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Shabbat, 3 Iyar 5777 / April 29, 2017

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

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Leviticus Chapter 15

16A man from whom there is a discharge of semen, shall immerse all his flesh in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   טזוְאִ֕ישׁ כִּֽי־תֵצֵ֥א מִמֶּ֖נּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָ֑רַע וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֛יִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂר֖וֹ וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
17And any garment or any leather [object] which has semen on it, shall be immersed in water, and shall remain unclean until evening.   יזוְכָל־בֶּ֣גֶד וְכָל־ע֔וֹר אֲשֶׁר־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה עָלָ֖יו שִׁכְבַת־זָ֑רַע וְכֻבַּ֥ס בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
18A woman with whom a man cohabits, whereby there was [a discharge of] semen, they shall immerse in water, and they shall remain unclean until evening.   יחוְאִשָּׁ֕ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁכַּ֥ב אִ֛ישׁ אֹתָ֖הּ שִׁכְבַת־זָ֑רַע וְרָֽחֲצ֣וּ בַמַּ֔יִם וְטָֽמְא֖וּ עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
[Both of] these must immerse in water: It is the Divine King’s decree that the woman becomes defiled through cohabitation, and the reason is not that she came into contact with semen, for this constitutes contact with hidden parts of the body [which does not defile]. — [Niddah 41b]   ורחצו במים: גזירת מלך היא שתטמא האשה בביאה. ואין הטעם משום נוגע בשכבת זרע, שהרי מגע בית הסתרים הוא:
19If a woman has a discharge, her flesh discharging blood, she shall remain in her state of menstrual separation for seven days, and whoever touches her shall become unclean until evening.   יטוְאִשָּׁה֙ כִּי־תִֽהְיֶ֣ה זָבָ֔ה דָּ֛ם יִֽהְיֶ֥ה זֹבָ֖הּ בִּבְשָׂרָ֑הּ שִׁבְעַ֤ת יָמִים֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה בְנִדָּתָ֔הּ וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בָּ֖הּ יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
[If a woman] has a discharge: One might think that this means from any of her organs. Scripture, therefore, says “and she revealed the fountain of her blood” (Lev. 20:18). [Scripture here teaches us that] the only blood that defiles is what comes from her “fountain” [i.e., her womb]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:169]   כי תהיה זבה: יכול מאחד מכל איבריה, תלמוד לומר (ויקרא כ יח) והיא גלתה את מקור דמיה, אין דם מטמא אלא הבא מן המקור:
her flesh discharging blood: A woman’s discharge is not called a defiling discharge unless it is red. — [Niddah 19a]   דם יהיה זבה בבשרה: אין זובה קרוי זוב לטמא אלא אם כן הוא אדום:
in her state of menstrual separation: Heb. נִדָּתָהּ, like, “and chase him (יְנִדֻּהוּ) from the world” (Job 18:18), for she is separated (מְנֻדָּה) from contact with any man.   בנדתה: כמו (איוב יח יח) ומתבל ינידוהו, שהיא מנודה ממגע כל אדם:
she shall remain in her state of menstrual separation: Even if she saw only the first sighting. — [Torath Kohanim 15:171]   תהיה בנדתה: אפילו לא ראתה אלא ראיה ראשונה:
20And whatever she lies on during her menstrual separation, shall become unclean, and whatever she sits on, shall become unclean.   כוְכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּשְׁכַּ֥ב עָלָ֛יו בְּנִדָּתָ֖הּ יִטְמָ֑א וְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁ֥ב עָלָ֖יו יִטְמָֽא:
21And anyone who touches her bedding, shall immerse his garments and immerse [himself] in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   כאוְכָל־הַנֹּגֵ֖עַ בְּמִשְׁכָּבָ֑הּ יְכַבֵּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
22And anyone who touches any object upon which she will sit, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   כבוְכָ֨ל־הַנֹּגֵ֔עַ בְּכָל־כְּלִ֖י אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁ֣ב עָלָ֑יו יְכַבֵּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
23And if he is on the bedding or on the object, upon which she is sitting, when he touches it, he becomes unclean until evening.   כגוְאִ֨ם עַֽל־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֜ב ה֗וּא א֧וֹ עַל־הַכְּלִ֛י אֲשֶׁר־הִ֥וא ישֶֽׁבֶת־עָלָ֖יו בְּנָגְעוֹ־ב֑וֹ יִטְמָ֖א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
And if he is on the bedding: [I.e.,] someone who lies or sits upon her bedding or upon her seat, even if he does not touch it [if he sits on a seat that is on that seat - see Rashi on verse 6], this person is nevertheless also included in the law of uncleanness stated in the previous verse, and he requires immersion of his garments [in a mikvah]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:134]   ואם על המשכב הוא: השוכב או היושב על משכבה או על מושבה, אפילו לא נגע בה, אף הוא בדת טומאה האמורה במקרא העליון שטעון כבוס בגדים:
or on the object: [This comes] to include riding gear. — [Torath Kohanim 15:176]   על הכלי: לרבות את המרכב:
when he touches it, he becomes unclean: [This clause] refers exclusively to riding gear, which is included by [the words] “or object.”   בנגעו בו יטמא: אינו מדבר אלא על המרכב שנתרבה מעל הכלי:
when he touches it, he becomes unclean: But he does not require immersion of garments, for touching unclean riding gear does not defile people to defile their garments. — [Keilim 23:3]   בנגעו בו יטמא: ואינו טעון כבוס בגדים שהמרכב אין מגעו מטמא אדם לטמא בגדים:
24If a man cohabits with her, [the uncleanness of] her menstruation shall be upon him, and he shall be unclean for seven days, and any bedding he lies upon, shall become unclean.   כדוְאִ֡ם שָׁכֹב֩ יִשְׁכַּ֨ב אִ֜ישׁ אֹתָ֗הּ וּתְהִ֤י נִדָּתָהּ֙ עָלָ֔יו וְטָמֵ֖א שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים וְכָל־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֛ב אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּ֥ב עָלָ֖יו יִטְמָֽא:
[the uncleanness of] her menstruation shall be upon him: One might think that he follows in her footsteps, [i.e.,] if he had relations with her on the fifth day of her menstruation, he, too, will be unclean only for three days, like her. Scripture, therefore, continues, “and he shall be unclean for seven days.” So what does this clause here, “then [the uncleanness of] her menstruation shall be upon him,” come to teach us? [It means that the same laws of her uncleanness apply, insofar as] just as she defiles people and earthenware vessels, so does he defile people and earthenware vessels. — [Torath Kohanim 15:180; Niddah 33a]   ותהי נדתה עליו: יכול יעלה לרגלה, שאם בא עליה בחמישי לנדתה לא יטמא אלא שלשה ימים כמותה, תלמוד לומר וטמא שבעת ימים. ומה תלמוד לומר ותהי נדתה עליו, מה היא מטמאה אדם וכלי חרס, אף הוא מטמא אדם וכלי חרס:
25And a woman whose flow of blood flows for many days, outside of the time of her menstrual separation, or she has a discharge after her menstrual separation, then all the days she has her unclean discharge, she shall be unclean just like the days of her menstrual separation.   כהוְאִשָּׁ֡ה כִּֽי־יָזוּב֩ ז֨וֹב דָּמָ֜הּ יָמִ֣ים רַבִּ֗ים בְּלֹא֙ עֶת־נִדָּתָ֔הּ א֥וֹ כִֽי־תָז֖וּב עַל־נִדָּתָ֑הּ כָּל־יְמֵ֞י ז֣וֹב טֻמְאָתָ֗הּ כִּימֵ֧י נִדָּתָ֛הּ תִּֽהְיֶ֖ה טְמֵאָ֥ה הִֽוא:
many days: Three days. — [Torath Kohanim 15:186]   ימים רבים: שלשה ימים:
outside of the time of her menstrual separation: [I.e., after the seven days of her menstrual uncleanness had passed [not within the period of her menstrual uncleanness]. — [Torath Kohanim 8:187, Niddah 73a]   בלא עת נדתה: אחר שיצאו שבעת ימי נדתה:
or she has a discharge: [of] these three days.   או כי תזוב: את שלשת הימים הללו:
after her menstrual separation: i.e., separated from [the period of] her menstruation by one day, this is a zavah, whose law is decreed in this passage, unlike the laws of the menstruant, insofar as this one [the zavah gedolah A woman who discharges for three consecutive days,] requires a counting of seven [days] clean [of blood] and a sacrifice [for her purification], whereas the menstruant is not required [by Torah law] to count clean days. Rather, [the menstruant] need only remain in her state of menstrual separation for seven days (verse 19), whether she sees [an issue of blood] or not. And our Rabbis expounded this passage (Torath Kohanim 15:187; Niddah 73) as follows: Between the end of one period of menstruation to the beginning of the next, there is an eleven-day interval, so that if during these eleven days, she sees an issue of blood for three consecutive [days], she becomes a zavah [gedolah].   על נדתה: מופלג מנדתה יום אחד, זו היא זבה ומשפטה חרוץ בפרשה זו, ולא כדת הנדה, שזו טעונה ספירת שבעה נקיים וקרבן, והנדה אינה טעונה ספירת שבעה נקיים, אלא שבעת ימים תהיה בנדתה בין רואה בין שאינה רואה. ודרשו רבותינו בפרשה זו, אחד עשר יום יש בין סוף נדה לתחלת נדה, שכל שלשה רצופין שתראה באחד עשר יום הללו, תהא זבה:
26Any bedding upon which she lies during all the time of her discharge, will have the same [uncleanness] for her, as the bedding of her menstruation. And any object upon which she will sit, shall become unclean. like her menstrual uncleanness.   כוכָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֞ב אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁכַּ֤ב עָלָיו֙ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י זוֹבָ֔הּ כְּמִשְׁכַּ֥ב נִדָּתָ֖הּ יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑הּ וְכָל־הַכְּלִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּשֵׁ֣ב עָלָ֔יו טָמֵ֣א יִֽהְיֶ֔ה כְּטֻמְאַ֖ת נִדָּתָֽהּ:
27And anyone who touches them shall become unclean; he shall immerse his garments and immerse [himself] in water, and he shall remain unclean until evening.   כזוְכָל־הַנּוֹגֵ֥עַ בָּ֖ם יִטְמָ֑א וְכִבֶּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
28And if she becomes clean of her discharge, she shall count for herself seven days, and after this, she may be cleansed.   כחוְאִם־טָֽהֲרָ֖ה מִזּוֹבָ֑הּ וְסָ֥פְרָה לָּ֛הּ שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים וְאַחַ֥ר תִּטְהָֽר:
29And on the eighth day, she shall take for herself two turtle doves or two young doves, and bring them to the kohen, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   כט וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֗י תִּקַּח־לָהּ֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י תֹרִ֔ים א֥וֹ שְׁנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יוֹנָ֑ה וְהֵֽבִיאָ֤ה אוֹתָם֙ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֔ן אֶל־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
30And the kohen shall make one into a sin offering and one into a burnt offering, and the kohen shall effect atonement for her, before the Lord, from the uncleanness of her discharge.   לוְעָשָׂ֤ה הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֶת־הָֽאֶחָ֣ד חַטָּ֔את וְאֶת־הָֽאֶחָ֖ד עֹלָ֑ה וְכִפֶּ֨ר עָלֶ֤יהָ הַכֹּהֵן֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה מִזּ֖וֹב טֻמְאָתָֽהּ:
31And you shall separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness, so that they will not die on account of their uncleanness, if they defile My Sanctuary which is in their midst.   לאוְהִזַּרְתֶּ֥ם אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִטֻּמְאָתָ֑ם וְלֹ֤א יָמֻ֨תוּ֙ בְּטֻמְאָתָ֔ם בְּטַמְּאָ֥ם אֶת־מִשְׁכָּנִ֖י אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּתוֹכָֽם:
And you shall separate: Heb. וְהִזַּרְתֶּם. The term נְזִירָה always denotes separation (Torath Kohanim 15:196); similarly, “they drew (נָזרוּ) backwards” (Isa. 1:4); and similarly, “the one separated (נְזִיר) from his brothers” (Gen. 49:26).   והזרתם: אין נזירה אלא פרישה, וכן (ישעיה א ד) נזורו אחור, וכן (בראשית מט כו) נזיר אחיו:
so that they will not die on account of their uncleanness: [The punishment כָּרֵת the death of the perpetrator and his offspring-is attached to an unclean person who enters the sanctuary, thus defiling it. See Num. 19:13.] We see [from here] that this כָּרֵת incurred by someone [unclean] who defiles the sanctuary is also referred to as מִיתָה [meaning “the death penalty from Heaven,” although in other contexts, מִיתָה refers to the death of the perpetrator but not his offspring.]. — [Sifrei Bamidbar 19:45]   ולא ימתו בטמאתם: הרי הכרת של מטמא מקדש קרוי מיתה:
32This is the law for one who has a discharge, and one from whom semen issues, through which he becomes unclean,   לבזֹ֥את תּוֹרַ֖ת הַזָּ֑ב וַֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר תֵּצֵ֥א מִמֶּ֛נּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶ֖רַע לְטָמְאָה־בָֽהּ:
This is the law for one who has a discharge: [I.e.,] a person who sees one discharge. And what is the law governing him? [As the Torah continues:]   זאת תורת הזב: בעל ראיה אחת, ומהו תורתו ואשר תצא ממנו שכבת זרע - הרי הוא כבעל קרי טמא טומאת ערב:
and one from whom semen issues: He is like one who has experienced a seminal emission, that he becomes unclean until evening. — [Torath Kohanim 15:194]  
33And for a woman who has her menstrual flow, and for one who has a discharge, whether male or female, and a man who cohabits with an unclean woman.   לגוְהַדָּוָה֙ בְּנִדָּתָ֔הּ וְהַזָּב֙ אֶת־זוֹב֔וֹ לַזָּכָ֖ר וְלַנְּקֵבָ֑ה וּלְאִ֕ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשְׁכַּ֖ב עִם־טְמֵאָֽה:
and for one who has a discharge: [This expression refers to] someone who has seen two discharges and someone who has seen three discharges, whose law is specified above [in this whole passage, beginning with verse 3]. — [Torath Kohanim 15:194]   והזב את זובו: בעל שתי ראיות ובעל שלש ראיות, שתורתן מפורשת למעלה:
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