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Tuesday, 20 Tishrei 5778 / October 10, 2017

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Vezot Hab'rachah 

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Deuteronomy Chapter 33

13And of Joseph he said: "His land shall be blessed by the Lord, with the sweetness of the heavens with dew, and with the deep that lies below,   יגוּלְיוֹסֵ֣ף אָמַ֔ר מְבֹרֶ֥כֶת יְהֹוָ֖ה אַרְצ֑וֹ מִמֶּ֤גֶד שָׁמַ֨יִם֙ מִטָּ֔ל וּמִתְּה֖וֹם רֹבֶ֥צֶת תָּֽחַת:
His land shall be blessed by the Lord: For throughout the inheritance of all the tribes, there was no land more full of goodness than Joseph’s land. — [Sifrei 33:13]   מברכת ה' ארצו: שלא היתה בנחלת השבטים ארץ מלאה כל טוב כארצו של יוסף:
and with the sweetness: Heb. מִמֶּגֶד [This word denotes] delicacies and sweetness.   ממגד: לשון עדנים ומתק:
the deep: The [waters which lie in] the depth [of the earth] ascend, and moisten the land from below. You find that in the case of each tribe, Moses’ blessing resembles Jacob’s blessing [to the same tribe. For instance, Jacob blessed Joseph also with the וּמִתְּהוֹם רֹבֶצֶת תָּחַת] (Gen. 49:25).   ומתהום: שהתהום עולה ומלחלח אותה מלמטה אתה מוצא בכל השבטים ברכתו של משה מעין ברכתו של יעקב:
14and with the sweetness of the produce of the sun, and with the sweetness of the moon's yield,   ידוּמִמֶּ֖גֶד תְּבוּאֹ֣ת שָׁ֑מֶשׁ וּמִמֶּ֖גֶד גֶּ֥רֶשׁ יְרָחִֽים:
and with the sweetness of the produce of the sun: for Joseph’s land was exposed to the sun, which sweetened its fruit. — [Sifrei 33:14]   וממגד תבואת שמש: שהיתה ארצו פתוחה לחמה וממתקת הפירות:
the moon’s yield: Heb. יְרָחִים גֶּרֶשׁ. Some fruits are ripened by the moon (יָרֵחַ). - [Sifrei 33:14] These are cucumbers and gourds. Another explanation: [This refers to fruits] which the earth expels (מְגָרֶשֶׁת) and brings out [from itself] month (יֶרַח) by month. — [Targum Onkelos]   גרש ירחים: יש פירות שהלבנה מבשלתן ואלו הן קשואין ודלועין. דבר אחר גרש ירחים. שהארץ מגרשת ומוציאה מחדש לחדש:
15and with the crops of early mountains, and with the sweetness of perennial hills,   טווּמֵרֹ֖אשׁ הַֽרְרֵי־קֶ֑דֶם וּמִמֶּ֖גֶד גִּבְע֥וֹת עוֹלָֽם:
and with the crops of early mountains: And blessed with the fruits that are first (רֹאשׁ) to ripen, for its mountains advance (קֶדֶם) the ripening of their fruits [thus,“the early mountains”]. Another explanation: [This verse] teaches [us] that their creation [that of the mountains in the territory of Joseph] preceded (קֶדֶם) that of all other mountains. — [Sifrei 33:15]   ומראש הררי קדם: ומבורכת מראשית בשול הפירות שהרריה מקדימין לבכר בשול פירותיהם. דבר אחר מגיד שקדמה בריאתן לשאר הרים:
the sweetness of perennial hills: גִּבְעוֹת עוֹלָם. Hills which produce fruit continuously (עוֹלָם) and do not cease [to produce fruit even] because of lack of rain.   גבעות עולם: גבעות העושות פירות לעולם ואינן פוסקות מעוצר הגשמים:
16and with the sweetness of the land and its fullness, and through the contentment of the One Who dwells in the thornbush. May it come upon Joseph's head and upon the crown of the one separated from his brothers.   טזוּמִמֶּ֗גֶד אֶ֚רֶץ וּמְלֹאָ֔הּ וּרְצ֥וֹן שֹֽׁכְנִ֖י סְנֶ֑ה תָּב֨וֹאתָה֙ לְרֹ֣אשׁ יוֹסֵ֔ף וּלְקָדְקֹ֖ד נְזִ֥יר אֶחָֽיו:
and through the contentment of the One Who dwells in the thornbush: Heb. שֹׁכְנִי סְנֶה, equivalent to שׁוֹכֵן סְנֶה, the One Who dwells in the bush. [Thus, the verse means:]"And may his land be blessed through the favorable acceptance and contentment of the Holy One, blessed is He, Who first revealed Himself to me in a thornbush (סְנֶה).   ורצון שכני סנה: כמו שוכן סנה ותהא ארצו מבורכת מרצונו ונחת רוחו של הקב"ה הנגלה עלי תחלה בסנה:
through the contentment: Heb. וּרְצוֹן. Contentment and appeasement. Similarly, every instance of [the word] רָצוֹן in Scripture.   רצון: נחת רוח ופיוס וכן כל רצון שבמקרא:
may it come: i.e., this blessing will come upon Joseph’s head.   תבואתה: ברכה זו לראש יוסף:
the one separated from his brothers: [Joseph] who was separated from his brothers through his being sold.   נזיר אחיו: שהופרש מאחיו במכירתו:
17To his firstborn ox is [given] glory. His horns are the horns of a re'em. With them, he will gore peoples together [throughout all] the ends of the earth these are the myriads of Ephraim, and these are the thousands of Manasseh."   יזבְּכ֨וֹר שׁוֹר֜וֹ הָדָ֣ר ל֗וֹ וְקַרְנֵ֤י רְאֵם֙ קַרְנָ֔יו בָּהֶ֗ם עַמִּ֛ים יְנַגַּ֥ח יַחְדָּ֖ו אַפְסֵי־אָ֑רֶץ וְהֵם֙ רִבְב֣וֹת אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְהֵ֖ם אַלְפֵ֥י מְנַשֶּֽׁה:
to his firstborn ox: Heb. בְּכוֹר שׁוֹרוֹ [In addition to the simple meaning of“firstborn,”] there are some instances in which the word בְּכוֹר has the meaning of “greatness” and “majesty,” as it is said,“I will also make him a great man (בְּכוֹר) [the highest of the kings on earth]” (Ps. 89:28); and similarly,“Israel is My son, my firstborn (בְּכוֹרִי)” [denoting high status] (Exod. 4:22). [Thus:] בְּכוֹר here: The king who will descend from Joseph, namely, Joshua.   בכור שורו: יש בכור שהוא לשון גדולה ומלכות, שנאמר (תהלים פט, כח) אף אני בכור אתנהו, וכן (שמות ד, כה) בני בכורי ישראל. בכור: מלך היוצא ממנו והוא יהושע:
his ox: whose strength is as mighty as that of an ox, to conquer many kings.   שורו: שכחו קשה כשור לכבוש כמה מלכים:
is [given] glory: [Literally, “glory is his,”] was given to him [when Moses transferred some of his attribute of majesty to Joshua when he became leader], as it is said, [God said to Moses:] “And you shall give some of your majesty to him” [Joshua] (Num. 27:20).   הדר לו: נתון לו שנאמר (במדבר כז, כ) ונתתה מהודך עליו:
and his horns are the horns of a re’em: The ox is powerful, but its horns are not beautiful; [on the other hand,] a re’em has beautiful horns, but it is not powerful. [Moses thus] blessed Joshua with the power of an ox and the beauty of a re’em 's horns. — [Sifrei 33:17]   וקרני ראם קרניו: שור כחו קשה ואין קרניו נאות, אבל ראם קרניו נאות, ואין כחו קשה, נתן ליהושע כחו של שור ויופי קרני ראם:
the ends of the earth: [This refers to] the thirty-one kings [whom Joshua conquered in the Land of Israel]. Is it possible that these kings were all from the Land of Israel? [The answer is, that] there was not one king or ruler who did not acquire for himself a palace and a holding in the Land of Israel [even though he belonged to another country]. [And why so?] Because the Land of Israel was considered distinguished to all of them, as it is said [of the Land of Israel], “The finest inheritance of the hosts of nations” (Jer. 3:19). - [Sifrei 33:17] [For this reason, the thirty-one kings are referred to as “the ends of the earth.”   אפסי ארץ: שלושים ואחד מלכים אפשר שכולם מארץ ישראל היו אלא אין לך כל מלך ושלטון שלא קנה לו פלטרין ואחוזה בארץ ישראל, שחשובה לכולם היא, שנאמר (ירמיה ג, יט) נחלת צבי צבאות גוים:
these are the myriads of Ephraim: The ones who are to be gored are the myriads who were killed by Joshua who was descended from Ephraim [Joseph’s son].   והם רבבות אפרים: אותם המנוגחים הם הרבבות שהרג יהושע, שבא מאפרים:
and these are the thousands of Manasseh: They are the thousands killed in Midian by Gideon, [who was descended from Manasseh, Joseph’s other son], as it is said, “Now Zebah and Zalmunna were in Karkor…” (Jud. 8:10) [and the verse continues to enumerate many thousands of hosts which were there].   והם אלפי מנשה: הם האלפים שהרג גדעון במדין, שנאמר (שופטים ח, י) וזבח וצלמונע בקרקר וגו':
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