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Monday, 12 Tishrei 5778 / October 2, 2017

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Vezot Hab'rachah 

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Deuteronomy Chapter 33

8And of Levi he said: "Your Tummim and Urim belong to Your pious man, whom You tested at Massah and whom You tried at the waters of Meribah,   חוּלְלֵוִ֣י אָמַ֔ר תֻּמֶּ֥יךָ וְאוּרֶ֖יךָ לְאִ֣ישׁ חֲסִידֶ֑ךָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר נִסִּיתוֹ֙ בְּמַסָּ֔ה תְּרִיבֵ֖הוּ עַל־מֵ֥י מְרִיבָֽה:
And of Levi he said: Heb. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר, And of Levi, he said….   וללוי אמר: ועל לוי אמר:
Your Tummim and Urim: Here, Moses is addressing the Shechinah .   תמיך ואוריך: כלפי שכינה הוא מדבר:
whom You tested at Massah: [spoken in praise of the Levites,] for they did not complain with the others who complained.   אשר נסיתו במסה: שלא נתלוננו עם שאר המלינים:
and whom You tried…: [This is to be understood] as the Targum renders it [namely, “You tested him (Levi) at the Waters of Meribah, and he came out faithful”]. Another explanation: “whom you tried at the waters of Meribah” — You made false accusations against him [Levi], for if Moses [was punished with death and not permitted to enter the Land of Israel because he] said to Israel, “Listen now, you rebels!” (see Num. 20:10), then [how do we understand why] Aaron and Miriam [were also punished with death and were not permitted to enter the Land of Israel] — what did they do [to deserve this]?- [Sifrei 33:8]   תריבהו וגו': כתרגומו. דבר אחר תריבהו על מי מריבה נסתקפת לו לבוא בעלילה, אם משה אמר (במדבר כ, י) שמעו נא המורים, אהרן ומרים מה עשו:
9who said of his father and his mother, 'I do not see him'; neither did he recognize his brothers, nor did he know his children, for they observed Your word and kept Your covenant.   טהָֽאֹמֵ֞ר לְאָבִ֤יו וּלְאִמּוֹ֙ לֹ֣א רְאִיתִ֔יו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו֙ לֹ֣א הִכִּ֔יר וְאֶת־בָּנָ֖ו לֹ֣א יָדָ֑ע כִּ֤י שָֽׁמְרוּ֙ אִמְרָתֶ֔ךָ וּבְרִֽיתְךָ֖ יִנְצֹֽרוּ:
who said of his father and his mother, 'I do not see him…’: [Moses says:] When they [Israel] sinned with the calf, and I said, “Whoever is for the Lord, come to me!” (Exod. 32:26), all the sons of Levi assembled to me, and I ordered them to kill [those guilty of worshipping the golden calf, even] one’s mother’s father, if he was an [ordinary] Israelite [and not a Levite], or his brother from his mother [if his brother’s father was not a Levite], or the son of his daughter [whose husband was not a Levite], and they did so. It is, however, impossible to explain [that it means literally his father and his brother from his father, and likewise, literally his sons, because all these were Levites, and not one of the tribe of Levi sinned, as it is said, “and all the sons of Levi [gathered to him]” (Exod. 32:26). - [Sifrei 33:9]   האומר לאביו ולאמו לא ראיתיו: כשחטאו בעגל ואמרתי (שמות לב, כו) מי לה' אלי, נאספו אלי כל בני לוי וצויתים להרוג את אבי אמו והוא מישראל, או את אחיו מאמו, או את בן בתו, וכן עשו. ואי אפשר לפרש אביו ממש ואחיו מאביו וכן בניו ממש, שהרי לוים הם ומשבט לוי לא חטא אחד מהם שנאמר כל בני לוי:
for they observed Your word: namely,“You shall have no other gods [before Me]” (Exod. 20:3). - [Sifrei 33:9]   כי שמרו אמרתך: (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים:
and kept Your covenant: namely, the covenant of circumcision. — [Sifrei 33:9] For the [ordinary] Israelites who were born in the desert did not circumcise their sons, whereas the Levites were [not only] circumcised themselves, [but they] also circumcised their sons. — [Sifrei Bemidbar 9:18]   ובריתך ינצרו: ברית מילה, שאותם שנולדו במדבר של ישראל לא מלו את בניהם והם היו מולין ומלין את בניהם:
10They shall teach Your ordinances to Jacob, and Your Torah to Israel; they shall place incense before You, and burnt offerings upon Your altar.   ייוֹר֤וּ מִשְׁפָּטֶ֨יךָ֙ לְיַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְתוֹרָֽתְךָ֖ לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל יָשִׂ֤ימוּ קְטוֹרָה֙ בְּאַפֶּ֔ךָ וְכָלִ֖יל עַל־מִזְבְּחֶֽךָ:
They shall teach Your ordinances: [because] they are worthy of doing this.   יורו משפטיך: ראויין אלו לכך:
and burnt-offerings: Heb. וְכָלִיל, a burnt-offering [which is completely (כָּלִיל) consumed on the altar]. — [Yoma 26a]   וכליל: עולה:
11May the Lord bless his army and favorably accept the work of his hands; strike the loins of those who rise up against him and his enemies, so that they will not recover."   יאבָּרֵ֤ךְ יְהֹוָה֙ חֵיל֔וֹ וּפֹ֥עַל יָדָ֖יו תִּרְצֶ֑ה מְחַ֨ץ מָתְנַ֧יִם קָמָ֛יו וּמְשַׂנְאָ֖יו מִן־יְקוּמֽוּן:
strike the loins of those who rise up against him: Strike those who rise up against him, in the loins. This is similar to what is said, “Constantly cause their loins to slip” (Ps. 69:24). Here, Moses was referring to those who contested the priesthood. — [Sifrei 33:11] Another explanation: Moses saw [prophetically] that the Hasmonean and his sons were destined to wage war with the Greeks. He therefore prayed for them, because they were few in number, namely, the twelve sons of the Hasmonean and Eleazar, against many myriads [of the enemy]. Hence, Moses said here:“May the Lord bless his army (חֵילוֹ) and favorably accept the work of his hands.” - [See Tanchuma Vayechi 14; Gen. Rabbah 99:2; Otzar Midrashim, Ma’aseh Hanukkah second version, p. 191; Midrash LaHanukkah , p. 193]   מחץ מתנים קמיו: מחץ קמיו מכת מתנים, כענין שנאמר (תהלים סט, כד) ומתניהם תמיד המעד, ועל המעוררין על הכהונה אמר כן. דבר אחר ראה שעתידין חשמונאי ובניו להלחם עם היונים והתפלל עליהם לפי שהיו מועטים י"ב בני חשמונאי ואלעזר כנגד כמה רבבות, לכך נאמר ברך ה' חילו ופועל ידיו תרצה:
and his enemies so that they will not recover: Strike the loins of those who rise up against him and of his enemies, so that they will have no recovery.   ומשנאיו מן יקומון: מחץ קמיו ומשנאיו מהיות להם תקומה:
12And of Benjamin he said, "The Lord's beloved one shall dwell securely beside Him; He protects him all day long, and He dwells between his shoulders."   יבלְבִנְיָמִ֣ן אָמַ֔ר יְדִ֣יד יְהֹוָ֔ה יִשְׁכֹּ֥ן לָבֶ֖טַח עָלָ֑יו חֹפֵ֤ף עָלָיו֙ כָּל־הַיּ֔וֹם וּבֵ֥ין כְּתֵפָ֖יו שָׁכֵֽן:
And of Benjamin he said: Since Levi’s blessing pertains to the sacrificial service, and Benjamin’s blessing pertains to building the Holy Temple within his territory, Moses juxtaposed one to the other. He then juxtaposes Joseph immediately after him [Benjamin] because Joseph too [had a sanctuary built within his territory, namely] the Mishkan of Shiloh was erected in his territory, as is said:“He rejected the tent of Joseph” (Ps. 78:67). And because the Holy Temple is dearer [to God] than [the Mishkan of] Shiloh, he mentioned [the blessing of] Benjamin before [that of] Joseph [even though Joseph was older.].   לבנימן אמר: לפי שברכת לוי בעבודת הקרבנות ושל בנימין בבנין בית המקדש בחלקו סמכן זה לזה וסמך יוסף אחריו, שאף הוא משכן שילה היה בנוי בחלקו, שנאמר (שם עח, סז) וימאס באהל יוסף וגו'. ולפי שבית עולמים חביב משילה לכך הקדים בנימין ליוסף:
He protects him: Heb. חֹפֵף, covers him and protects him.   חפף עליו: מכסה אותו ומגין עליו:
all day long: i.e., forever. Since [the time] Jerusalem was chosen [for the building of the Holy Temple], the Divine Presence has never dwelt elsewhere. — [Mechilta 12:4]   כל היום: לעולם משנבחרה ירושלים לא שרתה שכינה במקום אחר:
and dwells between his shoulders: The Holy Temple was built on the highest point of his [Benjamin’s] land, except that it was twenty-three cubits below the Eitam Well (see Yoma 31a). Now, it was David’s intention to build it there [at the level of the Eitam Well], as is taught in Shechitath Kodashim [Zev. 54b]: [However,] they said to David:“Let us build it a little lower, for Scripture states, ‘and He dwells between his shoulders’ [which are lower than the head]-and there is no part of an ox more beautiful than its shoulders.”   ובין כתפיו שכן: בגובה ארצו היה, בית המקדש בנוי אלא שנמוך עשרים ושלש אמה מעין עיטם ושם היה דעתו של דוד לבנותו, כדאיתא בשחיטת קדשים (זבחים נד ב) אמרי נחתי ביה פורתא משום דכתיב ובין כתפיו שכן אין לך נאה בשור יותר מכתפיו:
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