child have a Bar Mitzvah or be confirmed, marry in a synagogue or a church, be buried in a Jewish cemetery or be cremated?

And what chances are there that the child should want to marry a Jew, and carry on the chain?

There is another point: people are social beings. From time immemorial they have gathered in communities. One thing the international Jewish community prides itself in is the idea of Kol Yisrael Chaverim – all Israel are one fraternity, one brotherhood, one nation. If you are traveling to Bangkok and need a place for Shabbat you can be sure that if you turn up in shul you will get an invitation. Wherever a Jew goes he will have an international support group that extends hospitality and help, if needed. By having a non-Jewish child one has extricated the child from that community and bequeathed alienation to him. Everybody wants to belong – it is a basic human need. Intermarriage causes great confusion to children with regard to where they actually belong.

It's in the genes

Marriage in general, even between two people of similar background, entails a certain risk as to eventual adjustment and compatibility. Even if the two have been acquainted for some time there is no sure guarantee as to what the relationship will be like when the acquaintance is turned into a marriage, where the two will be thrown together under one roof for 24 hours a day, day after day and week after week. But when the backgrounds are entirely different, and where these differences date back for scores of generations – and are consequently of a deep and lasting quality – the chances of adjustment and compatibility are lessened.

Intermarriage often results, sooner or later, in friction and unhappiness. That a casual, or even more serious, kind of relationship seemed in the past to indicate compatibility, is not a proof that it would be so ever after in a marriage situation.

No change

Even if a couple are happy with each other, deeply in love, and have decided to marry despite their different religious backgrounds, there are so many factors that can change a person's feelings.

King Solomon states, "I am sleeping but my heart is awake." A Jew may be sleeping spiritually but his inner Jewish heart is always awake and, at certain times, is aroused. Years into a marriage, where much of the relationship is routine, the soul and Jewish heart may be aroused to search for the deeper meaning to life. There may be a quest for spirituality and rediscovery of one's roots.

Consider the possibility that these feelings will not be shared by your spouse. On the other hand, a Jewish partner means a shared history and a shared destiny.

But it works!

There is, of course, the argument that the percentage of intermarriages is considerable and many of them seem to last. However, the statistics show that the percentage of separations and divorces among intermarried couples is greater than among marriages within the faith..

It's simply not right

To be honest – in the plain sense of the word – one would not wish to drag another party into an alliance which is likely to be troubled. If there is true love between the two parties, one would certainly not wish to cause the other this pain, and would readily forgo the prospect of immediate and short-lived pleasure in order to spare the other the probable result. Otherwise the professed love is tinged by selfishness.

Should there be children from such a union, there is the added consideration of the possibility of the children having to witness constant friction – and worse – between their parents.

One's personal desire is no justification for involving oneself to involve another person – least of all a loved one – into such a situation, even if the other person is agreeable, and sincerely so. No person has the right to harm another person.

A Jewish marriage

A Jewish marriage is called a Binyan Adei Ad – an everlasting edifice. In order that the edifice of marriage should indeed be strong and lasting, everything connected with the wedding, as well as the establishment of the couple's home, should be in full compliance with the instructions of the Torah. The Torah is called Torat Chaim – the Torah of life – it is the source of everlasting life in the Hereafter as well as the true guide to life on earth.

The analogy of marriage to an "everlasting edifice" is not merely a figure of speech but contains also an important idea and moral. In the case of any structure, the first and most important step is to ensure the quality and durability of the foundation. Without such a foundation, all the efforts put into the walls, roof, decorations and so on, would be of no avail. This is even more true of the structure of marriage; if its foundations are unstable, what tragedy could result! This is why a Jewish marriage must, first of all, be based on the rock- solid foundation of the Torah and mitzvot. Then the blessing of joy and happiness will follow the couple for the rest of their lives.

Should I marry a Jewess just because she is Jewish?

Many young people feel themselves pressured by their parents to marry a Jewish spouse and, even though the choice is wider in the non-Jewish world, they feel obligated to marry within the fold out of a sense of duty. They often ask the question, what is the difference between the Jew and the non-Jew – both dress the same, both share common values, both eat the same food? If a man finds himself with a choice between two women, one Jewish and one non-Jewish, should he marry the Jewish woman just because she is Jewish?

The answer is a resounding "Yes!" Yes, because therein lies the potential for a truly Jewish marriage. Although at present there seems to be no difference between the Jew and non-Jew, as people grow older they change and mature. The vicissitudes, strains and challenges of life pull a person in all directions. If one is at least married to a Jew, there is more common ground and potential for growing in the same direction.

However, as strongly as the answer is yes, it carries an equally strong piece of advice. The institution of marriage – any marriage – needs much hard work. No marriage can be taken for granted. As stated above, the foundation for a good marriage must be the Divine directives of the Torah, but a man and wife must understand that they have to work very hard to implement these directives in order to make the marriage successful.

Is conversion an option?

Conversion is serious business. A serious conversion can take years and involves serious changes in lifestyle and conduct.

To undergo a "cosmetic" or "plastic" conversion is, obviously, no solution to a seriously minded person. The Halachah is very clear in its insistence that the would-be convert honestly and wholeheartedly accepts all the mitzvot. Accepting all but one of the mitzvot automatically invalidates the conversion, and the non-Jew remains a non-Jew exactly as before. Of course, it is possible to mislead a rabbi or a Rabbinic Court by declaring one's readiness to accept all the mitzvot, but one cannot mislead the Creator who is the One who imbues the Neshamah.

A word of caution: within the Jewish community today one may convert in either an Orthodox or Progressive establishment. An Orthodox conversion is the longer-shorter way. It may be arduous and take a longer time, but it is the shortest way to universal recognition. Anyone serious about conversion should consult a competent rabbinic authority. The reader is referred to the book Who is a Jew by Rabbi J.E. Schochet, which discusses this issue at length.

Advice to parents

Parents often seek rabbinical advice on how to stop an intermarriage.

In truth two pieces of advice are needed. One, before the crisis, and one after. When a child is born we wish the parents "Mazal Tov". In many cases, straight after the Mazal Tov, the parents put their newborn child's name down to attend the best schools in the area. One often hears from parents that they want to give their children the best education possible. By this they mean that they wish to expose their children to the highest levels of academia available in the secular world coupled with a weak pre-Bar Mitzvah education in the basics of Judaism. They expect their child to be worldly, educated, modern and open minded. They then pronounce that after such a broad education the child will be able to make his own choice about who he wishes to marry. When the child decides to intermarry the parents then run to the rabbi for a quick fix. Some parents resign themselves to the situation while others seek a token conversion.

In truth, such an education does not give the child free choice at all. If their choice is between a modern well-equipped science laboratory and an old stuffy synagogue classroom with a boring teacher – for sure they will choose the lab!

The story is told of a person who was asked if he knew what a Tallit Katan was. He replied affirmatively indicating on his own body the size of a pair of Tzitzit suitable for a seven year old – probably the type he once wore at Hebrew School. He was then asked what size suit he wore. When he appeared puzzled at the question it was explained to him that, since he now wears an adult size suit, why does he see himself in a child's size Tzitzit!

The point of this story is simple. The man's conception of Judaism is that of a child's because while in every other subject – Maths, English, History, etc. – he proceeded to higher education, in Judaism he stopped at Bar Mitzvah. No wonder he chooses to be assimilated since his choice appears to be between an adult modern world and an archaic irrelevant past.

If parents want to give their children a real choice, they have to give them a strong Jewish education and identity. It is only then that an informed choice can be made.

A father once came to a rabbi with his daughter and asked the rabbi to persuade her not to marry out. The rabbi asked the daughter why she didn't want to marry a Jew. She replied that her father never took her to synagogue, never ate kosher, never kept Shabbat or the festivals – in short, lived exactly like their non-Jewish neighbours, so why now the hypocrisy in demanding that she marry a Jew! The rabbi turned to the father and said that he agreed with her. The father was dumbstruck and then said that he had brought her to the rabbi to convince her not to marry out, and not to agree with her. The rabbi responded that, in order for her not to marry out, the father had to start living as a Jew. He suggested that the father should lay Tefillin daily and that his wife should start lighting the Shabbat candles. After a lot of persuasion the daughter eventually married a Jew.

To live as a Jew – that is the advice before the crisis, since prevention is the best cure. But what if one is already in a crisis?

When it comes to a Jewish heart one never knows when and how its innate Jewish feelings will be aroused. However, parents should consider the following:

All the members of a Jewish family constitute one organism and, when one part of it needs special treatment, it can be given in one of two ways; either directly, if possible, or indirectly, through strengthening other parts of the body, particularly those that govern the functions of the entire organism. The head of the family is called the Baal Habayit and the wife is called the Akeret HaBayit, corresponding to the heart of the family. Thus, strengthening the commitment to the Torah and mitzvot on the part of the parents has a beneficial effect upon all the members of the family. Of course, it may sometimes entail certain difficulties by having to make some changes, perhaps even radical ones, in regard to habits and lifestyle. On the other hand, considering the far-reaching benefits, and especially the fact that parents surely would not consider anything too difficult if it could be beneficial to their children, of what significance can any difficulty be? Often, living more Jewishly is easier than it would seem.

There is the assurance that, however one's everyday life and conduct was in the past, a Jew can always start a new life through Teshuvah – which literally means returning to one's essence.

Rabbi Nissan D. Dubov is director of Chabad Lubavitch in Wimbledon, UK.
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Strgg world August 30, 2017

to stay or dilute .. i have been raised and was born christian despite my mother and fleshly father being born both jewish. my mother married a gentile (and converted) which adopted me and my siblings. i could tell before i found out my heritage, that i felt displaced. it's a conflict within a person ... to be split ... what can not be united ... since judaism and christanity can't be united.

it's a difficult path to put on your child, but only if you practice religion, since the conflict lays there ... at the core. Thats why a lot of mixed-religion children chose to be secular, avoiding to face the conflict within and fighting one of their heritages. So intermarriage can obviously decrease the probability for practicing judaism, whereas physically seen, intermarriage adds genetic varity within the jewish races. If thats good or not ... and more importantly .. to what degree - you ask yourself... Reply

Anonymous Massachusetts June 26, 2017

Brilliant and informative explanation - and much appreciated. Though I was not raised Jewish, my ancestry is. I have been married 43 years to my college sweetheart. The fact that she is a gentile means nothing. We have three wonderful children whom I am so proud of. I could not be more grateful for all the joys I've had with the woman and and children I love. Reply

larry March 18, 2016

Lineage It seems that the lineage position is based on an interpretation of what is not said. i.e.; for he (ie a non-Jewish father) will cause your child to turn away. If the father is thought to have so much power to lead a child astray, why would not a Jewish father have an equal amount of power to lead a child down the correct path? Certainly this was the case with our Forefathers from Abraham through Joseph to David. I do, however, agree that you can't effectively raise a child half-and-half and it is important for spouses with mixed heritages to openly discuss this before they wed. Reply

Menachem Posner Chicago March 13, 2016

Communisim It is indeed true that many of the founders of Communism were Jewish, and it is also true that they and their non-Jewish comrades stopped at nothing to stamp out Jewish tradition. This is the tragic history of our people in the Soviet Union and its satellites. Reply

Ayala New York March 6, 2016

Can you please start posting publication dates? Reply

Carly UK August 3, 2015

I'm a little confused... As someone who is considering a conversion to Judaism, but is also marrying an atheist, I'm a little confused. A large part of the argument against intermarriage regards the Jewish population getting smaller, right?

If I were to marry my atheist partner and then convert, that's one extra Jew. Any children I then have (let's say two for example) are then Jews by birth and raised with a solid Jewish faith (which my husband is supportive of... just because HE doesn't believe in G-d doesn't mean he thinks no-one else should!)

So that's three new Jews. Sure, if my husband converted that would be four, but three is better than none! Of course I understand Judaism isn't a proselytising religion, but in this case I can't see how my intermarriage would be hurting Judaism, in my eyes we'd be helping it thrive!

I understand my situation is a little different from those already Jewish and wishing to marry out, but I can't see the harm in my situation. Does anyone else feel the same? Reply

Anonymous June 5, 2015

I am happy to see such support for interfaith/interrace marriages in the comments. I am empathetic to the author's viewpoint, but I believe the torah to be a living entity, that must adapt in order to survive. And that is what we do, and have done, for thousands of years. It is the only way to ensure the continuance of our people. Reply

Yisroel Cotlar Cary NC May 19, 2015

To Devorah Judaism can never truly be artificial for a Jew because it is our essence and core. In other words, even if the traditions/prayers/holidays (sadly!) do not appear to carry much meaning for a person, at the soul level these are very real as practices are consistent with who we are deep down. The challenge is only how to bring this up into the conscious and have a relationship with G-d that is real and joyful. So many Chabad teachings focus on this idea.

But because this is our core, a Jew marries another Jew. There is something we share with each other that goes beyond level of observance of knowledge. (On a practical note, this also means there is a better chance of the marriage succeeding) It gives that same entity to the child. In fact, even if the parents (again, sadly!) did not teach the children much about Judaism, the essence is there in that child and one never knows at what point in their life will they embrace their Judaism. Reply

Meira Shana San Diego May 14, 2015

Wimbledon UK Ahhh, remember when Jews and Blacks were not allowed to play in Forest Hills, Queens, NY?!
Remember the big hullaboo about Arthur Ashe! Nice guy, wonderful tennis player.
Remember how the Romans crucified Jews?
Remember how Christians treated Jews ... murdered them for not converting!!
Remember what Christians, Jews, and Blacks who owned slave ship did to sell black people and their children!
Remember, too, how many plantation owners raped their slaves and impregnated them!!

Where is the dignity of human beings for their fellow human beings!!

Christians are proud of their religion - and so should Jews be allowed to be proud of their religion. Without the Jewish religion and one of hundreds of prophets there would be no Christian religion! -- which, by the way, was started by Jews.

In case you don't know this: the Christian religion is losing thousands of followers; and Judaism, is too. However, there are many Christians who have converted back to Judaism. How ironic. Reply

Anonymous May 10, 2015

Hmm...Jewish organizations were responsible for the immigration reform act of 1965. Is that not applicable to Jewish people? Doesn't multiculturalism apply to all of us or none of us? Reply

Devorah March 25, 2015

Would it better for a non practicing Jew to marry another nonpracticing Jew & do nothing to raise their children Jewish or for a non practicing Jew to marry a non Jew and raise their child with knowledge of the Jewish faith, traditions and heritage and maybe also knowledge of their other parent's religion as well.
I was raised in a Jewish household, went to synagogue, was Bat Mitzvahed, went to hebrew school, kept kosher etc. Despite my upbringing I no longer feel a strong connection with Judaism. I still enjoy celebrating the holidays but only to maintain tradition, not out of obligation. I am agnostic. For me to marry another Jew, he would probably have to have a similar attitudes to Judaism and it is unlikely I would do much to raise any children we had Jewish. It would seem artificial given my lack of belief. If I married a non Jew & had children that were being raised with knowledge of another faith, I would probably try harder for them to also know about their Jewish heritage. Reply

Anonymous California December 4, 2014

My wife is a Jew. I am not. I was really hoping to raise my son to embrace the Jewish faith but after reading about how rabis and the Jewish faith look down on interfaith marriages I'm not sure anymore. Growing up mixed black and white, I'm hearing very similar arguments from the Jewish faith on why it would be harder and confusing on a child coming from two different backgrounds. Growing up in my case, those arguments came from the white racist families that I encountered through my life who believed somehow that I wasn't pure. That somehow I was a lesser person by muddying the white DNA with African and Native American blood. It didn't matter that my father was an engineer for Cal Tech/NASA. It didn't matter that my mother taught the poor and disenfranchised. It didnt matter that my parents marched for and watched MLK Jr. speak. It didn't matter that my parents unselfishly adopted 3 biracial children even though they were able to have kids of their own. The arguments sound very familiar. My son will accept all. Reply

Tiffany New York, NY May 18, 2014

To Lisa Koffler:

"No one understands a Jew like a Jew."

No one understands an African-American like and African-American. The same applies to members of any group. Are you advocating that there should also be no interracial marriages? Perhaps no one understand a Jew like a Jew because most Jewish communities separate themselves and block off their culture and traditions from other communities. This may not be inherently right or wrong, but you cannot create a separatist community of sorts and then use this as justification that no one gets you like "one of your own". Of course they wouldn't. It does not mean understanding cannot be fostered just as with any other type of marriage.

I hear things such as: "We want to maintain the Jewish faith". That to me sounds the same as: "We want to maintain the white race". Your subject line even reads: "Stick with your own kind". That screams of prejudice. Reply

Mark Tomlinson Manchester May 17, 2014

Anonymous - making little sense Anonymous, the Rabbi is simply hoping to keep Judaism alive, nothing more. From your self righteous, atheist-I-feel-so-much-more-intelligent-and-worldly comment one can glean that you know/understand very little about Judaism indeed. But a lovely bit of prose nonetheless, well done. I find absolutely nothing offensive in the essay above and feel that expresses my own sentiments very well. Reply

Anonymous April 11, 2014

I am a Jew. I am a Catholic. I am a Muslim, and a Morman,an Adventist, a Lutheran a Presbyterian and a card carrying member of three dozen other religions. I don't eat meat or milk or veggies or drink alcohol or coffee or tea or anything with sugar. I take full responsibility for supporting my family, but not on Friday or Saturday or Sunday or Holidays, or if it interferes with my studying the teachings of my religion that were first voiced before history can define and interpreted and reinterpreted and presented to me as absolute truth by my current spiritual leader.

How could you possibly not see the truth that I see. I don't hate you, I just don,t want to have to live next to you and see you living a life that deviates in any little way from mine (it makes it so hard for me to comply) G-d forbid that my child should marry yours.

So, I have nothing against you personally against you - but would really appreciate it if you would live your life exactly the way I live mine. Reply

Anonymous March 31, 2014

You ALL Are the Reason G-D Cry's To say don't intermarry is to push your own idea's of marriage. My parents are in a inter-religion marriage and to this day they don't argue over G-d, they don't Argue who is right, and they don't Argue where they worship. The reason: they know that G-d is forgiving as he was to Abraham, as he was to his son, as he still is to every single person he has blessed with his word.
My mother is a honest Jewish wife, follows the scripture's, holds true to the practices that makes us Jewish. My Father is Christian and believes in the words on Jesus, and follows their practices. To this day they don't Base their love for each other on their love for G-d, they base their love for each other and thank G-d for the chance to love someone as much as they love G-d. That's marriage.
Marriage is understanding, it's caring for someone, it's worrying for their well being, it's being there when their hurt, it's Love for you fellow men and women.
G-d can only love you more. Reply

Anonymous NYC March 30, 2014

Don't intermarry - stick with your own I had such a marriage and could not deal with the hatred and the lies against my people, gentiles. My spouse tried to raise our children in his religion because of hatred against mine. So do not do it. Be proud of your gentile heritage; you will always find a welcome in gentile communities and would you deny your children that? Reply

Anonymous USA March 1, 2014

The problem is not intermarriage I believe the issue of intermarriage is not that some Jewish people exercise their freedom of who they fall in love with, rather I believe the problem is the Jewish Orthodox rabbinical court's unrealistic expectations of converts who are willing to go through the process of the conversion for their Jewish partner.

If the Beth Din eased the death grip they have on potential converts the Jewish population would probably not be declining the way it is. Reply

Lisa Koffler Providence, RI February 15, 2014

Stick With Your Own Kind Intermarriage lowers the Jewish population, and threatens the future of Judaism.

No one understands a Jew like a Jew. Reply

barry goldstein cleveland January 15, 2014

don't do it Unless the conversion is done by a kosher rabbi it will mean nothing and cause all about you years of heartache. Reply

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