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Philosopher and Mystic

Philosopher and Mystic

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First page of the Guide for the Perplexed from the 1553 edition printed in Sabbioneta, Italy
First page of the Guide for the Perplexed from the 1553 edition printed in Sabbioneta, Italy

Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon was not only the leading personality in Talmudic and Judaic law of his time, but also the chief exponent of Jewish religious philosophy. After concluding his magnum opus, the Mishneh Torah, Rambam set out to present the religious philosophical views of Judaism. These he elaborated on in his masterly philosophic treatise, Guide for the Perplexed (Moreh Nevuchim), wherein he deals comprehensively with Jewish doctrine and practice from a philosophical point of view.

Guide for the Perplexed

In this work, Rambam provides answers to the perennial questions for which the human mind ever searches: the nature and existence of G-d, the purpose of Creation, G-d and His relation to the universe, the meaning of life and human destiny, the origin and underlying reality of evil, free will, Divine Providence and Omniscience, Divine Justice, Revelation, the purpose of the precepts of the Torah, the true way of worshipping G-d, and many others.

In the countries under Islamic cultural influence, such as Egypt where Rambam lived, where Greek philosophy captured the imagination of the intelligentsia, it became popular also in certain Jewish circles. With the growing interest in the works of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, especially in its Arabic garb and formulation, there arose an apparent conflict between the views of secular philosophy and certain statements and ideas expressed in the Torah and Talmudic literature. For instance, how can G-d's absolute in-corporeality and spirituality be reconciled with the anthropomorphic, human descriptions of Him in the Bible.

The philosophically oriented Jews, while firmly committed to the principles and practice of Torah Judaism, were troubled and perplexed by the seeming contradiction between reason and faith. Rambam, in his deep-felt concern for the spiritual well-being of his people, recognized the inherent danger to which such a situation might lead. This danger was especially acute among the less educated in Jewish religious thought among whom Aristotelian philosophy threatened to make serious inroads and who, as a result of the apparent inconsistencies between reason and faith, began to waver in their religious commitment.

Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, well-versed in the teachings of the ancient and contemporary philosophers, therefore, felt himself compelled to compose a systematic presentation and exposition of the fundamental religious-philosophical principles of Judaism, which would answer the questions which agitated the philosophically oriented intellectuals, remove the doubts of the "perplexed" and enable them to continue to adhere to Torah-true Judaism. "My intention," says the Rambam in the introduction to the Guide for the Perplexed, "is to expound Biblical passages which had been impugned, and to elucidate their hidden and true meaning which when well understood, serve as a means to remove the doubts concerning anything taught in Scripture; and, indeed, many difficulties will disappear when that which I am about to explain is taken into consideration."

The Guide for the Perplexed was originally written in Arabic with Hebrew characters, and titled Dalalat al-Chairin. No sooner had the work been completed than the author was besieged with requests from various centers of Jewish scholarship for copies of his latest work, and for a Hebrew translation for the benefit of those unfamiliar with the language in which it was written. Within a decade after its appearance, two Hebrew renditions were made, one by Rabbi Shmuel ibn Tibbon and the other by Rabbi Yehudah al Charizi.

Ibn Tibbon's rendition has been accepted as the authoritative one because of its faithfulness in conveying the exact meaning of the author in all its nuances. Ibn Tibbon consulted Rambam through correspondence regarding the meaning or wording of all difficult passages. Rambam himself gave the translation his approbation, calling Ibn Tibbon the most able and fit person to discharge this task. The translation by Al Charizi, although superior as far as beauty of language and elegance of style is concerned, was lacking in precision and exactness of meaning. Rabbi Avraham, Rambam's son, expressed dissatisfaction with Al Charizi's translation because of its inaccuracy1.

Influence of the Guide for the Perplexed

Interest in this philosophical work was not limited to Jewish scholars but it was assiduously studied by thinkers of the non-Jewish world, both Arabic and non-Arabic. Even in Rambam's lifetime, the book was transcribed into Arabic letters and used extensively by Mohammedan scholars. Not long afterwards, a Latin rendition of the Guide for the Perplexed appeared in Europe, followed by Spanish and Italian versions.

At about the middle of the nineteenth century, interest in the work by non-Jewish philosophers was revived as a result of a new translation into French by Solomon Munk. Subsequently, it was translated into almost all European languages. The work wielded great influence on the scholastic philosophers of the Middle Ages, and was extensively quoted by many of them, notably Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus and Roger Bacon. Thus, Maimonides occupies a most prominent place in the annals of general theological philosophy.

The Guide for the Perplexed, dealing with abstruse metaphysical concepts, became one of the most commented upon philosophical classics of all time. There are more than thirty commentaries on it in Hebrew by known authors, and many more authors whose identities are unknown. It is interesting to note that some of these commentaries include explanations from the Kabbalistic perspective. This indicates that beneath the philosophical veneer of the Guide for the Perplexed lie Kabbalistic ideas, and by studying it only from the rationalistic-philosophic point of view one does not plumb the depth of its content. This is in accord with the view of those who hold that Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon was not only a Talmudist and philosopher but also a Kabbalist.

During the past 200 years, it has been revealed in Chabad-Lubavitch literature that he was also a mystic steeped in the study and traditions of Kabbalah. In fact, the source of some laws in his Code, Mishneh Torah, are found only in Kabbalistic literature.

Rambam, through this monumental work, laid the foundation for all subsequent Jewish philosophic inquiry known as Chakirah, and stimulated centuries of philosophic Jewish writing. Whether the philosophers accepted his conclusions or not, whether commenting and elaborating on his ideas or criticizing them, each one was influenced to a large degree by his approach and ideas. His writings served as the foundation upon which they continued to build. The Guide for the Perplexed has dominated Chakirah since its appearance down to the present time and exerted a profound and enduring influence on Jewish thought.

As the fame of the Guide for the Perplexed spread, the enthusiastic recognition of the work was countered by vehement opposition on the part of those opposed to the attitudes and principles of philosophy. The struggle between the protagonists of philosophic inquiry and its opponents lasted for decades after the passing of the Rambam, and, unfortunately, at some periods took the form of acrimonious protest and even personal hostility against the intents and character of the holy Rambam.

FOOTNOTES
1. Recently a new, annotated translation into modern and lucid Hebrew was made from the.Arabic text by Rabbi Yoseph D. Kappach
Published by Kehot Publication Society, Brooklyn, NY, 1985
Manuscripts and pictures courtesy Library of Agudas Chasidei Chabad - Ohel Yosef Yitzchok Lubavitch
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Discussion (4)
July 9, 2013
Rambam the mystic
During the past 200 years, it has been revealed in Chabad-Lubavitch literature that he was also a mystic steeped in the study and traditions of Kabbalah. In fact, the source of some laws in his Code, Mishneh Torah, are found only in Kabbalistic literature.

^Please tell me the source that confirms this information. I'm really, really curious to see this inside!
Zev
January 3, 2013
The Guide to the Perplexed
It is interesting, and can be proved, because I just commented, on a picture on Facebook that is a quote from Aristotle, saying Education without heart is really not education. Maimonedes was a great philosopher and thinker, and so was, Aristotle, and so were, the Greeks. I used their stories of gods and goddesses to illustrate the humanity within, in teaching a course that was deeply also psychoanalytic in nature, following a book that explored this concept, that these mythical people, their gods, had qualities that are universal and found in us all. Since I am following a "language-based" story, I can take those names and illustrate this, as in the names and naming, is a deep secret, that all Creativity is mediated by the same Source, OUR G_D.

Maimonedes drew from Kabbalah, which is "received" knowledge. He is not the only one to "receive" the light, as we're all drawing from the Source, and I would say, that recognition will propel us all into a new state of consciousness: ALL G_D.
RUTH HOUSMAN
marshfield hills, MA
September 7, 2006
The Rambam: Philosopher and Mystic
Are you aware that there is a movement to re-establish the Islamic Centre of Learning and Library in Timbuktou, Mali, West Africa. It is part of the African Renaissance dream and a conference was held last year hosted by the
Dept. of Humanities, University of Cape Town, where black intellectuals boasted about the great insight Africa already had by the 12th Century AD into the philosophy of Aristotle. It appears obvious that selected extracts from the original text, written in that very century, by Maimonides in Judeo-Arabic of his great thesis 'Guide for the Perplexed' (Dalalat al-Charin), has been claimed by the nouveau Islamic Academics omitting all acknowledgement of our great Sage. And this is not the only instance.
I suggest that the Chabad Scholars challenge them on this subject at their next conference. (I believe that in the 10th C AD Gaon Saadiyah of Baghdad also wrote a thesis in Arabic, and then Hebrew, on Aristotle.)
Dina Bremridge
Cape Town, South Africa
chabad.co.za
April 13, 2006
Teachers
"My intention," says the Rambam "is to expound Biblical passages which had been impugned, and to elucidate their hidden and true meaning which when well understood, serve as a means to remove the doubts concerning anything taught in Scripture"

All of our great teachers strove (avoda) for this. They left us the map. It is up to us to have the faith to follow.
Eric S. Kingston
North Hollywood, CA
The most renowned of the Jewish medieval scholars, Maimonides indelibly changed the face of Judaism. Read about his scholarship and achievements, and the modern-day global campaign to incorporate his teachings into every Jew’s daily study schedule.
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