This section describes the divisions of souls into Roots and Sparks, and the minimum and maximum number of roots and sparks that must go through gilgul to achieve tikun.
All these levels of Soul that were mentioned [in the previous section] were included within Adam. Adam was composed of 248 limbs and 365 sinews, even in the aspect of Souls, and every particular that was mentioned was divided in this way.
Each particular partzuf that was mentioned in the last section is a soul body of Adam. It has already been discussed in Gate of Reincarnations 3:2 that each partzuf divides into 248 limbs and 365 sinews (613).
The Yechida of Atzilut divides into 613 limbs and sinews. Each limb or sinew is called a "Root". Similarly, each one of the aspects of Chaya, or Neshama, or Ruach, or Nefesh of Atzilut divides into 613 roots.
Similarly, each one of the five partzufim of Beriya divide into 613 roots, and they are all called the Neshama of Beriya. It is the same with each of the five partzufim of Yetzira, and each of the five partzufim of Asiya.
The 613 roots of each partzuf are the major Roots.
Furthermore, it is possible that each one of these divisions divides into a greater number of particulars as a result of the sin of Adam and other creatures. It is impossible for any partzuf to have less than 613 major roots...
All of these major roots together fragment into as many as 600,000 minor roots, as we have already learned in Gate or Reincarnations 10:1, and which the Ari will explain momentarily. The result of Adam's sin was that it became more difficult for people to achieve tikun. Therefore, more gilgulim became necessary in order to complete tikun.
In order to clarify this subject we will begin with the example of Nukva of Asiya, and you will be able to infer from there all the others.
Nukva of Asiya is divided into 613 limbs and sinews. They are classified as 613 major roots. It is impossible to have less.
Each one of these roots is never less than 613 sparks, and each one of them is one whole soul. They are called "613 Major Sparks".
It is impossible for any partzuf to have less than 613 major roots. It is also impossible that any root will have less than 613 major sparks. Thus, the minimum number of souls that must go through the process of gilgul to achieve tikun is 613 x 613 in each and every partzuf of the soul-body of Adam. The larger the defect that strikes the major root, the greater will be the number of minor roots that it divides into...
Now, because of blemish they fragment into a greater number of particulars. The 613 major roots may fragment into as many as 600,000 minor roots. They cannot be more than that, but less than that is possible.
It is also not necessary that every major root divide into the same number like each other. This is because everything depends upon the blemish.
The larger the defect that strikes the major root, the greater will be the number of minor roots that it divides into.
There are some major roots that divide into a thousand minor roots, and some into a hundred, etc. However, all the 613 major roots together cannot divide into more than 600,000 minor roots.
There is a maximum number of 600,000 minor roots that are grouped in sets of various sizes. Each one of these sets is called a major root, and there are 613 major roots.
It is the same way with each of the 613 Sparks in each and every one of the 613 major roots. Each Spark divides into a number of Sparks. There is a Major Spark that divides into a thousand Minor Sparks, and there are those that divide into a hundred, and so on. However, all the 613 Major Sparks, in their entirety, do not divide into more than 600,000 Minor Sparks.
There are 600,000 minor sparks, and they are also grouped in sets of various sizes. Each one of these sets is called a major spark, and there are 613 major sparks in each one of the major roots.
Each of the 613 major roots contains 613 major sparks, but these major sparks, as we have seen, fragment into as many as 600,000 minor sparks. Thus, the maximum number of sparks in each and every partzuf is 613 x 600,000.
613 major roots → 600,000 minor roots
↓ expands into
613 major sparks → 600,000 minor sparks
[Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]