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Printable Yom Kippur Guide - 2017

Printable Yom Kippur Guide - 2017

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Out of respect for the sanctity of the holiday, please print out this holiday guide before the onset of the holiday (sundown Friday, September 29, 2017), and keep handy throughout the holiday for reference purposes.


How is Yom Kippur Observed?


How to Observe Yom Kippur 2017

Yom Kippur In Brief

What: Yom Kippur is the holiest day of the year, when we are closest to G‑d and to the essence of our souls. Yom Kippur means “Day of Atonement,” as the verse states, “For on this day He will forgive you, to purify you, that you be cleansed from all your sins before G‑d.”1

When: The 10th day of Tishrei, coming on the heels of Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish New Year, which is on the first and second days of Tishrei).

How: For nearly 26 hours (in 2017, from several minutes before sunset on Sept 29 until after nightfall on September 30) we “afflict our souls” by avoiding the following five actions:

  • Eating or drinking (in case of need, see here and consult a medical professional and a rabbi)
  • Wearing leather shoes
  • Applying lotions or creams
  • Washing or bathing
  • Engaging in conjugal relations

Like Shabbat, no work is to be done, and special holiday candles are lit before the onset of the holy day.

Opening the synagogue ark.
Opening the synagogue ark.

The day is spent in the synagogue, where we hold five prayer services:

  • Maariv, with its solemn Kol Nidrei service, on the eve of Yom Kippur;
  • Shacharit, the morning prayer, which includes a reading from Leviticus followed by the Yizkor memorial service;
  • Musaf, which includes a detailed account of the Yom Kippur Temple service;
  • Minchah, which includes the reading of the Book of Jonah;
  • Neilah, the “closing of the gates” service at sunset, followed by the shofar blast marking the end of the fast.

Click here for a detailed overview of the day’s prayers.

Beyond specific actions, Yom Kippur is dedicated to introspection, prayer and asking G‑d for forgiveness. Even during the breaks between services, it is appropriate to recite Psalms at every available moment.

What to Do Before Yom Kippur

Photo: Chaya Mishulovin, Lubavitch Chabad of Skokie
Photo: Chaya Mishulovin, Lubavitch Chabad of Skokie

Forty days before Yom Kippur, on the first of Elul, we begin blowing the shofar every morning and reciting Psalm 27 after the morning and afternoon prayers. In Sepharadic communities, it is customary to begin saying Selichot early every morning (Ashkenazim begin just a few days before Rosh Hashanah)—building an atmosphere of reverence, repentance and awe leading up to Yom Kippur.

For the week before Yom Kippur (known as the 10 Days of Repentance), special additions are made to prayers, and people are particularly careful with their mitzvah observance.

We are all human, and we occasionally slip. Is there anyone you may have offended or otherwise hurt? Go ahead and ask for their forgiveness. Are you carrying any grudges? Now is the time to sincerely and wholeheartedly let them go.

Just as Yom Kippur is a day of fasting, the day before Yom Kippur is set aside for eating and preparing for this holy day. Here are some of the activities that we do on the day before Yom Kippur:

  • Kaparot is often performed in the wee hours of this morning
  • There is a beautiful custom to request and receive a piece of honey cake, so that if, G‑d forbid, it was decreed that we need be recipients, it be fulfilled by requesting honey cake and being blessed with a sweet year
  • We eat two festive meals, one in early afternoon and another right before the commencement of the fast.
  • Many have the custom to immerse in a mikvah on this day.
  • Extra charity is given. In fact, special charity trays are set up at the synagogue before the afternoon service, which contains the Yom Kippur Al Cheit prayer.
  • Just before the fast begins (after the second meal has been concluded), it is customary to bless the children with the Priestly Blessing.
  • Holiday candles are lit before the onset of the holy day. Read more about the various candles traditionally lit before Yom Kippur.

What We Do After Yom Kippur

Lulavim and etrogim for sale in Israel prior to Sukkot (file photo).
Lulavim and etrogim for sale in Israel prior to Sukkot (file photo).

After night has fallen, the closing Neilah service ends with the resounding cries of the Shema prayer: “Hear O Israel: G‑d is our L‑rd, G‑d is one.” Then the congregants erupt in joyous song and dance (a Chabad custom is to sing the lively “Napoleon’s March”), after which a single blast is blown on the shofar, followed by the proclamation, “Next year in Jerusalem.”

We then partake of a festive after-fast meal, making the evening after Yom Kippur a yom tov (festival) in its own right.

Indeed, although Yom Kippur is the most solemn day of the year, it is suffused with an undercurrent of joy; it is the joy of being immersed in the spirituality of the day and expresses confidence that G‑d will accept our repentance, forgive our sins, and seal our verdict for a year of life, health and happiness.

There is a custom that after Yom Kippur, we immediately begin (planning) construction of the sukkah, which we will use for the joyous holiday of Sukkot, which follows in just five days.

Overview of the Day before Yom Kippur's Observances

Preparations for Yom Kippur begin early in the morning with the kaparot (atonement) rite. This consists of passing a chicken over one's head and reciting a traditional text. The chicken is ritually slaughtered and given to charity. Click here for more about this ceremony.

On this day the primary mitzvah is to eat and drink in abundance. Two meals – festive affairs – are eaten, one earlier in the day, and one just prior to the onset of Yom Kippur. In many communities it is customary to eat kreplach – dumplings filled with ground meat or chicken. Click here for more about the pre-Yom Kippur feasting.

In between the prayer services and preparing and eating the two meals, there is a lot to squeeze in:

  • Yom Kippur erases all the sins we have committed "before G‑d"—but not the sins we may have committed against our fellow man. So we need to approach anyone whom we may have wronged and beg their forgiveness before Yom Kippur. Click here to read more about this.
  • All men immerse in a mikvah (ritual pool) on the day before Yom Kippur. See here for more information.
  • At some point during the day it is customary to ask for and receive lekach (sweet cake). See here for the reasons behind this.

Minchah (the afternoon prayer service) is prayed relatively early to allow ample time to eat the final meal. Before Minchah, it is customary for all men to receive symbolic "lashes" as a humbling reminder to repent, as well as for everyone to give charity generously – a great source of merit. Click here for more about the afternoon prayer service and surrounding activities.

Then we partake of the final meal. One must stop eating prior to candle-lighting time. Immediately before the fast begins, it is customary for parents to bless their children. Click here for more about the final meal and the traditional text for blessing the children.

Then, 18 minutes before sunset, women and girls light candles, and the fast begins. Click here for more details. (At this point, all 24-hour candles, which you can read about here, must have been lit as well.)

A Step-by-Step Yom Kippur Guide

On Yom Kippur, the day when we are likened to angels, many have a custom to wear white clothing while praying. Married Ashkenazic men traditionally wear a simple, long white garment called a kittel. The kittel is also the traditional Jewish shroud; wearing it reminds us of our mortality and urges us to repent.

Before sunset (click here for exact time in your location), women and girls light holiday candles, and everyone changes into non-leather shoes and holiday finery.

Kol Nidre

On Yom Kippur, the tallit (prayer shawl) is worn for all the prayer services. In preparation for Kol Nidre, the tallit should preferably be donned before sunset. (If donning the tallit after sunset, the traditional blessing is not recited.)

He chants the Kol Nidre three times, each time on a slightly higher note

Ideally, Kol Nidre should begin shortly before sunset. The Torah scrolls are all removed from the Ark—it is a great mitzvah to purchase the honor of holding the first Torah scroll—and the procession of scrolls moves towards the bimah (reading table) while everyone kisses and embraces the passing Torahs.

After requesting permission, from both the heavenly and earthly courts, to “pray with the transgressors,” the cantor begins the Kol Nidre. He chants the Kol Nidre three times, each time on a slightly higher note. The congregation reads along with the cantor, in an undertone.

The Kol Nidre is followed by a few brief verses and prayers and culminates with the Shehecheyanu blessing, in which we thank G‑d for “granting us life, sustaining us, and allowing us to reach this occasion.” This blessing is recited in honor of every holiday, but usually following the night’s kiddush. On Yom Kippur, because there is no kiddush, the blessing was incorporated as part of the prayers. Women and girls do not recite this blessing with the congregation—as they have already recited it after lighting the holiday candles.

In most congregations, at this point the rabbi delivers a sermon. In many congregations, this sermon is accompanied by an appeal—for charity has the power to evoke heavenly mercy.

The evening prayer service then commences.

We are likened to angels, so we too, like the angels, can recite it out loud

During Yom Kippur, every time we say the second verse of the Shema, the “Baruch Shem” verse—“Blessed is the Name of the glory of Your kingship forever and ever”—it is proclaimed out loud. Throughout the year, this blessing is recited in an undertone, as it was “stolen” from the angels. On Yom Kippur, however, we are likened to angels, so we too, like the angels, can recite it out loud.

The special Yom Kippur Amidah (standing prayer) incorporates a lengthy confession of sins. This confession is recited silently, and with each sin that we confess, we lightly knock our chest—the domicile of the heart, the seat of our passions and impulses—with our fist. The confession is later repeated, after the Amidah, together with the entire congregation. This double confession is repeated during all the day’s prayers, with the exception of the final Ne’ilah prayer.

The Amidah is followed by liturgy interspersed with the recitation of the verses (Exodus 34:6–7) that allude to G‑d’s Thirteen Attributes of Compassion: “G‑d, G‑d, benevolent G‑d, compassionate and gracious, slow to anger and abounding in kindness and truth; He preserves kindness for two thousand generations, forgiving iniquity, transgression and sin, and He cleanses.”

The entire Kol Nidrei and evening service should take approximately two hours.

Many have the custom to recite the entire Book of Psalms after the evening service.

Yom Kippur Morning and Early Afternoon

We read about the special Yom Kippur service in the Holy Temple

The joint morning and Musaf services occupy the bulk of the day (approximately six hours). The morning service pretty much follows the order of the traditional Shabbat and holiday service. The special Yom Kippur Amidah and confession is recited, followed again by songs and special Yom Kippur liturgy.

Two Torah scrolls are taken from the Ark, and from them we read about the special Yom Kippur service in the Holy Temple—may it soon be rebuilt. The haftorah discusses the concepts of repentance and fasting, the themes du jour of Yom Kippur.

In many communities, the aliyahs—whose supply doesn’t meet the demand, due to the large crowd and the auspiciousness of the day—are auctioned off to the highest bidders, with the monies raised earmarked for a charitable cause.

The Torah reading is followed by the Yizkor service—traditionally preceded by the rabbi’s homily. In the Yizkor prayer we beseech G‑d to kindly remember the souls of our dear departed ones; traditionally, all those who do not recite Yizkor (i.e., those whose parents are both still alive) leave the synagogue for the duration of the brief prayer.

The Yizkor service is followed by the Musaf service. The most prominent feature of this is the Avodah, a rather lengthy and detailed recounting of the Yom Kippur service in the Holy Temple, whose highlight was the high priest’s entry into the Holy of Holies. During the course of the Avodah, on three occasions we relate how the high priest would pronounce G‑d’s ineffable name, and in response the assembled Jews would prostrate themselves on the ground. When reaching these passages, we too prostrate ourselves on our hands and knees.

We beseech G‑d to restore the Temple service with the coming of Moshiach

The Avodah concludes with a series of prayers in which we beseech G‑d to restore the Temple service with the coming of Moshiach. We also recount the tragic story of the cold-blooded murder of the “Ten Martyrs” by the Roman regime.

Towards the end of Musaf, the kohanim (priests) administer the priestly blessing.

In most synagogues, the Musaf prayer is followed by a break, lasting between one and three hours.

Late Afternoon

Minchah, the afternoon prayer, is called for one or one and a half hours before sunset.

The service commences with the Torah reading, which speaks of the purity of Jewish life and warns us not to engage in immoral practices. For the haftorah we read the entire book of Jonah, which contains a timely message on the importance of repentance and prayer.

The Yom Kippur Amidah is then followed by a few brief prayers. The entire Minchah service lasts approximately one hour.

Now, moments before sunset, in the waning hours of Yom Kippur, we reach the climax of the holiest day of the year, and we recite the Ne’ilah prayer. Ne’ilah means “locking.” The gates of heaven, which were open all day, will now be closed—with us on the inside. During this prayer we have the ability to access the most essential level of our soul, the level that is in a state of absolute oneness with her Creator. The Holy Ark remains open for the duration of the entire prayer.

The Ne’ilah Amidah is somewhat abbreviated—it does not contain the lengthy version of the confession. The Amidah is followed by a selection of prayers, and culminates with the cantor emphatically proclaiming the words of the Shema—“Hear O Israel, the L‑rd is our G‑d, the L‑rd is one!” With intense concentration, the congregation repeats the verse. The cantor then recites the “Baruch Shem” verse three times, again followed by the congregation. Finally, with all his might the cantor proclaims seven times, “The L‑rd is G‑d!” and again the congregation repeats after him. This is followed by the joyous proclamation, “Next Year in Jerusalem!”

The shofar is then sounded—one triumphant, long blast

The shofar (ram’s horn) is then sounded—one triumphant, long blast, signifying the end of the holy day. In Chabad synagogues, the shofar blast is preceded by the euphoric singing of “Napoleon’s March.” At this point we are ecstatically confident that G‑d has sealed us all for a wonderful year: a year of happiness, prosperity and health; the year when we will finally experience the long-awaited Redemption.

An Overview of Yom Kippur Laws

On Yom Kippur, the Torah instructs us to "afflict" ourselves, which means abstaining from an assortment of physical pleasures. There are two reasons for this: a) On this day, when our connection to G‑d is brought to the fore, we are compared to angels, who have no physical needs. b) We afflict ourselves to demonstrate the extent of our regret for our past misdeeds. (Click here for a more mystical explanation.)

Instead of focusing on the physical, the majority of the day is spent in the synagogue, devoted to repentance and prayer.

There are five areas of pleasure that we avoid on Yom Kippur—from sundown on the eve of the holiday until the following nightfall (click here to find out when Yom Kippur starts and ends in your location):

  1. Eating or drinking.
  2. Wearing leather footwear.
  3. Bathing or washing.
  4. Applying ointment, lotions, or creams.
  5. Engaging in any form of spousal intimacy.

(These all are restrictions unique to Yom Kippur; we also abstain from all creative activities forbidden on the Shabbat, e.g., turning on lights, driving, and carrying in the public domain.)

We are compared to angels, who have no physical needsIt is also customary not to wear gold jewelry on Yom Kippur, as gold is reminiscent of the sin of the Golden Calf, and on the Day of Atonement – the day when we were forgiven for that egregious sin – we do not want to "remind" the Prosecutor (Satan) of our past sins.

The Details

Fasting:

  • All adults over bar or bat mitzvah fast, including pregnant or nursing women.
  • Healthy children should be educated to fast for a short amount of time, starting from the age of nine. They shouldn't be given to eat after sundown on the eve of Yom Kippur, and their breakfast should be slightly delayed.
  • Fasting on Yom Kippur is of utmost importance. This is true even if in order to fast a person must spend the entire day resting in bed, and will miss synagogue services.
  • Someone who is ill, a woman who has recently given birth, an individual who needs to take medication, or a person of advanced age who feels it difficult to fast should consult with a rabbi.

Someone who upon a rabbi's instructions (based on the recommendation of a medical professional) needs to eat on Yom Kippur need not be dejected. The same G‑d who made it a mitzvah for healthy people to fast on Yom Kippur also commanded that preservation of life and health is even more important than fasting. The healthy person fulfills a mitzvah by fasting; the ill person does a mitzvah by eating.

An ancient High Holiday prayerbook suggests that an ill person recite the following prayer before eating on Yom Kippur:

Behold I am prepared to fulfill the mitzvah of eating and drinking on Yom Kippur, as You have written in Your Torah: "You shall observe My statutes and My ordinances, which a man shall do and live with them. I am G‑d." In the merit of fulfilling this mitzvah, seal [my fate], and [that of] all the ill of Your nation Israel, for a complete recovery. May I merit next Yom Kippur to once again fulfill [the mitzvah of] "you shall afflict yourselves [on Yom Kippur]." May this be Your will. Amen.

Click here for more information on this topic.

Leather Footwear:

The healthy person fulfills a mitzvah by fasting; the ill person does a mitzvah by eatingWe don't wear shoes or slippers if they contain any leather at all—whether in their uppers, in their soles or heels, or in an insert.

The prohibition applies to footwear only. Wearing a leather belt, kippah, or jacket presents no problem whatsoever.

Children, too, should be taught to wear non-leather footwear.

Washing and Bathing:

The prohibition against washing or bathing applies whether using hot or cold water, and even to washing only part of one's body. In the words of the Sages: "Even to insert a finger in cold water is forbidden."

Nevertheless, there are several exceptions to this rule. They are:

  • It is permitted to wash hands upon exiting the lavatory.
  • It is permitted to wash any area of the body that has become soiled.
  • Upon awakening in the morning, one performs the ritual hand washing—but washes only until the knuckles.
  • Before they administer the Priestly Blessing, the priests' hands are ritually washed in the normal fashion.
  • It is permitted to wash one's hands before handling food.
  • Someone who needs to bathe or wash for health reasons should consult a rabbi.


Useful Yom Kippur Links:

Yom Kippur Mega-Site

Global Yom Kippur Service Locator

Holiday Study & Insights

Yom Kippur Stories

High Holiday Shopping

Yom Kippur Kids' Zone

Yom Kippur Audio Classes, Videos & Songs

High Holidays E-Greeting Cards

Footnotes
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Anonymous October 1, 2014

This is excellent and SO helpful! Thank you so much for posting this :) Reply