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Friday, 27 Kislev 5775 / December 19, 2014
Today

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Part 2

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84. To sacrifice all the offerings in [God's] chosen house, [i.e., the Temple,], as [Deuteronomy 12:14] states: "There, you will perform all that I com­mand you."

85. To tend to all the offerings from the Diaspora and bring them to Eretz [Yisrael], to [God's] chosen house, [i.e., the Temple,] as [Deuteronomy 12:26] states: "Take the sacred offerings which you possess, and your pledges, and come [to the place that God will choose]." Based on the oral tradition, we have learned that this applies to sacred offerings from the Diaspora.

86. To redeem sacred offerings that have becoming blemished, and thus have them to be permitted [for mundane use], as [Deuteronomy 12:15] states: "But whenever you desire, you may slaughter...." Based on the oral tradition, we have learned that this refers only to sacred offerings which have become disqualified and have been redeemed.

87. That an animal substituted for a sacred offering be regarded as sacred, as [Leviticus 27:33] states: "Both [the original animal] and the one substituted for it shall be consecrated."

88. To eat the remains of the meal offerings, as [Leviticus 6:9] states: "Aaron and his sons will eat the remainder of it."

89. To eat the flesh of the sin and guilt offerings,1 as [Exodus 29:33] states: "And they shall eat [the sacrifices] with which atonement was made for them."

90. To burn sacred meat which became impure, as [Leviticus 7:19] states: "And the flesh which touches anything impure... [shall be burnt]."

91. To burn the leftovers [from the sacrifices], as [Leviticus 7:17] states: "The leftovers from the flesh of the sacrifice shall be burnt with fire on the third day."

92. For a Nazirite to grow his hair long, as [Num­bers 6:5] states: "He shall let the hair of his head grow without cutting it."

93. For a Nazarite to shave his hair when bringing his sacrifices at the conclusion of his term as a Nazirite, or during his Nazirite term if he becomes impure, as [Numbers 6:9] states: "Should a person die in his presence,... [he must shave....]"

94. For a person to fulfill any [promise] which he utters, be it a sacrifice, [a gift to] charity, or the like, as [Deuteronomy 23:24] states: "What you have spoken, take heed to fulfill...."a

95. To carry out the laws regarding the nullifica­tion of vows, as mentioned in the Torah.

96. For everyone who comes in contact with the corpse of an animal to become impure, as [Leviticus 11:39] states: "Should an animal die...."

97. For the [dead bodies of] the eight species of crawling animals [mentioned in the Torah] to impart ritual impurity, as [Leviticus 11:19] states: "These shall be impure for you...."

98. For [certain] foods to impart impurity, as [Leviticus 11:34] states: "From all the food which you will eat...."

99. For [a woman in the] niddah state to be impure and to impart impurity to others.

100. For [a woman] who gives birth to be impure [like a woman] in the niddah state.

101. For a person afflicted with tzara’at to be impure and to impart impurity.

102. For a garment afflicted with tzara’at to be impure and to impart impurity.

103. For a house afflicted with tzara’at to impart impurity.

104. For a zav to impart impurity.

105. For semen to impart impurity.

106. For a zavah to impart impurity.

107. For a corpse to impart impurity.

108. For the sprinkling water [used for the purifi­cation process involving the red heifer] to impart impurity to a person who is ritually pure, and to impart ritual purity to a person who is ritually impure solely because of contact with a human corpse.b All the laws dealing with these different types of impurity and the majority of the judgments regarding all types of ritual purity and impurity are explained explicitly in the Written Law.2

109. For the process of purification from all types of ritual impurity to involve immersion in the waters of a mikveh, as [Leviticus 15:16] states: "And he shall wash all his flesh in water." Based on the oral tradition, we have learned that this washing [involves immersion in a body of] water in which one's entire body can immerse at one time.

110. For the process of purification from tzara’at, be it a person afflicted with tzara’at or a house afflicted with tzara’at, [to involve] a staff of cedar, a hyssop, the crimson wool, two birds, and spring water, as [Leviticus 14:2] states: "This shall be the purification process for the person afflicted with tzara’at...."

111. For a person afflicted with tzara’at to shave all of his hair, as [Leviticus 14:9] states: "And it shall be on the seventh day, he shall shave all his hair."

112. For a person afflicted with tzara’at to make known his condition to all others, according to the instructions mentioned in [Leviticus 13:45]: "His garments shall be torn, his hair shall grow uncut, he shall cover his face to the lip, and he shall cry out: `Impure! Impure!"' Similarly, all others who are ritually impure must make known their condition.

113. To prepare the red heifer so that its ashes will be ready, as [Numbers 19:9] states: "And it will be a keepsake for the congregation of Israel."

114. For a person who makes an endowment valuation to give the specific amount of money stated in the [Torah] portion, as [Leviticus 27:2] states: "When a person expresses a vow...."

115. For a person who makes an endowment valuation concerning a non-kosher animal to give [the required amount of] money, as [Leviticus 27:11] states: "And he shall cause the animal to stand...."

116. For a person who makes an endowment valuation concerning his home to give the value determined by the priest, as [Leviticus 27:14] states: "And the priest shall determine its value."

117. For a person who consecrates his field to give the fixed amount determined by the [Torah], as [Leviticus 27:16] states: "And the value you attach to it shall be according to the amount of seed."

118. For a person who unintentionally makes use of a sacred object to make restitution for what he misused [when] sinning against God, and for him to add one fifth of its value, as [Leviticus 5:17] states: "For that which he sinned, [using something] sacred, he shall pay...."

119. For the produce of the fourth year to be sacred, as [Leviticus 19:24] states: "Its produce shall be sacred, [an object of] praise to God...."

120. To leave pe'ah.

121. To leave leket.

122. To leave a forgotten sheaf.

123. To leave the incompletely formed grape clus­ters.

124. To leave the individual fallen grapes. With regard to all these [five mitzvot], [Leviticus 19:10] states: "Leave them for the poor and the stranger." This [verse states] the positive commandment for all these.3

125. To bring the first fruits to God's chosen house, [the Temple,], as [Exodus 23:19] states: "The first fruits of your land...."

126. To separate the greater terumah [and give it] to the priest, as [Deuteronomy 18:4] states: "Give him the first of your grain."

127. To separate a tithe of grain [and give it] to the Levites, as [Leviticus 27:30] states: "All the land's tithes...."

128. To separate the second tithe so that it can be eaten by its owners in Jerusalem, as [Deuteronomy 14:22] states: "You shall surely tithe...." According to the oral tradition, we learn that this refers to the second tithe.

129. For the Levites to separate a tenth from the tenth which they took from the Israelites and give it to the priests, as [Numbers 18:27] states: "Speak to the Levites:...."

130. To separate the tithe for the poor instead of the second tithe in the third and sixth years of the seven-year [agricultural cycle], as [Deuteronomy 14:28] states: "At the end of three years, remove a tithe of all your crops...."

131. To give thanks, [reciting] the declaration concerning the tithes, as [Deuteronomy 26:13] states: "And you shall declare before God, your Lord, `I have removed the sacred [foods]...."'

132. To read the statement [acknowledging thanks] for the first fruits, as [Deuteronomy 26:5] states: "And you shall respond and say before God, your Lord:...."

133. To separate challah [and give it] to the priest, as [Numbers 15:20] states: "The first of your dough, the challah, you shall separate as an offering...."

134. To let the land lie fallow [in the seventh year], as [Exodus 23:11] states: "In the seventh year, you shall let it lie fallow and withdraw from it."

135. To refrain from agricultural work [in the seventh year], as [Exodus 34:21] states: "From plowing and harvesting, you shall rest."

136. To sanctify the Jubilee year by refraining [from agricultural work], as is done in the shemitah, as [Leviticus 25:10] states: "And you shall sanctify the fiftieth year...."

137. To sound the shofar in the Jubilee year, as [Leviticus 25:9] states: "And you shall sound the shofar blasts."

138. To free all land in the Jubilee year, as [Leviticus 25:24] states: "For all your ancestral lands, there will be redemption for the land."

139. To allow houses in a walled city to be redeemed within a year, as [Leviticus 25:29] states: "If a person shall sell a residential house in a walled city...."

140. To count the years of the Jubilee year and the shemitah years within it, as [Leviticus 25:8] states: "And you shall count seven shemitah years."

141. To remit all financial [obligations] in the seventh year, as [Deuteronomy 15:2] states: "Ev­ery creditor must remit...."

142. To seek to collect [a debt] from a gentile [in the seventh year], as [Deuteronomy 15:3] states: "Seek to collect [a debt] from a gentile. However, what your brother owes you must remit...."

143. To give a priest the shankbone, the jaw, and the maw from an animal [which is slaughtered], as [Deuteronomy 18:3] states: "And you shall give the priest the shankbone...."

144. To give the first portion of the fleece to a priest, as [Deuteronomy 18:4] states: "Give him the first portion of the shearing of your sheep."

145. To render judgment with regard to property which is dedicated, whether dedicated to God or dedicated to the priests, as [Leviticus 27:28] states: "However, any dedication that will be made...."

146. To slaughter an animal, beast, or fowl and afterwards to eat their meat, as [Deuteronomy 12:21] states: "And you shall slaughter your cattle and your sheep."b

147. To cover the blood of beasts and fowl [which are slaughtered], as [Leviticus 17:13] states: "And you shall pour out its blood and cover it with dust."

148. To send away the mother bird from the nest [when taking the young], as [Deuteronomy 22:7] states: "You shall surely send away the mother."

149. To check the signs [with which] animals [are identified], as kosher, as [Leviticus 11:2] states: "These are the animals which you may eat...."

150. To check the signs of fowl in order to differentiate between one which is kosher and one which is not kosher, as [Deuteronomy 14:11] states: "All birds which...."

151. To check the signs of grasshoppers in order to know which is kosher and which is not kosher, as [Leviticus 11:21] states: "Those which possess walking legs...."

152. To check the signs [with which] fish [are identified as kosher], as [Leviticus 11:9] states: "These are the animals which you may eat from all that is found in water...."

153. To sanctify the months and to calculate the years and months. [This mitzvah is incumbent on] the court alone, as [Exodus 12:2] states: "This month will be for you the first of the months."

154. To rest on the Sabbath, as [Exodus 23:12] states: "Rest on the seventh day...."

155. To sanctify the Sabbath, as [Exodus 20:8] states: "Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy."

156. To destroy chametz [before Pesach], as [Exodus 12:15] states: "On the day before [the holiday], obliterate chametz from your homes."

157. To relate the narrative of the exodus of Egypt on the first night of the Feast of Matzot, as [Exodus 13:8] states: "And you shall tell your son on that day,...."

158. To eat matzah on this night, as [Exodus 12:18] states: "In the evening, you shall eat matzot."

159. To rest on the first day of Pesach, as [Exodus 12:16] states: "And on the first day, it shall be a sacred holiday."

160. To rest on the seventh day [of the festival], as [Exodus 12:16] states: "On the seventh day, there will be a sacred holiday."

161. To count 49 days from the harvesting of the omer, as [Leviticus 23:15] states: "And you shall count from the day following the day of rest...."

162. To rest on the fiftieth day [after Pesach], as [Leviticus 23:21] states: "And you shall proclaim a sacred holiday on that selfsame day."

163. To rest on the first day of the seventh month, as [Leviticus 23:24] states: "On the first day of [this] month, you shall have a day of rest."

164. To fast on the tenth [of this month, Yom Kippur,] as [Leviticus 15:29] states: "On the tenth of the month, you shall afflict your souls."

165. To rest on [this] fast day, as [Leviticus 16:31] states: "It shall be a Sabbath of Sabbaths...."

166. To rest on the first day of the festival of Sukkot, as [Leviticus 23:35] states: "On the first day, there shall be a sacred holiday."

FOOTNOTES
1.

. In Sefer HaMitzvot, the Rambam includes eating other sacrifices and sacred foods in the scope of this mitzvah.

2.

. It is somewhat curious that although the Rambam makes this statement, he does not cite prooftexts for these mitzvot.

3.

. In Sefer HaMitzvot, the Rambam notes that the command to leave a forgotten sheaf in the field is derived, not from this verse, but from Deuteronomy 24:19, which states: "When you reap your harvest... and forget a sheaf in the field..., it shall be for the stranger..."

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