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Deuteronomy Chapter 12

29When the Lord, your God cuts off the nations to which you will come to drive them out from before you, and when you drive them out and dwell in their land,   כטכִּֽי־יַכְרִית֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ אֶת־הַגּוֹיִ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֛מָּה לָרֶ֥שֶׁת אוֹתָ֖ם מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ וְיָֽרַשְׁתָּ֣ אֹתָ֔ם וְיָֽשַׁבְתָּ֖ בְּאַרְצָֽם:
30beware, lest you be attracted after them, after they are exterminated from before you; and lest you inquire about their gods, saying, "How did these nations serve their gods? And I will do likewise."   להִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֗ פֶּן־תִּנָּקֵשׁ֙ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֔ם אַֽחֲרֵ֖י הִשָּֽׁמְדָ֣ם מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ וּפֶן־תִּדְר֨שׁ לֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶ֜ם לֵאמֹ֗ר אֵיכָ֨ה יַֽעַבְד֜וּ הַגּוֹיִ֤ם הָאֵ֨לֶּה֙ אֶת־אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־כֵּ֖ן גַּם־אָֽנִי:
Lest you be attracted: Heb. פֶּן-תִּנָּקֵשׁ אַחִרֵיהֶם Onkelos renders תִּנָּקֵשׁ as an expression of מוֹקֵשׁ, a “snare.” [However,] I say that he was not meticulous in examining the language, for we do not find a“nun” (נ) in [any form of] the verb “to snare,” not even as a root letter that is [sometimes] omitted from it. However, as an expression denoting vehement movement [from place to place] and rattling, we do find a“nun” (נ) , as in“and his knees knocked נָקְשָׁן one against the other [in fear]” (Dan. 5:6). Here, too, I say that פֶּן-תִּנָּקֵשׁ אַחִרֵיהֶם means “lest you be attracted to them,” i.e., by becoming bound up in what they do. Similarly,“May a creditor search out (יִנָקֵּשׁ) all that he has” (Ps. 109: 11)-here David cursed the wicked that he should have many creditors and they should continually go after and be attracted to his money.   פן תנקש: אונקלוס תרגם לשון מוקש. ואני אומר שלא חש לדקדק בלשון, שלא מצינו נו"ן בלשון יוקש ואפילו ליסוד הנופל ממנו, אבל בלשון טירוף וקשקוש מצינו נו"ן (דניאל ה, ו) וארכובתיה דא לדא נקשן. ואף זה אני אומר, פן תנקש אחריהם פן תטרף אחריהם להיות כרוך אחר מעשיהם, וכן (תהלים קט, יא) ינקש נושה לכל אשר לו, מקלל את הרשע להיות עליו נושים רבים ויהיו מחזירין ומתנקשין אחר ממונו:
Beware, lest you be attracted after them, after they are exterminated from before you: [God says:] After you see that I will annihilate them from before you, you ought to consider why these [people] were exterminated; because of the corrupt actions that were in their hands [i.e., that they had committed]. Accordingly, you should not act likewise, lest others come and exterminate you. — [Sifrei 14:54]   אחרי השמדם מפניך: אחר שתראה שאשמידם מפניך, יש לך לתת לב מפני מה נשמדו אלו, מפני מעשים מקולקלים שבידיהם, אף אתה לא תעשה כך שלא יבואו אחרים וישמידוך:
How do [these nations] serve [their gods?]: [Until now,] the only cases that incurred the [death] penalty for idolatry were slaughtering, causing to go up in smoke, libation, and prostration [before any other god], as it says,“[He who slaughters [a sacrifice] to the gods shall be destroyed] except to the Lord alone” (Exod. 22:19). [This means that the death punishment is incurred if one commits] things that are done for the Most High [namely the four aforementioned types of worship]. Here [Scripture] teaches you that if it is customary to worship a particular idol by some other rite, such as defacating before [Baal] Peor or casting a stone at Mercurius, this is considered its worship, and [one who performs that form of worship] is liable [to the death penalty]. However, regarding slaughtering, causing to go up in smoke, libation, and prostration, even though it is not customary [for that idol], one is liable [to the death penalty]. — [Sanh. 60b]   איכה יעבדו: לפי שלא ענש על עבודת כוכבים ומזלות אלא על זבוח וקטור ונסוך והשתחואה, כמו שכתוב (שמות כב, יט) בלתי לה' לבדו, דברים הנעשים לגבוה בא ולמדך כאן, שאם דרכה של עבודה זרה לעבדה בדבר אחר, כגון פוער לפעור, וזורק אבן למרקוליס, זו היא עבודתו וחייב. אבל זבוח וקטור ונסוך והשתחואה, אפילו שלא כדרכה חייב:
31You shall not do so to the Lord, your God; for every abomination to the Lord which He hates, they did to their gods, for also their sons and their daughters they would burn in fire to their gods.   לאלֹא־תַֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה כֵ֔ן לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ כִּי֩ כָל־תּֽוֹעֲבַ֨ת יְהֹוָ֜ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׂנֵ֗א עָשׂוּ֙ לֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם כִּ֣י גַ֤ם אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם֙ וְאֶת־בְּנֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם יִשְׂרְפ֥וּ בָאֵ֖שׁ לֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶֽם:
for also their sons [and their daughters they would burn in fire to their gods]: The word גַם, “also,” [comes] to include their fathers and mothers [among those they burned]. Rabbi Akiva stated,“I [once] saw a heathen who bound his father before his dog, which then devoured him.” [Sifrei] [The dog represents the idol, either because it was made in the form of a dog, or this is a pejorative. The dog’s eating the father means that the heathen burned his father in fire before the idol (Zedah Laderech).]   כי גם את בניהם: גם, לרבות את אבותיהם ואמותיהם. אמר ר' עקיבא אני ראיתי נכרי שכפתו לאביו לפני כלבו ואכלו:

Deuteronomy Chapter 13

1Everything I command you that you shall be careful to do it. You shall neither add to it, nor subtract from it.   אאֵ֣ת כָּל־הַדָּבָ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֤ר אָֽנֹכִי֙ מְצַוֶּ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם אֹת֥וֹ תִשְׁמְר֖וּ לַֽעֲשׂ֑וֹת לֹֽא־תֹסֵ֣ף עָלָ֔יו וְלֹ֥א תִגְרַ֖ע מִמֶּֽנּוּ:
Everything [that I command you]: less significant [commandments] as well as more significant ones. — [Sifrei]   את כל הדבר: קלה כחמורה:
that you shall be careful to do: [This statement] attaches a negative commandment to the positive commandments mentioned in this parashah , for wherever הִשָּׁמֵר is used, it is an expression of a negative commandment. Lashes, however, are not incurred for [infringement of a prohibition when] the term הִשָּׁמֵר is attached to a positive commandment.   תשמרו לעשות: ליתן לא תעשה על עשה האמורים בפרשה. שכל השמר לשון לא תעשה הוא, אלא שאין לוקין על השמר של עשה:
You shall neither add to it: [e.g., placing] five chapters in tefillin [instead of four], or [using] five species for the lulav [instead of four], or [reciting] four blessings [instead of three] for the “blessing of the kohanim.” - [Sifrei]   לא תסף עליו: חמשה טוטפות בתפילין, חמשה מינין בלולב, ארבע ברכות בברכת כהנים:
2If there will arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of a dream, and he gives you a sign or a wonder,   בכִּֽי־יָק֤וּם בְּקִרְבְּךָ֙ נָבִ֔יא א֖וֹ חֹלֵ֣ם חֲל֑וֹם וְנָתַ֥ן אֵלֶ֛יךָ א֖וֹת א֥וֹ מוֹפֵֽת:
[If there will arise among you a prophet…] and he gives you a sign: Heb. אוֹת, [meaning a sign] in the heavens, as it is stated in the case of Gideon [who said to the angel]:“then show me a sign (אוֹת) ” (Jud. 6:17), and then it says [further],“let it be dry only upon the fleece [and upon all the ground let there be dew]” (Jud. 6:39).   ונתן אליך אות: בשמים, כענין שנאמר בגדעון (שופטים ו, יז) ועשית לי אות, ואומר (שם ו, לט) יהי נא חורב אל הגזה וגו':
or a wonder: Heb. מוֹפֵת, [meaning a sign] on the earth. (other texts [of Rashi read as follows]:   או מופת: בארץ. (ס"א:
and he gives you a sign: in the heavens, as is written,“and they [i.e., the sun, the moon, and the stars] shall be for signs (לְאֹתֹת) and for seasons” [Gen. 1: 14].   ונתן אליך אות: בשמים דכתיב והיו לאותות ולמועדים:
or a wonder: on the earth, as is written, “If there will be dew on the fleece only, and upon all the ground, dry” [Jud. 6:39]). Even so, you shall not listen to him. But if you say, “Why then does the Holy One, blessed is He, give him the power to perform a sign? [Scripture replies,] ”for the Lord, your God, is testing you [… whether you really love the Lord your God]" (verse 4). - [Sifrei; San. 90a]   או מופת: בארץ דכתיב אם טל יהיה על הגזה לבדה ועל כל הארץ חורב) אעפ"כ לא תשמע לו וא"ת מפני מה נותן לו הקב"ה ממשלה לעשות אות כי מנסה ה' אלהיכם אתכם:
3and the sign or the wonder of which he spoke to you happens, [and he] says, "Let us go after other gods which you have not known, and let us worship them,"   גוּבָ֤א הָאוֹת֙ וְהַמּוֹפֵ֔ת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר אֵלֶ֖יךָ לֵאמֹ֑ר נֵֽלְכָ֞ה אַֽחֲרֵ֨י אֱלֹהִ֧ים אֲחֵרִ֛ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יְדַעְתָּ֖ם וְנָֽעָבְדֵֽם:
4you shall not heed the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of a dream; for the Lord, your God, is testing you, to know whether you really love the Lord, your God, with all your heart and with all your soul.   דלֹ֣א תִשְׁמַ֗ע אֶל־דִּבְרֵי֙ הַנָּבִ֣יא הַה֔וּא א֛וֹ אֶל־חוֹלֵ֥ם הַֽחֲל֖וֹם הַה֑וּא כִּ֣י מְנַסֶּ֞ה יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם לָדַ֗עַת הֲיִשְׁכֶ֤ם אֹֽהֲבִים֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶ֖ם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶֽם:
5You shall follow the Lord, your God, fear Him, keep His commandments, heed His voice, worship Him, and cleave to Him.   האַֽחֲרֵ֨י יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֛ם תֵּלֵ֖כוּ וְאֹת֣וֹ תִירָ֑אוּ וְאֶת־מִצְו‍ֹתָ֤יו תִּשְׁמֹ֨רוּ֙ וּבְקֹל֣וֹ תִשְׁמָ֔עוּ וְאֹת֥וֹ תַֽעֲבֹ֖דוּ וּב֥וֹ תִדְבָּקֽוּן:
keep His commandments: the Torah of Moses.   ואת מצותיו תשמרו: תורת משה:
heed His voice: the voice of the prophets.   ובקולו תשמעו: בקול הנביאים:
worship Him: in His sanctuary. — [Sifrei]   ואתו תעבודו: במקדשו:
and cleave to Him: Cleave to His ways: bestow kindness, bury the dead, and visit the sick, just as the Holy One, blessed is He, did. — [Sotah 14a]   ובו תדבקון: הדבק בדרכיו. גמול חסדים, קבור מתים, בקר חולים, כמו שעשה הקב"ה:
6And that prophet, or that dreamer of a dream shall be put to death; because he spoke falsehood about the Lord, your God Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, and Who redeemed you from the house of bondage, to lead you astray from the way in which the Lord, your God, commanded you to go; so shall you clear away the evil from your midst.   ווְהַנָּבִ֣יא הַה֡וּא א֣וֹ חֹלֵם֩ הַֽחֲל֨וֹם הַה֜וּא יוּמָ֗ת כִּ֣י דִבֶּר־סָ֠רָ֠ה עַל־יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֜ם הַמּוֹצִ֥יא אֶתְכֶ֣ם | מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֗יִם וְהַפֹּֽדְךָ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית עֲבָדִ֔ים לְהַדִּֽיחֲךָ֙ מִן־הַדֶּ֔רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֧ר צִוְּךָ֛ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לָלֶ֣כֶת בָּ֑הּ וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
[Because he spoke] falsehood: Heb. סָרָה, lit. something turned away, removed from the world, which neither existed nor was created, and which I never commanded him to say; destodre in Old French, to distort.   סרה: דבר המוסר מן העולם שלא היה ולא נברא ולא צויתיו לדבר כן, דישטולוד"א בלע"ז [הסרה]:
and redeemed you from of the house of bondage: Even if God had no [other claim] on you other than that He had redeemed you, it would be sufficient [to demand your obedience]. — [Sifrei]   והפדך מבית עבדים: אפילו אין לו עליך אלא שפדאך, דיו:
7If your brother, the son of your mother, tempts you in secret or your son, or your daughter, or the wife of your embrace, or your friend, who is as your own soul saying, "Let us go and worship other gods, which neither you, nor your forefathers have known."   זכִּ֣י יְסִֽיתְךָ֡ אָחִ֣יךָ בֶן־אִ֠מֶּ֠ךָ אֽוֹ־בִנְךָ֨ אֽוֹ־בִתְּךָ֜ א֣וֹ | אֵ֣שֶׁת חֵיקֶ֗ךָ א֧וֹ רֵֽעֲךָ֛ אֲשֶׁ֥ר כְּנַפְשְׁךָ֖ בַּסֵּ֣תֶר לֵאמֹ֑ר נֵֽלְכָ֗ה וְנַֽעַבְדָה֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתָּ אַתָּ֖ה וַֽאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ:
If [your brother…] tempts you: The term הֲסָתָה always denotes inciting as it is said, אִם ה׳ הֶסִיתְךָ, “If the Lord has incited you against me” (I Sam. 26:19); ametra in Old French, will incite, that he tempts him to do so.   כי יסיתך: אין הסתה אלא גרוי, שנאמר (שמואל א' כו יט) אם ה' הסיתך בי, אמיטר"א בלע"ז [יסית], שמשיאו לעשות כן:
your brother: from the father[’s side].   אחיך: מאב:
the son of your mother: from the mother[’s side].   בן אמך: מאם:
of your embrace: The one that lies in your embrace and is attached (מְחֻקָּה) to you; afichiede in Old French, bound, attached (Greenberg), afichier in Old French, to attach (Gukovitzki). This is similar to וּמֵחֵיק הָאָרֶץ (Ezek. 43:14), which refers to the base [of the altar] that is affixed firmly in the ground.   חיקך: השוכבת בחיקך ומחוקה בך אפיקייד"א בלע"ז [דבוקה], וכן (יחזקאל מג, יד) ומחיק הארץ, מיסוד התקוע בארץ:
[Or your friend,] who is as your own soul: This refers to your father. Scripture enumerates those [persons] who are dear to you; how much more so [must you apply this] to others [and not spare them]!   אשר כנפשך: זה אביך. פירש לך הכתוב את החביבין לך, קל וחומר לאחרים:
[If your brother…tempts you] in secret: Scripture speaks of what commonly [occurs, but does not exclude the other case, i.e., one who entices publicly], for usually the one who entices speaks clandestinely. Similarly, Solomon [describing an episode of enticement,] says: “In the twilight, in the evening time, in the blackness of night and the darkness” (Prov. 7:9). - [Sifrei]   בסתר: דבר הכתוב בהווה, שאין דברי מסית אלא בסתר. וכן שלמה הוא אומר (משלי ז, ט) בנשף בערב יום באישון לילה ואפלה:
[Let us go and worship other gods,] which neither you nor your forefathers have known: This would be a great disgrace for you, for not even the heathen nations forsake what their forefathers have handed down to them. Yet this [man] says to you, “Abandon what your forefathers have handed down to you!” - [Sifrei]   אשר לא ידעת אתה ואבותיך: דבר זה גנאי גדול הוא לך שאף האומות אין מניחין מה שמסרו להם אבותיהם, וזהו אומר לך עזוב מה שמסרו לך אבותיך:
8Of the gods of the peoples around you, [whether] near to you or far from you, from one end of the earth to the other end of the earth;   חמֵֽאֱלֹהֵ֣י הָֽעַמִּ֗ים אֲשֶׁר֙ סְבִיבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם הַקְּרֹבִ֣ים אֵלֶ֔יךָ א֖וֹ הָֽרְחֹקִ֣ים מִמֶּ֑ךָּ מִקְצֵ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵ֥ה הָאָֽרֶץ:
Let us go and worship other gods…] whether near to you or far [from you]: Why did [Scripture] specify [gods] that are“near… or far”? Rather, this is what Scripture says: Through [knowing] the character of those [gods] close to you, you learn the character of those far from you; just as those close to you are devoid of substance, so are those far from you devoid of substance. — [San. 61b; Sifrei]   הקרובים אליך או הרחוקים: למה פרט קרובים ורחוקים, אלא כך אמר הכתוב, מטיבן של קרובים אתה למד טיבן של רחוקים, כשם שאין ממש בקרובים כך אין ממש ברחוקים:
[gods… far from you,] from one end of the earth [to the other end of the earth]: This refers to the sun, the moon, and the legion of heavens [i.e., the stars], which extend from one end of the world to the other. — [Sifrei]   מקצה הארץ: זו חמה ולבנה וצבא השמים שהן מהלכין מסוף העולם ועד סופו:
9You shall not desire him, and you shall not hearken to him; neither shall you pity him, have mercy upon him, nor shield him.   טלֹֽא־תֹאבֶ֣ה ל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א תִשְׁמַ֖ע אֵלָ֑יו וְלֹֽא־תָח֤וֹס עֵֽינְךָ֙ עָלָ֔יו וְלֹֽא־תַחְמֹ֥ל וְלֹֽא־תְכַסֶּ֖ה עָלָֽיו:
You shall not desire him: Heb. לֹא-תֹאבֶה. You shall feel no longing (תאב) towards him; do not love him (לֹא תֹאהֲבֶנוּ)). Since it is said, “You shall love your fellow man as yourself” (Lev. 19:18), [therefore it is necessary to tell us that] this person, [however,] you shall not love.   לא תאבה לו: לא תהא תאב לו. לא תאהבנו. לפי שנאמר (ויקרא יט, יח) ואהבת לרעך כמוך, את זה לא תאהב:
and do not hearken to him: when he pleads for his life, that you should pardon him. [It is necessary to state this] because it says, “[If you see the donkey of your enemy] you shall surely help him” (Exod. 23:5); this person, [however,] you shall not help.   ולא תשמע אליו: בהתחננו על נפשו למחול לו, לפי שנאמר (שמות כג, ה) עזוב תעזוב עמו, לזה לא תעזוב:
neither shall you pity him: [It is necessary to state this] because it says, “you shall not stand idly by the blood of your fellow man” (Lev. 19:16). This person [however] you shall not pity. — [Sifrei]   ולא תחוס עינך עליו: לפי שנאמר (ויקרא יט, טז) לא תעמוד על דם רעך, על זה לא תחוס:
[neither shall you…] have mercy upon him: Do not search for merits in his favor.   ולא תחמול: לא תהפוך בזכותו:
nor shall you shield him: If you are aware of something that will condemn him, you are not permitted to remain silent. — [Sifrei]   ולא תכסה עליו: אם אתה יודע לו חובה אינך רשאי לשתוק:
10But you shall surely kill him, your hand shall be the first against him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people.   יכִּ֤י הָרֹג֙ תַּֽהַרְגֶ֔נּוּ יָֽדְךָ֛ תִּֽהְיֶה־בּ֥וֹ בָרִֽאשׁוֹנָ֖ה לַֽהֲמִית֑וֹ וְיַ֥ד כָּל־הָעָ֖ם בָּאַֽחֲרֹנָֽה:
But you shall surely kill him: (If he has left the court, acquitted, have him returned for conviction;) if [on the other hand,] he has left the court convicted, do not return him for acquittal. — [Sifrei]   כי הרג תהרגנו: [אם יצא מבית דין זכאי, החזירהו לחובה] יצא מבית דין חייב, אל תחזירהו לזכות:
Your hand shall be the first against him [to put him to death]: The one who was tempted [to idolatry by this person] has the duty to put him to death. [However] if he did not die by his hand, he must die by the hand of others, as is stated (in this verse), “and afterwards the hand of all the people, etc.” - [Sifrei]   ידך תהיה בו בראשונה: מצוה ביד הניסת להמיתו. לא מת בידו, ימות ביד אחרים, שנאמר ויד כל העם וגו':
11And you shall stone him with stones so that he dies, because he sought to lead you astray from the Lord, your God, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.   יאוּסְקַלְתּ֥וֹ בָֽאֲבָנִ֖ים וָמֵ֑ת כִּי בִקֵּ֗שׁ לְהַדִּֽיחֲךָ֙ מֵעַל֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ הַמּוֹצִֽיאֲךָ֛ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֥ית עֲבָדִֽים:
12And all Israel shall listen and fear, and they shall no longer do any evil such as this in your midst.   יבוְכָ֨ל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יִשְׁמְע֖וּ וְיִֽרָא֑וּן וְלֹֽא־יוֹסִ֣פוּ לַֽעֲשׂ֗וֹת כַּדָּבָ֥ר הָרָ֛ע הַזֶּ֖ה בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ:
13If you hear in one of your cities which the Lord, your God, is giving you to dwell therein, saying,   יגכִּֽי־תִשְׁמַ֞ע בְּאַחַ֣ת עָרֶ֗יךָ אֲשֶׁר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֛ לָשֶׁ֥בֶת שָׁ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר:
[If you will hear in one of your cities which the Lord, your God, gives you] to dwell therein: [The words“to dwell therein” are added] to exclude Jerusalem, which was not apportioned as a dwelling place [for a particular tribe]. — [Sifrei]   לשבת שם: פרט לירושלים שלא ניתנה לדירה:
If you hear… saying: Heb. לֵאמֹר, lit. to say. [If you hear people] saying thus:   כי תשמע וגו' לאמר: אומרים כן, יצאו וגו':
14"Unfaithful men have gone forth from among you and have led the inhabitants of their city astray, saying, 'Let us go and worship other gods, which you have not known.' "   ידיָֽצְא֞וּ אֲנָשִׁ֤ים בְּנֵֽי־בְלִיַּ֨עַל֙ מִקִּרְבֶּ֔ךָ וַיַּדִּ֛יחוּ אֶת־יֽשְׁבֵ֥י עִירָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר נֵֽלְכָ֗ה וְנַֽעַבְדָ֛ה אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יְדַעְתֶּֽם:
[Unfaithful] men: Heb. בְּנֵי-בְלִיַּעַל -people without a yoke בְּלִי עוֹל, who have thrown off the yoke of the Omnipresent. — [Sifrei]   בני בליעל: בלי עול. שפרקו עולו של מקום:
[Unfaithful] men: But not women.   אנשים: ולא נשים:
the inhabitants of their city: But not the inhabitants of another city. From here [our Rabbis] said: A city is not considered a“wayward city” (עִיר הַנִדַּחַת) unless men (אֲנָשִׁים) lead it astray, and unless those who lead it astray are from within it. — [San. 111b]   ישבי עירם: ולא יושבי עיר אחרת. מכאן אמרו אין נעשית עיר הנדחת עד שידיחוה אנשים, ועד שיהיו מדיחיה מתוכה:
15Then you shall inquire, investigate, and ask thoroughly, and, behold, it is true, the matter is certain, that such abomination has been committed in your midst:   טווְדָֽרַשְׁתָּ֧ וְחָֽקַרְתָּ֛ וְשָֽׁאַלְתָּ֖ הֵיטֵ֑ב וְהִנֵּ֤ה אֱמֶת֙ נָכ֣וֹן הַדָּבָ֔ר נֶֽעֶשְׂתָ֛ה הַתּוֹעֵבָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ:
Then you shall inquire, investigate, and ask thoroughly: Heb. וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְחָקַרְתָּ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ הֵיטֵב. From this verse [in combination with others as explained], our Rabbis learned [the law of] the “seven investigations” [in a court of law], since Scripture uses many expressions [of investigation]. Here there are three expressions: דְרִישָׁה, חֲקִירָה, and הֵיטֵב [i.e., “inquiry,” “investigation,” and “thoroughly”]. The term וְשָׁאַלְתָּ, “ask,” is not counted as one [of the seven investigations (חֲקִירוֹת)] and the cross-examinations (בְּדִיקוֹת) [regarding accompanying circumstances] are derived from it. [So far, we have three expressions.] And elsewhere [in the case of collusive witnesses,] it says: וְדָרְשׁוּ הַשּׁוֹפְטִים הֵיטֵב, “And the judges shall inquire thoroughly” (Deut. 19:18). [This adds two more expressions, דְרִישָׁה and הֵיטֵב, to make five altogether.] And still elsewhere [in the case of idolatry,] it says: וְדָרַשְׁתָּ הֵיטֵב, “And you shall inquire thoroughly” (Deut. 17:4) [thus adding two more expressions, דְרִישָׁה and הֵיטֵב, to make up a final total of seven investigatory expressions demonstrating the law of “seven investigations”]. And our Rabbis learned a גְּזֵירָה שָׁוָה [i.e., an inference from an identical word in two passages, which teaches us that the laws in one passage apply to the other passage as well] from [the words] הֵיטֵב הֵיטֵב, to place what is stated in one context in the other context. [I.e., it is accounted as if all seven written in the context of the “wayward city,” as well as in the cases of collusive witnesses and individuals who worshipped idols. I.e., all the seven expressions can be connected together to make seven investigations.] - [San. 40a; Sifrei] [The judges would ask the witnesses the following seven questions: 1) In what shemitah cycle was the crime committed? 2) In what year? 3) In what month? 4) In what day of the month? 5) On what day [of the week]? 6) In what hour? 7) In what place? (San. 5:1)]   ודרשת וחקרת ושאלת היטב: מכאן למדו שבע חקירות מרבוי המקרא. כאן יש שלש דרישה וחקירה והיטב. ושאלת, אינו מן המנין, וממנו למדו בדיקות. ובמקום אחר הוא אומר (דברים יט, יח) ודרשו השופטים היטב. ועוד במקום אחר הוא אומר (שם יז, ד) ודרשת היטב. ולמדו היטב היטב לגזירה שוה, ליתן האמור של זה בזה:
16You shall surely strike down the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroy it with all that is in it and its livestock, with the edge of the sword.   טזהַכֵּ֣ה תַכֶּ֗ה אֶת־יֽשְׁבֵ֛י הָעִ֥יר הַהִ֖וא לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב הַֽחֲרֵ֨ם אֹתָ֧הּ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֛הּ וְאֶת־בְּהֶמְתָּ֖הּ לְפִי־חָֽרֶב:
You shall surely strike down: Heb. הַכֵּה תַכֶּה. [The double expression is used to explain that] if you cannot execute the death penalty that is prescribed for them, put them to death in some other manner. — [Sifrei ; B.M 31b]   הכה תכה: אם אינך יכול להמיתם במיתה הכתובה בהם, המיתם באחרת:
17And you shall collect all its spoil into the midst of its open square, and burn with fire the city and all its spoil, completely, for the Lord, your God; and it shall be a heap of destruction forever, never to be rebuilt.   יזוְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָ֗הּ תִּקְבֹּץ֘ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ רְחֹבָהּ֒ וְשָֽׂרַפְתָּ֣ בָאֵ֗שׁ אֶת־הָעִ֤יר וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ֙ כָּלִ֔יל לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְהָֽיְתָה֙ תֵּ֣ל עוֹלָ֔ם לֹ֥א תִבָּנֶ֖ה עֽוֹד:
[and burn with fire the city…] for the Lord your God: [i.e.,] for His Name and for His sake.   לה' אלהיך: לשמו ובשבילו:
18And nothing that is doomed to destruction shall cling to your hand, so that the Lord may return from His fierce wrath, and grant you compassion, and be compassionate with you, and multiply you, as He swore to your forefathers.   יחוְלֹֽא־יִדְבַּ֧ק בְּיָֽדְךָ֛ מְא֖וּמָה מִן־הַחֵ֑רֶם לְמַ֩עַן֩ יָשׁ֨וּב יְהֹוָ֜ה מֵֽחֲר֣וֹן אַפּ֗וֹ וְנָֽתַן־לְךָ֤ רַֽחֲמִים֙ וְרִֽחַמְךָ֣ וְהִרְבֶּ֔ךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖ע לַֽאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ:
that the Lord may return from His fierce wrath: For as long as idol worship [exists] in the world, the fierce wrath [of God exists] in the world. — [Sifrei; San. 111b]   למען ישוב ה' מחרון אפו: שכל זמן שעבודה זרה בעולם, חרון אף בעולם:
19For you shall hearken to the voice of the Lord your God, to keep all His commandments which I command you this day, to do that which is proper in the eyes of the Lord, your God.   יטכִּ֣י תִשְׁמַ֗ע בְּקוֹל֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לִשְׁמֹר֙ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתָ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּ֑וֹם לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ הַיָּשָׁ֔ר בְּעֵינֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
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