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Thursday, 22 Tishrei 5778 / October 12, 2017

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Vezot Hab'rachah 

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Deuteronomy Chapter 33

22And of Dan he said: "Dan is a young lion, streaming from Bashan."   כבוּלְדָ֣ן אָמַ֔ר דָּ֖ן גּ֣וּר אַרְיֵ֑ה יְזַנֵּ֖ק מִן־הַבָּשָֽׁן:
Dan is a young lion: Dan was also located close to the border, and so [like Gad], he is compared to lions. — [Sifrei 33:22]   דן גור אריה: אף הוא היה סמוך לספר לפיכך מושלו באריות:
streaming from Bashan: [This is to be understood] as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it [“His land drinks from the rivers that flow from Bashan”]. For the Jordan [river] comes out from Dan’s territory, from the Paneas cave, which is [a place called] Leshem, within the territory of Dan. [The children of Dan conquered Leshem and incorporated it into their territory, calling it Dan after their father,] as it is said,“And they called Leshem, Dan” (Joshua 19:47). - [Bech. 55a] And its source (זִנּוּק) and flow is from Bashan. Another explanation [of יְזַנֵּק מִן-הַבָּשָׁן] is: Just as a water flow (זִנּוּק) issues from one place and divides itself [afterwards] into two directions, similarly, the tribe of Dan [started with one territory and ended up] taking a portion in two places. First, they took the northwest [of the Land of Israel], namely, Ekron and its surroundings. But this did not suffice them. So they came and fought against Leshem, which is Paneas, located in the north-east [of the Land of Israel]. [Now Rashi demarcates these two areas geographically:] For the Jordan comes out of the Paneas [or Banias] cave, which is in the east [and at the northern extremity] of the Land of Israel, and then the river flows from the north [straight down] to the south, ending at the edge of the Salt Sea [“Dead Sea”], which in turn, is in the east of Judah’s territory, Judah having taken his territory in the southern part of the Land of Israel, as is delineated in the book of Joshua (19:47). This is the meaning of what is stated there: “And the border of the children of Dan went out from them, so the children of Dan arose and fought against Leshem [and took possession of it].” [So when this verse says“And the border of the children of Dan went out from them,” it means:] Their border was bursting outwards [as it were,] along that whole [eastern flank of the Land] where they originally took their inheritance. [Hence, whereas Dan started out with one territory, he ended up with two, just like a water flow (זִנּוּק) is one, and divides into two]. — [Sifrei 33:22]   יזנק מן הבשן: כתרגומו שהיה הירדן יוצא מחלקו ממערת פמייאס והיא לשם שהיא בחלקו של דן, שנאמר (יהושע יט, מז) ויקראו ללשם דן וזינוקו וקילוחו מן הבשן. דבר אחר מה זינוק זה יוצא ממקום אחד ונחלק לשני מקומות, כך שבטו של דן נטלו חלק בשני מקומות. תחלה נטלו בצפונית מערבית עקרון וסביבותיה, ולא ספקו להם ובאו ונלחמו עם לשם שהיא פמייאס והיא בצפונית מזרחית, שהרי הירדן יוצא ממערת פמייאס והוא במזרחה של ארץ ישראל ובא מהצפון לדרום וכלה בקצה ים המלח, שהוא במזרח יהודה, שנטל בדרומה של ארץ ישראל, כמו שמפורש בספר יהושע, והוא שנאמר (שם יט, מז) ויצא גבול בני דן מהם ויעלו בני דן וילחמו עם לשם וגו', יצא גבולם מכל אותו הרוח שהתחילו לנחול בו:
23And of Naftali he said, "Naftali is favorably satisfied and full of the Lord's blessing. Possess the Sea and the south."   כגוּלְנַפְתָּלִ֣י אָמַ֔ר נַפְתָּלִי֙ שְׂבַ֣ע רָצ֔וֹן וּמָלֵ֖א בִּרְכַּ֣ת יְהֹוָ֑ה יָ֥ם וְדָר֖וֹם יְרָֽשָׁה:
favorably satisfied: Naftali’s land would fully satisfy all its inhabitants.   שבע רצון: שהיתה ארצו שבעה כל רצון יושביה:
Possess the sea and the south: The sea of Kinnereth fell within Naftali’s portion; moreover, he took a rope’s length of fishing-coast on its south[ern shore] for spreading out his nets and trawls. — [B.K. 81b]   ים ודרום ירשה: ים כנרת נפלה בחלקו ונטל מלא חבל חרם בדרומה לפרוש חרמים ומכמורות:
Possess: Heb. יְרָשָׁה. This word is in the imperative form and is equivalent to [the simple command רֵשׁ] in“Go up and possess (רֵשׁ) ” (Deut. 1:21). The fact that the accent is placed on next to the last syllable in the word, namely on the reish, proves this point, like the words: יְרַשׁ (possess!), יְדַע (know!), לְקַח (take!) and שְׁמַע (listen!). Now, when one adds a hey at the end of this [simple command] form, the accent is on next to the last syllable of the word to become: לְקָחָה סְלָחָה יְדָעָה שְׁמָעָה Here also, יְרָשָׁה is an imperative form. Accordingly, in the Masoreth Gedolah , we find this in the alphabetically arranged imperative forms of verbs, which have their accents on next to the last syllable.   ירשה: לשון צווי, כמו (דברים א, כא) עלה רש, והטעם שלמעלה ברי"ש מוכיח, כמו ירש, ידע, לקח, שמע, כשמוסיף בו ה"א יהיה הטעם למעלה שמעה, ידעה, סלחה, לקחה אף כאן ירשה לשון צווי. ובמסורת הגדולה מצינו באלפא ביתא לשון צווי דטעמיהון מלעיל:
24And of Asher he said: "May Asher be blessed with sons. He will be pleasing to his brothers, and immerse his foot in oil.   כדוּלְאָשֵׁ֣ר אָמַ֔ר בָּר֥וּךְ מִבָּנִ֖ים אָשֵׁ֑ר יְהִ֤י רְצוּי֙ אֶחָ֔יו וְטֹבֵ֥ל בַּשֶּׁ֖מֶן רַגְלֽוֹ:
May Asher be blessed with sons: I saw in Sifrei the following (33:24): “Among all of the tribes, you will not find one that is blessed with sons as Asher was.” But I do not know in which regard.   ברוך מבנים אשר: ראיתי בספרי אין לך בכל השבטים שנתברך בבנים כאשר, ואיני יודע כיצד:
He will be pleasing to his brothers: Asher pleased his brothers with “Onpakinon oil” [oil of unripe olives, used for anointing one’s skin] and tasty foods (?), and they please him [by repaying him] with grain. Another explanation of “He will be pleasing to his brothers” : Because the women who came from Asher were beautiful [and were sought after for marriage]. This is the meaning of what is stated in Chronicles (I Chron. 7:31). [when it speaks of Malchiel, Asher’s grandson]“he was the father בִּרְזָיִת [literally, olive-child]” that is to say, his daughters were married to Kohanim Gedolim [and kings], who were anointed with olive oil (זַיִת) . - [Gen. Rabbah 71:10]   יהי רצוי אחיו: שהיה מתרצה לאחיו בשמן אנפיקינון ובקפלאות והם מרצין לו בתבואה. דבר אחר יהי רצוי אחיו שהיו בנותיו נאות והוא שנאמר (דברי הימים א' ז, לא) הוא אבי ברזית, שהיו בנותיו נשואות לכהנים גדולים הנמשחים בשמן זית:
and immerse his foot in oil: for his land flowed like a spring with oil. It once happened, that the people of Laodicea were in need of oil, and they appointed an agent [who was sent from place to place, until he found an olive farmer. The latter brought this agent to his home, and there, the olive farmer washed himself and then dipped his hands and feet, thereby fulfilling our verse here: “And dip his foot in oil.” Then, he supplied the agent from Laodicea with one million, one hundred and eighteen thousand maneh worth of olive oil!]. — [Tractate Men. 85b]   וטובל בשמן רגלו: שהיתה ארצו מושכת שמן כמעין. ומעשה שנצטרכו אנשי לודקיא לשמן מנו להם פולמוסטום אחד וכו', כדאיתא במנחות (פה ב):
25Your locks are iron and copper, and the days of your old age will be like the days of your youth.   כהבַּרְזֶ֥ל וּנְח֖שֶׁת מִנְעָלֶ֑ךָ וּכְיָמֶ֖יךָ דָּבְאֶֽךָ:
Your locks are iron and copper: Now he [Moses] addresses all Israel, whose strong men dwelled in the border cities and would “lock up” the Land [as it were, with their protection], so that the enemies would be unable to enter. It was as if the Land was closed up with locks and bolts made of iron and copper. Another explanation: Your locks are iron and copper-Your land is “locked in” by mountains, from which iron and copper are mined. [In this respect] Asher’s territory was [considered] the “lock of the Land of Israel.” — [Sifrei 33:25]   ברזל ונחשת מנעלך: עכשיו הוא מדבר נגד כל ישראל, שהיו גבוריהם יושבים בערי הספר ונועלים אותה שלא יוכלו האויבים ליכנס בה כאלו היא סגורה במנעולים ובריחים של ברזל ונחשת. דבר אחר ברזל ונחשת מנעלך ארצכם נעולה בהרים שחוצבין מהם ברזל ונחשת, וארצו של אשר היתה מנעולה של ארץ ישראל:
and the days of your old age will be like the days of your youth: Heb. וּכְיָמֶי‏ךָ דָּבְאֶךָ. Like the days that are your best, namely, your first days, the days of your youth-so will be the days of your old age, days which [ordinarily] flow away (דּוֹאֲבִים), are painful, and decline. Another explanation of וּכְיָמֶי‏ךָ דָּבְאֶךָ is: וּכְיָמֶי‏ךָ - the days which can be enumerated as your good days, namely, all those days on which you fulfilled the will of the Omnipresent - דָּבְאֶךָ, so will be “your flowing,” i.e., all the countries [in the world] will make silver and gold flow into the Land of Israel. For Israel will be blessed with fruits, so that all the countries will be supplied by it, consequently pouring their silver and gold into it, ascorant in Old French. Moreover, the world’s silver and gold will be depleted, because they will pour it into your Land. — [Sifrei 33:25]   וכימיך דבאך: וכימים שהם טובים לך, שהן ימי תחלתך ימי נעוריך כן יהיו ימי זקנתך, שהם דואבים זבים ומתמוטטים. דבר אחר וכימיך דבאך וכימיך שהם טובים לך כמנין ימיך, כל הימים אשר אתם עושים רצונו של מקום, יהיו דבאך שכל הארצות יהיו דובאות כסף וזהב לארץ ישראל, שתהא מבורכת בפירות. וכל הארצות מתפרנסות הימנה וממשיכות לה כספם וזהבם אישקורונ"ט [ישפעו]. הכסף והזהב כלה מהם, שהן מזיבות אותם לארצכם:
26Jeshurun, there is none like God; He Who rides the heavens is at your assistance, and with His majesty, [He rides] the skies,   כואֵ֥ין כָּאֵ֖ל יְשֻׁר֑וּן רֹכֵ֤ב שָׁמַ֨יִם֙ בְּעֶזְרֶ֔ךָ וּבְגַֽאֲוָת֖וֹ שְׁחָקִֽים:
Jeshurun: There is none like God - Jeshurun, you should know that there is none like God among all the gods of the peoples, and that their rock is not like your Rock.   אין כאל ישרון: דע לך ישורון שאין כאל בכל אלהי העמים ולא כצורך צורם:
He Who rides the heavens: is the same God Who is at your assistance, and with His majesty, He rides the skies.   רכב שמים: הוא אותו אלוה שבעזרך ובגאותו הוא רוכב שחקים:
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