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Genesis Chapter 9

18And the sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and Ham he was the father of Canaan.   יחוַיִּֽהְי֣וּ בְנֵי־נֹ֗חַ הַיֹּֽצְאִים֙ מִן־הַתֵּבָ֔ה שֵׁ֖ם וְחָ֣ם וָיָ֑פֶת וְחָ֕ם ה֖וּא אֲבִ֥י כְנָֽעַן:
and Ham-he was the father of Canaan: Why was it necessary to say this here? Because the chapter proceeds to deal with Noah’s drunkenness, in which Ham sinned, and because of him Canaan was cursed, and since the generations of Ham were not yet written, and we do not know that Canaan was his son, it was necessary to say here,“and Ham-he was the father of Canaan.”   וחם הוא אבי כנען: למה הוצרך לומר כאן, לפי שהפרשה עסוקה ובאה בשכרותו של נח שקלקל בה חם, ועל ידו נתקלל כנען, ועדיין לא כתב תולדות חם, ולא ידענו שכנען בנו, לפיכך הוצרך לומר כאן וחם הוא אבי כנען:
19These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the entire earth spread out.   יטשְׁלשָׁ֥ה אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵי־נֹ֑חַ וּמֵאֵ֖לֶּה נָֽפְצָ֥ה כָל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
20And Noah began to be a master of the soil, and he planted a vineyard.   כוַיָּ֥חֶל נֹ֖חַ אִ֣ישׁ הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה וַיִּטַּ֖ע כָּֽרֶם:
[And Noah] began: Heb. וַיָּחֶל. [This can be understood as] “he made himself profane,” for he should have first engaged in planting something different. — [Gen. Rabbah 36:3. I.e., he should not have planted a vineyard, from which wine is produced, but other trees.]   ויחל: עשה עצמו חולין, שהיה לו לעסוק תחלה בנטיעה אחרת:
a master of the soil: אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה, the master of the earth, like (Ruth 1:3): “Naomi’s husband (אִישׁ).” Rashi explains that Elimelech was called אִישׁ נָעָמִי because of his mastery over her. Cf. Commentary Digest ad loc.   איש האדמה: אדוני האדמה, כמו (רות א ג) איש נעמי:
and he planted a vineyard: When he entered the ark, he brought with him vine branches and shoots of fig trees. — [from Gen. Rabbah 36:3]   ויטע כרם: כשנכנס לתיבה הכניס עמו זמורות ויחורי תאנים:
21And he drank of the wine and became drunk, and he uncovered himself within his tent.   כאוַיֵּ֥שְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּ֖יִן וַיִּשְׁכָּ֑ר וַיִּתְגַּ֖ל בְּת֥וֹךְ אָֽהֳלֹֽה:
his tent: it is written אָהֳלֹה [and not the usual אָהֳלוֹ]. This alludes to the Ten Tribes, who were referred to by the name of Samaria, which was called Oholah [אָהֳלָה] (Ez. 23:4), who were exiled on account of wine, as is written (Amos 6:6): “who drink from basins of wine.” - [from Tan. Buber, Noach 21]   אהלו: אהלה כתיב רמז לעשרת שבטים שנקראו על שם שומרון שנקראת אהלה, שגלו על עסקי היין, שנאמר (עמוס ו ו) השותים במזרקי יין:
and he uncovered himself: Heb. וַיִּתְגַּל, the הִתְפָּעֵל conjugation [the reflexive].   ויתגל: לשון ויתפעל:
22And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father's nakedness, and he told his two brothers outside.   כבוַיַּ֗רְא חָ֚ם אֲבִ֣י כְנַ֔עַן אֵ֖ת עֶרְוַ֣ת אָבִ֑יו וַיַּגֵּ֥ד לִשְׁנֵֽי־אֶחָ֖יו בַּחֽוּץ:
And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw: (Gen. Rabbah 36:7) Some of our Sages say: Canaan saw and told his father; therefore, he was mentioned regarding the matter, and he was cursed.   וירא חם אבי כנען: יש מרבותינו אומרים כנען ראה והגיד לאביו לכך הוזכר על הדבר ונתקלל:
saw his father’s nakedness: Some say that he castrated him, and some say that he sodomized him. — [from Sanh. 70a]   וירא את ערות אביו: יש אומרים סרסו ויש אומרים רבעו:
23And Shem and Japheth took the garment, and they placed [it] on both of their shoulders, and they walked backwards, and they covered their father's nakedness, and their faces were turned backwards, so that they did not see their father's nakedness.   כגוַיִּקַּח֩ שֵׁ֨ם וָיֶ֜פֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָ֗ה וַיָּשִׂ֨ימוּ֙ עַל־שְׁכֶ֣ם שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיֵּֽלְכוּ֙ אֲחֹ֣רַנִּ֔ית וַיְכַסּ֕וּ אֵ֖ת עֶרְוַ֣ת אֲבִיהֶ֑ם וּפְנֵיהֶם֙ אֲחֹ֣רַנִּ֔ית וְעֶרְוַ֥ת אֲבִיהֶ֖ם לֹ֥א רָאֽוּ:
And Shem and Japheth took: Heb. וַיִּקַּח. It does not say וַיִּקְחוּ (the plural form), but וַיִּקַּח, the singular form. This teaches us about Shem, that he exerted himself to fulfill the commandment more than Japheth. Therefore, his sons merited a tallith with fringes, and Japheth merited burial for his sons, as it is said (Ezek. 39:11): “I will give Gog a place there as a grave in Israel.” But Ham, who disgraced his father—it is stated about his seed (Isa. 20:4): “So shall the king of Assyria lead the captivity of Egypt and the exile of Cush, youths and old men, naked and barefoot, with bare buttocks, etc.” - [from Tan Buber Noach 16, Gen. Rabbah 36:6]   ויקח שם ויפת: אין כתיב כאן ויקחו אלא ויקח, לימד על שם שנתאמץ במצוה יותר מיפת, לכך זכו בניו לטלית של ציצית, ויפת זכה לקבורה לבניו, שנאמר (יחזקאל לט יא) אתן לגוג מקום שם קבר. וחם שבזה את אביו נאמר בזרעו (ישעיה כ ד) כן ינהג מלך אשור את שבי מצרים ואת גלות כוש נערים וזקנים ערום ויחף וחשופי שת וגו':
and their faces were turned backwards: Why is this stated a second time? This teaches that when they drew near to him and they had to turn around to cover him, they turned their faces backwards.   ופניהם אחורנית: למה נאמר פעם שניה, מלמד שכשקרבו אצלו והוצרכו להפוך עצמם לכסותו, הפכו פניהם אחורנית:
24And Noah awoke from his wine, and he knew what his small son had done to him.   כדוַיִּ֥יקֶץ נֹ֖חַ מִיֵּינ֑וֹ וַיֵּ֕דַע אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָ֥שָׂה ל֖וֹ בְּנ֥וֹ הַקָּטָֽן:
his small son: The worthless and despicable one, like (Jer. 49:15): “Behold I have made you small among the nations; despised among men.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 16:7]   בנו הקטן: הפסול והבזוי, כמו (ירמיה מט טו) הנה קטן נתתיך בגוים בזוי באדם:
25And he said, "Cursed be Canaan; he shall be a slave among slaves to his brethren."   כהוַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָר֣וּר כְּנָ֑עַן עֶ֥בֶד עֲבָדִ֖ים יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְאֶחָֽיו:
Cursed be Canaan: You have caused me to be incapable of begetting another fourth son (Gen. Rabbah , manuscripts, and early editions read: a fourth son) to serve me. Cursed be your fourth son, that he should minister to the children of these older ones [Shem and Japhet], upon whom the burden of serving me has been placed from now on (Gen. Rabbah 36:7). Now what did Ham see (what reason did he have) that he castrated him? He said to his brothers,“The first man [Adam] had two sons, and one killed the other so as to inherit the world, and our father has three sons, and he still desires a fourth son!” - [from Gen. Rabbah ibid. 5, 22:7]   ארור כנען: אתה גרמת לי שלא אוליד בן רביעי אחר לשמשני, ארור בנך רביעי להיות משמש את זרעם של אלו הגדולים, שהוטל עליהם טורח עבודתי מעתה. ומה ראה חם שסרסו, אמר להם לאחיו אדם הראשון שני בנים היו לו, והרג זה את זה בשביל ירושת העולם ואבינו יש לו שלשה בנים ועודנו מבקש בן רביעי:
26And he said, "Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem, and may Canaan be a slave to them.   כווַיֹּ֕אמֶר בָּר֥וּךְ יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹ֣הֵי שֵׁ֑ם וִיהִ֥י כְנַ֖עַן עֶ֥בֶד לָֽמוֹ:
Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem: Who is destined to keep His promise to his seed to give them the land of Canaan.   ברוך ה' אלהי שם: שעתיד לשמור הבטחתו לזרעו לתת להם את ארץ כנען:
be: [and let] Canaan be to them a vassal paying tribute.   ויהי כנען עבד למו: למס עובד:
27May God expand Japheth, and may He dwell in the tents of Shem, and may Canaan be a slave to them."   כזיַ֤פְתְּ אֱלֹהִים֙ לְיֶ֔פֶת וְיִשְׁכֹּ֖ן בְּאָֽהֳלֵי־שֵׁ֑ם וִיהִ֥י כְנַ֖עַן עֶ֥בֶד לָֽמוֹ:
May God expand Japheth: Translated by the Targum as יַפְתֵּי, meaning: He will widen [or expand]. Cf. Targum Onkelos, Deut. 12:20,19:8.   יפת א-להים ליפת: מתורגם יפתי ירחיב:
and may He dwell in the tents of Shem: May He cause His Presence to rest in Israel. The interpretation of the Sages, however is: Although God will beautify Japheth, insofar as Cyrus, who was of the sons of Japheth, built the Second Temple, the Shechinah did not rest therein. But where did it rest? In the First Temple, built by Solomon, who was of the sons of Shem. — [from Yoma 9b, 10a]   וישכון באהלי שם: ישרה שכינתו בישראל. ומדרש חכמים אף על פי שיפת א-להים ליפת, שבנה כורש שהיה מבני יפת בית שני, לא שרתה בו שכינה. והיכן שרתה, במקדש ראשון שבנה שלמה שהיה מבני שם:
and may Canaan be a slave: Even after the descendants of Shem are exiled, some of the descendants of Canaan will be sold to them as slaves.   ויהי כנען עבד למו: אף משיגלו בני שם, ימכרו להם עבדים מבני כנען: 
28And Noah lived after the Flood, three hundred and fifty years.   כחוַֽיְחִי־נֹ֖חַ אַחַ֣ר הַמַּבּ֑וּל שְׁל֤שׁ מֵאוֹת֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שָׁנָֽה:
29And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years, and he died.   כטוַֽיְהִי֙ כָּל־יְמֵי־נֹ֔חַ תְּשַׁ֤ע מֵאוֹת֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת:

Genesis Chapter 10

1And these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and sons were born to them after the Flood.   אוְאֵ֨לֶּה֙ תּֽוֹלְדֹ֣ת בְּנֵי־נֹ֔חַ שֵׁ֖ם חָ֣ם וָיָ֑פֶת וַיִּוָּֽלְד֥וּ לָהֶ֛ם בָּנִ֖ים אַחַ֥ר הַמַּבּֽוּל:
2The sons of Japheth were Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan and Tubal, and Meshech and Tiras.   בבְּנֵ֣י יֶ֔פֶת גֹּ֣מֶר וּמָג֔וֹג וּמָדַ֖י וְיָוָ֣ן וְתֻבָ֑ל וּמֶ֖שֶׁךְ וְתִירָֽס:
Tiras: This is Persia. — [from Gen. Rabbah ad loc., Yoma 10a]   ותירס: זו פרס:  
3And the sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz and Riphath and Togarmah.   גוּבְנֵ֖י גֹּ֑מֶר אַשְׁכְּנַ֥ז וְרִיפַ֖ת וְתֹֽגַרְמָֽה:
4And the sons of Javan were Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.   דוּבְנֵ֥י יָוָ֖ן אֱלִישָׁ֣ה וְתַרְשִׁ֑ישׁ כִּתִּ֖ים וְדֹֽדָנִֽים:
5From these, the islands of the nations separated in their lands, each one to his language, according to their families, in their nations.   המֵאֵ֠לֶּה נִפְרְד֞וּ אִיֵּ֤י הַגּוֹיִם֙ בְּאַרְצֹתָ֔ם אִ֖ישׁ לִלְשֹׁנ֑וֹ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם בְּגֽוֹיֵהֶֽם:
6And the sons of Ham were Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan.   ווּבְנֵ֖י חָ֑ם כּ֥וּשׁ וּמִצְרַ֖יִם וּפ֥וּט וּכְנָֽעַן:
7And the sons of Cush were Seba and Havilah and Sabta and Raamah and Sabtecha, and the sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan.   זוּבְנֵ֣י כ֔וּשׁ סְבָא֙ וַֽחֲוִילָ֔ה וְסַבְתָּ֥ה וְרַעְמָ֖ה וְסַבְתְּכָ֑א וּבְנֵ֥י רַעְמָ֖ה שְׁבָ֥א וּדְדָֽן:
8And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty man in the land.   חוְכ֖וּשׁ יָלַ֣ד אֶת־נִמְרֹ֑ד ה֣וּא הֵחֵ֔ל לִֽהְי֥וֹת גִּבֹּ֖ר בָּאָֽרֶץ:
he began to be a mighty man: to cause the entire world to rebel against the Holy One, blessed be He, with the plan of the Generation of the Dispersion. — [from Eruv. 53a, Chul. 89a]   להיות גבור: להמריד כל העולם על הקב"ה בעצת דור הפלגה:
9He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; therefore it is said, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord."   טהֽוּא־הָיָ֥ה גִּבֹּֽר־צַ֖יִד לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה עַל־כֵּן֙ יֵֽאָמַ֔ר כְּנִמְרֹ֛ד גִּבּ֥וֹר צַ֖יִד לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
a mighty hunter: He ensnared people’s minds with his speech and misled them to rebel against the Omnipresent. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:2]   גבור ציד: צד דעתן של בריות בפיו ומטען למרוד במקום:
before the Lord: He intended to provoke Him to His face. — [from Sifra Bechukkothai 2:2]   לפני ה': מתכוין להקניטו על פניו:
therefore it is said: About any man who is brazenly wicked, who recognizes his Master and intends to rebel [לִמְרֹד] against Him, it is said,“This one is like Nimrod [נִמְרֹד], a mighty hunter.”   על כן יאמר כנמרד: על כל אדם מרשיע בעזות פנים, יודע רבונו ומתכוין למרוד בו, יאמר זה כנמרוד גבור ציד:
10And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.   יוַתְּהִ֨י רֵאשִׁ֤ית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ֙ בָּבֶ֔ל וְאֶ֖רֶךְ וְאַכַּ֣ד וְכַלְנֵ֑ה בְּאֶ֖רֶץ שִׁנְעָֽר:
11From that land emerged Asshur, and he built Nineveh and Rehoboth ir and Calah.   יאמִן־הָאָ֥רֶץ הַהִ֖וא יָצָ֣א אַשּׁ֑וּר וַיִּ֨בֶן֙ אֶת־נִ֣ינְוֵ֔ה וְאֶת־רְחֹבֹ֥ת עִ֖יר וְאֶת־כָּֽלַח:
From that land: Since Asshur saw his sons obeying Nimrod and rebelling against the Omnipresent by building the tower, he departed from their midst. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:4]   מן הארץ וגו': כיון שראה אשור את בניו שומעין לנמרוד ומורדין במקום לבנות המגדל, יצא מתוכם:
12And Resen, between Nineveh and between Calah; that is the great city.   יבוְאֶת־רֶ֕סֶן בֵּ֥ין נִֽינְוֵ֖ה וּבֵ֣ין כָּ֑לַח הִ֖וא הָעִ֥יר הַגְּדֹלָֽה:
the great city: This is Nineveh, as it is said (Jonah 3: 3):“Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city to God.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 37:4, Yoma 10a] [i.e., Scripture is referring to Nineveh, not to Resen or Calah.]   העיר הגדולה: היא נינוה שנאמר (יונה ג ג) ונינוה היתה עיר גדולה לא-להים:
13And Mizraim begot the Ludim and the Anamim and the Lehabim and the Naphtuhim,   יגוּמִצְרַ֡יִם יָלַ֞ד אֶת־לוּדִ֧ים וְאֶת־עֲנָמִ֛ים וְאֶת־לְהָבִ֖ים וְאֶת־נַפְתֻּחִֽים:
Lehabim: Heb. לְהָבִים [people] whose faces were like flames (לַהַב).   להבים: שפניהם דומים ללהב:
14And the Pathrusim and the Casluhim, from whom the Philistines emerged, and the Caphtorim.   ידוְאֶת־פַּתְרֻסִ֞ים וְאֶת־כַּסְלֻחִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָֽצְא֥וּ מִשָּׁ֛ם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וְאֶת־כַּפְתֹּרִֽים:
And the Pathrusim and the Casluhim, from whom the Philistines emerged: They [the Philistines] descended from them both, for the Pathrusim and the Casluhim exchanged the intimacy of their wives with each other, and the Philistines descended from them. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:5]   ואת פתרוסים ואת כסלוחים אשר יצאו משם פלשתים: משניהם יצאו, שהיו פתרוסים וכסלוחים מחליפין משכב נשותיהם אלו לאלו, ויצאו מהם פלשתים: 
15And Canaan begot Zidon his firstborn and Heth.   טווּכְנַ֗עַן יָלַ֛ד אֶת־צִידֹ֥ן בְּכֹר֖וֹ וְאֶת־חֵֽת:
16And the Jebusites and the Amorites and the Girgashites.   טזוְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי֙ וְאֶת־הָ֣אֱמֹרִ֔י וְאֵ֖ת הַגִּרְגָּשִֽׁי:
17And the Hivvites and the Arkites and the Sinites.   יזוְאֶת־הַֽחִוִּ֥י וְאֶת־הָֽעַרְקִ֖י וְאֶת־הַסִּינִֽי:
18and the Arvadites and the Zemarites and the Hamathites, and afterwards the families of the Canaanites were scattered.   יחוְאֶת־הָֽאַרְוָדִ֥י וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִ֖י וְאֶת־הַֽחֲמָתִ֑י וְאַחַ֣ר נָפֹ֔צוּ מִשְׁפְּח֖וֹת הַכְּנַֽעֲנִֽי:
and afterwards…were scattered: From these were scattered many families.   ואחר נפצו: מאלו נפוצו משפחות הרבה:
19And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon as you come to Gerar, until Gaza, as you come to Sodom and Gomorrah, and Admah and Zeboiim, until Lesha.   יטוַיְהִ֞י גְּב֤וּל הַכְּנַֽעֲנִי֙ מִצִּידֹ֔ן בֹּֽאֲכָ֥ה גְרָ֖רָה עַד־עַזָּ֑ה בֹּֽאֲכָ֞ה סְדֹ֧מָה וַֽעֲמֹרָ֛ה וְאַדְמָ֥ה וּצְבוֹיִ֖ם (כתיב וּצְבֹיִ֖ם) עַד־לָֽשַׁע:
the border of the Canaanites: Heb. גְּבוּל, the end of his land. Every mention of גְּבוּל denotes an end and an edge.   גבול הכנעני: סוף ארצו. כל גבול שבמקרא לשון סוף וקצה:
as you come: Heb. בֹּאֲכָה is a noun [i.e., the approach to]. And it appears to me that [it is an expression] as when a person says to his friend, “This border extends until you come to such and such a border.”   באכה: שם דבר. ולי נראה כאדם האומר לחבירו גבול זה מגיע עד אשר תבא לגבול פלוני:
20These are the sons of Ham according to their families, and their tongues, in their lands, in their nations.   כאֵ֣לֶּה בְנֵי־חָ֔ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לִלְשֹֽׁנֹתָ֑ם בְּאַרְצֹתָ֖ם בְּגֽוֹיֵהֶֽם:
according to…their tongues, in their lands: Although they were divided into tongues and lands, they are all the sons of Ham.   ללשונותם בארצותם: אף על פי שנחלקו ללשונות וארצות, כולם בני חם הם:
21And to Shem were also born [children; he was] the father of all the people of the other side [of the river], the brother of Japheth the elder.   כאוּלְשֵׁ֥ם יֻלַּ֖ד גַּם־ה֑וּא אֲבִי֙ כָּל־בְּנֵי־עֵ֔בֶר אֲחִ֖י יֶ֥פֶת הַגָּדֽוֹל:
the father of all the people of the other side: of the river was Shem. See below 14:13.   אבי כל בני עבר: הנהר היה שם:
the brother of Japheth, the elder: I do not know [from the wording of the verse] whether Japheth is the elder or Shem. [The verse may be rendered: the elder brother of Japheth.] When Scripture says (11:10): “Shem was a hundred years old, etc.” two years after the Flood, you must say that Japheth was the elder, because Noah was five hundred years old when he first had children, and the Flood came to pass in the six hundredth year. Consequently, the eldest of his sons was a hundred years old [at the time of the Flood], and Shem did not reach [the age of] a hundred until two years after the Flood. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:7]   אחי יפת הגדול: איני יודע אם יפת הגדול אם שם, כשהוא אומר (להלן יא י) שם בן מאת שנה וגו' שנתים אחר המבול, הוי אומר יפת הגדול, שהרי בן חמש מאות שנה היה נח כשהתחיל להוליד, והמבול היה בשנת שש מאות שנה לנח, נמצא שהגדול בבניו היה בן מאה שנה, ושם לא הגיע למאה שנה עד שנתים אחר המבול:
the brother of Japheth: But not the brother of Ham, for these two honored their father, and that one [Ham] disgraced him. [See Targum Jonathan, which renders: the brother of Japheth, who was great in the fear of the Lord. Perhaps this was Rashi’s source, but it is unlikely.]   אחי יפת: ולא אחי חם, שאלו שניהם כבדו את אביהם, וזה בזהו: 
22The sons of Shem were Elam and Asshur and Arpachshad and Lud and Aram.   כבבְּנֵ֥י שֵׁ֖ם עֵילָ֣ם וְאַשּׁ֑וּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁ֖ד וְל֥וּד וַֽאֲרָֽם:
23And the sons of Aram were Uz and Hul and Gether and Mash.   כגוּבְנֵ֖י אֲרָ֑ם ע֥וּץ וְח֖וּל וְגֶ֥תֶר וָמַֽשׁ:
24And Arpachshad begot Shelah, and Shelah begot Eber.   כדוְאַרְפַּכְשַׁ֖ד יָלַ֣ד אֶת־שָׁ֑לַח וְשֶׁ֖לַח יָלַ֥ד אֶת־עֵֽבֶר:
25And to Eber were born two sons: one was named Peleg, because in his days the earth was divided, and the name of his brother was Joktan.   כהוּלְעֵ֥בֶר יֻלַּ֖ד שְׁנֵ֣י בָנִ֑ים שֵׁ֣ם הָֽאֶחָ֞ד פֶּ֗לֶג כִּ֤י בְיָמָיו֙ נִפְלְגָ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ וְשֵׁ֥ם אָחִ֖יו יָקְטָֽן:
was divided: The tongues became confused, and they were scattered from the valley and were dispersed throughout the entire world. We learn that Eber was a prophet, since he named his son for a future event [i.e. פֶּלֶג resembles the word נִפְלְגָה meaning “dispersed”]. And we learned in Seder Olam (ch. 1) that at the end of his [Peleg’s] days, they were dispersed. For if you say that [they were dispersed] at the beginning of his days, behold his brother Joktan was his junior, and he begot many families before that, as it is said (verse 26): “And Joktan begot, etc.,” and [only] afterwards [is it written] (11:1): “And the whole earth was one language.” Now if you say [that they were dispersed] in the middle of his [Peleg’s] days, [this is not so, because] Scripture does not come to make things obscure but to explain. Hence, you learn that in the year of Peleg’s death, they were dispersed.   נפלגה: נתבלבלו הלשונות, ונפוצו מן הבקעה, ונתפלגו בכל העולם. למדנו שהיה עבר נביא שקרא שם בנו על שם העתיד. ושנינו בסדר עולם (פרק א) שבסוף ימיו נתפלגו, שאם תאמר בתחלת ימיו, הרי יקטן אחיו צעיר ממנו והוליד כמה משפחות קודם לכן, שנאמר (פסוק כו) ויקטן ילד וגו' ואחר כך ויהי כל הארץ וגו'. ואם תאמר באמצע ימיו, לא בא הכתוב לסתום אלא לפרש, הא למדת שבשנת מות פלג נתפלגו:
Joktan: Because he was humble and considered himself small (קָטָן). Therefore, he merited to raise all these families. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:7]   ויקטן: שהיה עניו ומקטין עצמו, לכך זכה להעמיד כל המשפחות הללו:
26And Joktan begot Almodad and Sheleph and Hazarmaveth and Jerah.   כווְיָקְטָ֣ן יָלַ֔ד אֶת־אַלְמוֹדָ֖ד וְאֶת־שָׁ֑לֶף וְאֶת־חֲצַרְמָ֖וֶת וְאֶת־יָֽרַח:
Hazarmaveth: lit. yard of death, graveyard. He was so called because of his place. [These are] the words of the Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 37:8).   חצרמות: על שם מקומו, דברי אגדה:    
27And Hadoram and Uzal and Diklah.   כזוְאֶת־הֲדוֹרָ֥ם וְאֶת־אוּזָ֖ל וְאֶת־דִּקְלָֽה:
28And Obal and Abimael and Sheba.   כחוְאֶת־עוֹבָ֥ל וְאֶת־אֲבִֽימָאֵ֖ל וְאֶת־שְׁבָֽא:
29And Ophir and Havilah and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan.   כטוְאֶת־אוֹפִ֥ר וְאֶת־חֲוִילָ֖ה וְאֶת־יוֹבָ֑ב כָּל־אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י יָקְטָֽן:
30And their settlement was from Mesha, as you come to Sephar, the mountain of the east.   לוַיְהִ֥י מֽוֹשָׁבָ֖ם מִמֵּשָׁ֑א בֹּֽאֲכָ֥ה סְפָ֖רָה הַ֥ר הַקֶּֽדֶם:
31These are the sons of Shem according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nations.   לאאֵ֣לֶּה בְנֵי־שֵׁ֔ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם לִלְשֹֽׁנֹתָ֑ם בְּאַרְצֹתָ֖ם לְגֽוֹיֵהֶֽם:
32These are the families of the sons of Noah according to their generations, in their nations, and from these, the nations were separated on the earth after the Flood.   לבאֵ֣לֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹ֧ת בְּנֵי־נֹ֛חַ לְתֽוֹלְדֹתָ֖ם בְּגֽוֹיֵהֶ֑ם וּמֵאֵ֜לֶּה נִפְרְד֧וּ הַגּוֹיִ֛ם בָּאָ֖רֶץ אַחַ֥ר הַמַּבּֽוּל:
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