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Why do we bless our sons to "be like Ephraim and Manasseh"?

Why do we bless our sons to "be like Ephraim and Manasseh"?



When we bless our son on Shabbat we ask that he be like Ephraim and Manasseh. Who were they and why do we wish that our son emulates them?


That is a wonderful question. Manasseh and Ephraim were Joseph's two sons that were born to him prior to his father, Jacob, arriving in Egypt.1

When Jacob was about to pass away, he called Joseph to his bedside and asked to bless his two sons. Jacob told Joseph that these two boys, his grandsons, are like sons to him — "Ephraim and Manasseh shall be mine like Reuben and Simeon."2 Thus, unlike all of Jacob's other grandchildren, Manasseh and Ephraim became two independent tribes — on par with their holy uncles, Jacob's sons. They both maintained their own "flags," and when the land of Israel was divided amongst the Israelites, they both received independent portions.

Jacob then blessed his two grandsons and added the following words: "With you, Israel will bless, saying, 'May G‑d make you like Ephraim and like Manasseh.'"3 This is why we bless our sons with the words: "May G‑d make you like Ephraim and Manasseh."4

Perhaps one might say that the highlight of their character is their remarkable upbringing. They were born and raised in Egypt, in a profoundly secular society, a place where the people were not of high character. Yet they remained faithful to the morals and ideals that were espoused by their grandfather Jacob, as they were transmitted through their father Joseph. To be great amongst great people is also a challenge, but to maintain a high level of spirituality and character amongst a society that is devoid of morals and ethics is the real test. This is why Jacob chose these two boys to be his own. They were able to prove true strength of character. How does one know if a fish is healthy? If it can swim upstream; against the tide of society.

This is what we wish for our children, too. We would love to forever protect them in our loving, nurturing environment. However, that is usually not a possibility – nor should it be. There will be times in their lives when the beliefs and morals that we raised them with will be challenged by their peers, society or the environment. "Be like Manasseh and Ephraim," we bless/tell them. Have the strength to be able to withstand the pressures of society and do the right thing.

Note: It is customary in many communities for parents to administer this blessing to their children on Friday nights before the kiddush. Others, including Chabad chassidim, reserve this special children's blessing for the moments before the onset of Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the year. Many also preface this blessing with the Priestly blessing:

"The L-rd spoke to Moses saying: Speak to Aaron and his sons, saying: This is how you shall bless the children of Israel, saying to them: 'May the L-rd bless you and watch over you. May the L-rd cause His countenance to shine to you and favor you. May the L-rd raise His countenance toward you and grant you peace.' They shall bestow My Name upon the children of Israel, so that I will bless them."

See also Menasseh and Ephraim

Rabbi Shmuel Kogan,


Ibid. 48:5.


Ibid. 48:20.


The traditional blessing for daughters is, "May G‑d make you like Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah."

Rabbi Shmuel Kogan of Brooklyn, NY, is a responder for's Ask the Rabbi feature.
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Gail Australia May 27, 2016

Want yo know more When Jacob adopted Ephraim and Menassah, did they leave their comfortable estate to come to live with Jacob, to be raised and taught the Hebrew lifestyle? If so, I cannot imagine how that would have sat well with their mother or the Pharoah of the day.
Thanking you in Advance... Reply

MM April 15, 2015

Excellent explanation! Hi. Thanks so much for such a vivid explanation of what was a rather obscure part of scripture for me. I could not have wished for a more clearer explanation. So thank you and God bless. Reply

Eliezer Zalmanov for December 15, 2014

To Anonymous in Salford It seems that the original custom was for it be done at the onset of Yom Kippur, and some communities then applied it to Shabbat as well. Reply

Anonymous Salford December 4, 2014

why do Chabad reserve this custom for exclusively erev Yom Kippur? at face value, it is a beautiful blessing, and a powerful moment of love between a father and his children? Reply Staff July 21, 2014

To Anonymous According to the Midrash, Asenat, their mother, was actually Jewish as she was the daughter of Dina. Reply

Anonymous July 19, 2014

Asenath was the daughter of a priest of On How can Manasseh and Ephraim be Jewish when their mother Asenath was the daughter of Potipherah, a priest of On? On was called the "city of the sun." Potipherah means "he who Ra has given." Judaism comes through the mother. Asenath and her family were pagans. Reply

Keith Mains UK November 8, 2013

So many aspects It is always insightful to learn things and see some of the perspectives available to us as individuals in order to gain, at least, some understanding in things... Reply

Anonymous Prescott, AR December 29, 2012

Jacob "adopted" Joseph's two sons Manassah and Ephraim. That is why Asenath does not figure in. Any other children that Joseph may have had inherited according to Joseph and Asenath. It wasn't a matter of sexism. It was Jacob showing his abundant love for his son Joseph. Reply

Mrs. Chana Benjaminson via June 3, 2012

Ephrain and Manasseh According to the Midrash, Asenat, their mother, was actually Jewish as she was the daughter of Dina. Reply

Aceus Destin Margate, FL May 31, 2012

according to jewish culture the children have to have the same citizen with their mother,how come manaseeh and ephraim are not egyptian,why they consider them as tribes? Reply

Rabbi Zalman Nelson Tsfat, Israel January 15, 2012

Balancing the picture As with everything, there's more to the story. Have a look here for starters, and thanks for commenting:
Biblical Women Reply

Just call me Asenath Los Angeles, CA January 7, 2012

Women left out of it, again! What a pity that sexism is alive and well in theology. What about their mother, Asenath? Or, didn't she figure into their lives, at all? Like giving birth to them, raising them, teaching them.... Egyptian society back then was NOT of low character, either. Reply

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