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Wednesday, 28 Iyar 5777 / May 24, 2017

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Bamidbar 

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Numbers Chapter 3

1These are the descendants of Moses and Aaron on the day that the Lord spoke to Moses at Mount Sinai.   אוְאֵ֛לֶּה תּֽוֹלְדֹ֥ת אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּמשֶׁ֑ה בְּי֗וֹם דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהוָֹ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֖ה בְּהַ֥ר סִינָֽי:
These are the descendants of Moses and Aaron: Yet only the sons of Aaron are mentioned. However, they are considered descendants of Moses because he taught them Torah. This teaches us that whoever teaches Torah to the son of his fellow man, Scripture regards it as if he had begotten him - [Sanh. 19b]   ואלה תולדת אהרן ומשה: ואינו מזכיר אלא בני אהרן. ונקראו תולדות משה, לפי שלמדן תורה. מלמד שכל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה, מעלה עליו הכתוב כאלו ילדו:
on the day that the Lord spoke to Moses: they became his descendants, because he taught them what he had learned from the Almighty.   ביום דבר ה' את משה: נעשו אלו התולדות שלו, שלמדן מה שלמד מפי הגבורה:
2These are the names of the sons of Aaron: Nadab the firstborn Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.   בוְאֵ֛לֶּה שְׁמ֥וֹת בְּנֵי־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן הַבְּכֹ֣ר | נָדָ֑ב וַֽאֲבִיה֕וּא אֶלְעָזָ֖ר וְאִֽיתָמָֽר:
3These are the names of the sons of Aaron, the anointed kohanim, whom he consecrated to serve as kohanim.   גאֵ֗לֶּה שְׁמוֹת֙ בְּנֵ֣י אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֖ים הַמְּשֻׁחִ֑ים אֲשֶׁר־מִלֵּ֥א יָדָ֖ם לְכַהֵֽן:
4Nadab and Abihu died before the Lord when they brought alien fire before the Lord in the Sinai desert, and they had no children. Eleazar and Ithamar, however, served as kohanim in the presence of Aaron, their father.   דוַיָּ֣מָת נָדָ֣ב וַֽאֲבִיה֣וּא לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָֹ֡ה בְּהַקְרִבָם֩ אֵ֨שׁ זָרָ֜ה לִפְנֵ֤י יְהוָֹה֙ בְּמִדְבַּ֣ר סִינַ֔י וּבָנִ֖ים לֹֽא־הָי֣וּ לָהֶ֑ם וַיְכַהֵ֤ן אֶלְעָזָר֙ וְאִ֣יתָמָ֔ר עַל־פְּנֵ֖י אַֽהֲרֹ֥ן אֲבִיהֶֽם:
in the presence of Aaron: During his lifetime. [Num. Rabbah 2:26, Lev. Rabbah 20:11, Pesikta d’Rav Kahana p. 173b]   על פני אהרן: בחייו:
5The Lord spoke to Moses saying:   הוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
6Bring forth the tribe of Levi and present them before Aaron the kohen, that they may serve him.   והַקְרֵב֙ אֶת־מַטֵּ֣ה לֵוִ֔י וְהַֽעֲמַדְתָּ֣ אֹת֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְשֵֽׁרְת֖וּ אֹתֽוֹ:
that they may serve him: What form does this service take? “They shall keep his charge” (verse 7). Since guarding the Sanctuary so that no stranger (non- kohen) should come near is his obligation, as it says, “You, your sons, and your father’s house with you, shall bear the iniquity of the Sanctuary” (Num. 18:1), and these Levites assisted him this was the service.   ושרתו אתו: ומהו השירות, ושמרו את משמרתו, לפי ששמירת המקדש עליו שלא יקרב זר, כמו שנאמר (במדבר יח, א) אתה ובניך ובית אביך אתך תשאו את עון המקדש, והלוים הללו מסייעין אותם, זה הוא השירות:
7They shall keep his charge and the charge of the entire community before the Tent of Meeting, to perform the service of the Mishkan.   זוְשָׁמְר֣וּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתּ֗וֹ וְאֶת־מִשְׁמֶ֨רֶת֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד לַֽעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־עֲבֹדַ֥ת הַמִּשְׁכָּֽן:
They shall keep his charge: Any office to which a person is appointed and [the duty] he is bound to carry out, is מִשְׁמֶרֶת in Scripture and in Mishnaic idiom, as in reference to Bigthan and Teresh [where it says], “But my duty is not similar to your duty” (Meg. 13b), [meaning that the hours of my service do not coincide with those of yours]. Similarly [we find the word used in the clause],“The watches (מִשְׁמְרוֹת) of the kehuna and of the Levites.”   ושמרו את משמרתו: כל מנוי שהאדם ממונה עליו ומוטל עליו לעשותו, קרוי משמרת בכל המקרא ובלשון משנה, כמו שאמרו בבגתן ותרש (מגילה יג ב) והלא אין משמרתי ומשמרתך שוה, וכן משמרות כהונה ולויה:
8They shall take charge of all the vessels of the Tent of Meeting and the charge of the children of Israel, to perform the service of the Mishkan.   חוְשָֽׁמְר֗וּ אֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵי֙ אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד וְאֶת־מִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לַֽעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־עֲבֹדַ֥ת הַמִּשְׁכָּֽן:
the charge of the children of Israel: All of them were bound [to take care of] the needs of the Sanctuary, but the Levites were in their stead, as their agents. Thus, in reward, they [the Levites] take tithes from them [the Israelites], as it says,“for it is your reward, in exchange for your service” (Num. 18: 31).   ואת משמרת בני ישראל: שכולן היו זקוקין לצרכי המקדש, אלא שהלוים באים תחתיהם בשליחותם, לפיכך לוקחים מהם המעשרות בשכרן, שנאמר (במד' יח, לא) כי שכר הוא לכם חלף עבודתכם:
9You shall give over the Levites to Aaron and his sons; they shall be wholly given over to him from the children of Israel.   טוְנָֽתַתָּה֙ אֶת־הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם לְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָ֑יו נְתוּנִ֨ם נְתוּנִ֥ם הֵ֨מָּה֙ ל֔וֹ מֵאֵ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Given over to him: for assistance.   נתונים המה לו: לעזרה:
from the children of Israel: Heb. מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, like מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, from among the children of Israel, that is to say, they have been singled out for this purpose from the rest of the congregation by the decree of the Omnipresent, and He gave them to him, as it says, “And I have given the Levites, they are… given” (Num. 8:19).   מאת בני ישראל: כמו מתוך בני ישראל, כלומר משאר כל העדה נבדלו לכך בגזרת המקום, והוא נתנם לו, שנאמר (במד' ח, יט) ואתנה את הלוים נתונים וגו':
10You shall appoint Aaron and his sons, and they shall keep their kehunah; any outsider [non kohen] who approaches shall be put to death.   יוְאֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו֙ תִּפְקֹ֔ד וְשָֽׁמְר֖וּ אֶת־כְּהֻנָּתָ֑ם וְהַזָּ֥ר הַקָּרֵ֖ב יוּמָֽת:
You shall appoint Aaron…: [The word תִּפְקֹד is] an expression of appointment, not of counting.   ואת אהרן ואת בניו תפקד: לשון פקידות ואינו לשון מנין:
They shall observe their kehunah: [This refers to] receiving the blood [in a basin], dashing the blood, burning [the fats], and other rites entrusted to the priests.   ושמרו את כהנתם: קבלת דמים וזריקה והקטרה ועבודות המסורות לכהנים:
11The Lord spoke to Moses, saying.   יאוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
12As for Me I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel in place of all firstborns among the children of Israel who have opened the womb, and the Levites shall be Mine.   יבוַֽאֲנִ֞י הִנֵּ֧ה לָקַ֣חְתִּי אֶת־הַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם מִתּוֹךְ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל תַּ֧חַת כָּל־בְּכ֛וֹר פֶּ֥טֶר רֶ֖חֶם מִבְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְהָ֥יוּ לִ֖י הַֽלְוִיִּֽם:
As for Me: I have taken-As for Me; what right do I have to them ?   ואני הנה לקחתי: ואני מהיכן זכיתי בהן:
from among the children of Israel: That the Israelites should have to hire them for My service? I gained My right to them through the [Israelite] firstborns, taking them [the Levites] in their place. For [originally] the service was performed by the firstborns, but when they sinned by [worshipping] the [golden] calf, they became disqualified. The Levites, who had not committed idolatry, were chosen in their stead. [Midrash Aggadah]   מתוך בני ישראל: שיהיו ישראל שוכרין אותן לשירות שלי. על ידי הבכורות זכיתי בהם ולקחתים תמורתם, לפי שהיתה העבודה בבכורות, וכשחטאו בעגל נפסלו, והלוים שלא עבדו עבודה זרה נבחרו תחתיהם:
13For all the firstborns are Mine; since the day I smote all the firstborns in the land of Egypt, I sanctified for Myself all the firstborns of Israel, both man and beast they shall become Mine, I am the Lord.   יגכִּ֣י לִי֘ כָּל־בְּכוֹר֒ בְּיוֹם֩ הַכֹּתִ֨י כָל־בְּכ֜וֹר בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֗יִם הִקְדַּ֨שְׁתִּי לִ֤י כָל־בְּכוֹר֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵֽאָדָ֖ם עַד־בְּהֵמָ֑ה לִ֥י יִֽהְי֖וּ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֹֽה:
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