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Friday, 12 Av 5773 / July 19, 2013

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Maaseh Hakorbanot - Chapter 19, Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 1, Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 2

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Maaseh Hakorbanot - Chapter 19

1

A person who offers a sacrifice outside [the Temple Courtyard] is not liable unless he brings [the sacrificial animal] to the top of the altar that he constructed outside [the Temple]. If, however, he offered it on a stone or a rock, he is exempt, for the term sacrifice applies only when [an animal is offered] on an altar, even if it is outside [the Temple], as [indicated by Genesis 8:2]: "And Noah built an altar." He is not liable unless he offers the sacrifice to God, as [Leviticus 17:9]: "...to offer it to God," i.e., unless his intent is for God.1

א

אין המעלה בחוץ חייב עד שיעלה לראש המזבח שיעשה בחוץ אבל אם העלה על הסלע או על האבן פטור שאין קרוי קרבן אלא על המזבח ואף על פי שהוא בחוץ שנאמר ויבן נח מזבח ואינו חייב עד שיעלה לשם שנאמר לעשות אותו לה' עד שיתכוין לשם:

2

One is liable only for offering an entity that is fit for the fire2 and for the altar,3 for example, a burnt offering, as [ibid.:8] states: "who will offer a burnt-offering or a sacrifice." [One may infer:] Just as a burnt-offering is fit to be offered on the fires, so too, everything that is fit to be offered on the fire is what one is liable for offering outside [the Temple Courtyard].

ב

אינו חייב אלא על העלאת דבר הראוי לאשים ולמזבח כגון העולה שנאמר אשר יעלה עולה או זבח מה עולה שראויה לאשים אף כל שראוי לאשים הוא שחייבין על העלאתו בחוץ:

3

On this basis, [our Sages] said that individuals [who perform the following services] outside [the Temple Courtyard] are liable: One who throws the blood, offers on the pyre the limbs of a burnt-offering, the parts of an animal offered on the altar,4a handful [of meal], or frankincense,5 or incense,6 the meal-offering of a priest,7or the meal-offering within the accompanying offerings8 or one who pours a libation of three lugim9 of wine or of water.10 [This is derived from ibid.:9:] "He did not bring it [to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting] to offer it." [Implied is that] any [sacrifice] that would be accepted within [the Temple Courtyard] causes one to be liable for [offering] it outside.

ג

מכאן אמרו הזורק את הדם או המקטיר איברי עולה או אמורין או קומץ או לבונה או קטורת או מנחת כהנים או מנחת נסכים או המנסך שלשה לוגין יין או מים בחוץ חייב שנאמר לא יביאנו לעשות אותו כל המתקבל בפנים חייבין עליו בחוץ:

4

If, however, one throws the remainder of the blood [of a sacrificial animal] - even the remainder of the blood [from a sin-offering whose blood was offered] inside [the Sanctuary],11 he is exempt. [The rationale is that] throwing the blood on the altar is the remaining aspect of the mitzvah and is not an absolute necessity.12

Similarly, one who pours a libation of less than three lugim of wine or water outside [the Temple Courtyard] is exempt, whether during Sukkot13 or throughout the year. Since the required measure is lacking,14 they are not fit to be accepted within [the Temple]. Similarly, one who offers from the meat of a sin-offering, that of a guilt-offering, or that of a peace-offering whether of an individual or of the community or from the remainder of the meal-offerings, the two breads [offered on Shavuot], or the showbread outside [the Temple Courtyard] is exempt. [The rationale is that] all of these are fit to be eaten, not for the fires [of the altar].

ד

אבל הזורק שירי הדם בחוץ אפילו שירי דמים הפנימים פטור שזריקת שירי הדם שירי מצוה הם ואינן מעכבין וכן המנסך יין או מים פחות משלשה לוגין בחוץ פטור בין בחג בין בשאר ימות השנה הואיל וחסר השיעור הרי אינן ראויין להתקבל בפנים וכן המעלה מבשר חטאת מבשר אשם מבשר שלמים בין של יחיד בין של צבור משירי מנחות משתי הלחם מלחם הפנים בחוץ פטור שכל אלו ראויין לאכילה לא לאשים:

5

One who offers an entire animal outside [the Temple Courtyard] is liable, because of the portions offered on the altar. Even though they have not been separated, the meat of the sacrifice is not considered as an intervening substance15 and it is as if he offered those portions on the pyre alone. In contrast, if one offers a meal-offering from which a handful [of meal] has not been separated, he is exempt. [Even though he would have been liable for the handful], the handful is not a distinct and discrete entity. If he separated [the handful] and then it was mixed back into it and he then offered the entire [measure] outside the Temple Courtyard, he is liable.

ה

המעלה את הבהמה כולה בחוץ חייב מפני האימורין ואע"פ שלא הפרישן אין בשר הזבח חוצץ וכאילו הקטיר האימורים בפני עצמן אבל המעלה מנחה שלא נקמצה פטור שאין הקומץ ברור ומובדל קמצה וחזר קומצה לתוכה והקריב כולה בחוץ חייב:

6

One who pours oil [over a meal-offering], mixes the meal and oil, breaks up the wafers, salts them, waives them, approaches an altar with them, arranges a table for showbread, cleans the lamps of a candelabra, separates a handful [of meal], or receives the blood [of a sacrificial animal] outside [the Temple Courtyard] is exempt. [The rationale is that] all of these are not activities that complete the offering [of the sacrifice] and [the prooftext] says: "Who will offer a burnt-offering or a sacrifice." [One may infer:] Just as offering [these sacrifices] is the final stage of the service [involved with them], so too, one is liable only for activities that are the final stage of sacrificial service.

ו

היוצק והבולל והפותת והמולח והמניף והמגיש והמסדר את השלחן והמטיב את הנרות והקומץ והמקבל דמים בחוץ פטור לפי שכל אחד מאלו אינו גמר עבודה ונאמר אשר יעלה עולה או זבח מה העלאה שהיא גמר עבודה אף כל שהוא גמר עבודה חייבין עליו:

7

When one burns a red heifer outside the place where it is required to be burnt16 or if one offers, outside [the Temple Courtyard], the goat that is sent [to Azazel]17 after the confession was recited over it,18 he is exempt. [The rationale is that the prooftext] says: "He did not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting." [One may infer:] One is not liable for any sacrifice which is not fit to be brought to the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.19

In contrast, one is liable for offering [outside the Temple Courtyard] sacrificial animals that were disqualified if they were disqualified in the Temple. What is implied? [Sacrificial meat or blood] that remained overnight [without being offered], they were taken out [of the Temple Courtyard], they became impure, or they were disqualified because of the intent of the person sacrificing them all are required to be burnt20 as will be explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukkdashim.21 If a person transgressed and offered [such entities] as sacrifices outside [the Temple Courtyard], he is liable. [This is derived from the prooftext]: "...to offer it to God." One is liable for any [entity] that is are fit to be offered to God and these are fit to be offered to God.22

ז

פרה אדומה ששרפה חוץ ממקום שריפתה וכן שעיר המשתלח שהקריבו בחוץ אחר שהתודה עליו פטור שנאמר ואל פתח אהל מועד לא יביאנו כל שאינו ראוי לבא אל פתח אהל מועד אין חייבין עליו אבל קדשים פסולין שהיה פיסולן בקודש אם העלה מהן בחוץ חייב כיצד כגון הלן והיוצא והטמא ושנפסל במחשבת העובד שכולן נשרפין כמו שיתבאר בהלכות פסולי המוקדשין אם עבר והעלה מהם בחוץ חייב שנאמר לעשות אותו לה' כל הנעשה לה' חייבין עליו ואלו נעשו לשם:

8

Whenever there is a substance for which one is liable for offering it outside [the Temple Courtyard], he is liable for offering an olive-sized portion of it outside.23[This applies] whether he offered [a portion of the entity] inside [the Temple Courtyard] first, left over an olive-sized portion and then offered it outside or left the entire entity inside and took an olive-sized portion and offered it outside. If, however, [the size of] the sacrificial entity was decreased in the slightest way24 inside the Temple Courtyard and then the remainder was offered outside, he is exempt.

ח

כל דבר שחייבין על העלאתו בחוץ כיון שהעלה ממנו כזית בחוץ חייב בין שהעלה בפנים תחלה ושייר ממנו כזית והעלהו בחוץ בין שהניח הכל בפנים ולקח ממנו כזית והעלהו בחוץ אבל אם חסר אותו דבר הקרב כל שהוא בפנים והעלה שאריתו בחוץ פטור:

9

What is implied? If a portion of the handful [of meal offered on the altar], the frankincense, the portions of a sacrifice offered on the altar, a burnt-offering, a meal offering that is burnt,25 and the wine libations was decreased within [the Temple Courtyard] and the remainder was offered outside [the Temple Courtyard], he is exempt. [This is derived from the prooftext which states:] "to offer it." [Implied is that] he is liable for a complete entity, but he is not liable if it is lacking.26 If one remove [the sacrificial entity] from the Temple Courtyard while it was complete, its [size] was decreased outside [the Temple Courtyard] and then he offered it [there], there is an unresolved question [whether he is liable]. Therefore [a transgressor] is not given lashes.

ט

כיצד הקומץ או הלבונה והאימורין והעולה ומנחה הנשרפת והנסכין שחסרו מקצתם בפנים והקריב שאריתן בחוץ פטור שהרי נאמר לעשות אותו על השלם הוא חייב ואינו חייב על החסר הוציאו שלם וחסר בחוץ והעלהו הרי זה ספק לפיכך אינו לוקה:

10

If, [outside the Temple Courtyard,] one offered a limb that did not have an olive-sized portion of meat on it, but the bone itself caused it to reach the olive-sized measure, he is liable, because the meat is connected to the bone. If salt caused [the sacrificial entity] to reach the olive-sized measure, there is an unresolved question [whether he is liable].27 Therefore [a transgressor] is not given lashes. A burnt-offering and the portions of the innards of a burnt-offering28 that are offered on the altar can be combined to complete an olive-sized portion [to cause one to be liable].29

י

העלה אבר שאין בו כזית בשר והיה העצם משלימו לכזית חייב מפני שהוא מחובר היה מלח משלימו לכזית הרי זה ספק לפיכך אינו לוקה ועולה ואימוריה מצטרפין לכזית:

11

If one offered [a portion of a sacrifice outside the Temple Courtyard] and then offered another portion of it, he is liable for every individual limb.30 If he sprinkled its blood [outside the Temple Courtyard] and then offered its limbs, he is liable twice. For the Torah made a distinction between [offering blood and offering limbs as indicated by the two prooftexts] "Who will offer a burnt-offering" and "to offer it."31

If one offered a limb that was lacking [in substance], he is exempt,32 as [one can infer from the prooftext] "to offer it." [This indicates] that one is liable [only] for a complete [limb].

יא

העלה וחזר והעלה חייב על כל אבר ואבר זרק הדם והעלה האיברים חייב שתים שהרי חלק הכתוב בין מעלה לעושה שהרי נאמר אשר יעלה עולה ונאמר לעשות אותו העלה אבר חסר פטור שנאמר לעשות אותו על השלם הוא חייב:

12

When two people slaughter [a sacrificial animal outside the Temple Courtyard], they are exempt.33 If two people hold a limb [from a sacrificial animal] and offer it outside the Temple Courtyard], they are liable. [The rationale is that the prooftext states] "Every man34 who will offer a burnt-offering." Implied is that even two people who offer [a sacrifice] are liable.

יב

שנים ששחטו פטורים שנים שאחזו באבר והעלוהו בחוץ חייבין שנאמר איש איש אשר יעלה עולה אפילו איש ואיש שהעלו חייבין:

13

If a person makes several of the required sprinklings [of blood] outside [their appropriate place], he is liable.35 A person who receives the blood of a sin-offering36 in one cup and applies it to an altar outside [the Temple Courtyard] and then applies it to the altar inside [the Temple Courtyard],37 he is liable for the portion applied outside [the Temple Courtyard]. [The rationale is that] the entire amount was fit to be offered inside.38

If he applied it to [the altar] inside and then applied it outside, he is exempt, for [the blood he used] was merely remnants.39 If, however, he received the blood in two cups, he is liable whether he applied both of them outside [the Temple Courtyard], [the first] outside and the other inside, or [the first] inside and the other outside.40

יג

הזורק מקצת מתנות בחוץ חייב המקבל דם חטאת בכוס אחד נתן ממנו בחוץ וחזר ונתן בפנים חייב על הניתן בחוץ שהרי כולו ראוי ליקרב בפנים ואם נתן ממנו בפנים וחזר ונתן בחוץ פטור מפני שהן שירים אבל אם קבל בשני כוסות בין שנתן שניהן בחוץ או אחד בחוץ ואחד בפנים או אחד בפנים ואחד בחוץ הרי זה חייב:

14

When one offered a handful [of meal] or the frankincense from the meal offering41 outside [the Temple Courtyard] or offered one inside and the other outside, he is liable. Similarly, with regard to the two bowls of frankincense from the showbread,42 if one offered [the first] outside the [Temple Courtyard]43 or [the first] inside and the second outside, he is liable.

יד

הקומץ והלבונה של מנחה שהקריב אחד מהן בחוץ או הקריב האחד בפנים והשני בחוץ חייב וכן שני בזיכי לבונה של לחם הפנים שהקריב אחד מהן בחוץ או אחד בפנים והשני בחוץ חייב:

15

If a person slaughtered consecrated animals in the present era and offered them outside the Temple Courtyard, he is liable, because [the sacrifices] are fit to be offered inside. For it is permitted to offer sacrifices even though the Temple is not built, because [when the Temple was] consecrated originally, it was consecrated for the immediate time and for all future time.44

טו

מי ששחט קדשים בזמן הזה והעלם חוץ לעזרה חייב מפני שהוא ראוי ליקרב בפנים שהרי מותר להקריב אע"פ שאין בית מפני שקדושה ראשונה קדשה לשעתה וקדשה לעתיד לבא:

16

[A Jew] who slaughters sacrificial animals belonging to a gentile outside [the Temple Courtyard] is liable.45 Similarly, one who offers them outside [the Temple Courtyard is liable].

Gentiles are permitted to offer burnt offerings to God in all places,46 provided they sacrifice them on a raised structure that they build.47 It is forbidden to help them [offer these sacrifices] or act as agents for them, for we are forbidden to sacrifice outside [the Temple Courtyard]. It is permitted to instruct them and teach them how to sacrifice to the Almighty, blessed be He.

טז

השוחט קדשי נכרים בחוץ חייב וכן המעלה אותן בחוץ והנכרים מותרין להקריב עולות לשם בכל מקום והוא שיקריבו בבמה שיבנו ואסור לסייען ולעשות שליחותן שהרי נאסר עלינו להקריב בחוץ ומותר להורות להם וללמדם היאך יקריבו לשם האל ברוך הוא:

Blessed be the Merciful One who offers assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות מעשה הקרבנות בס"ד:

Footnotes
1.

I.e., if he offers it for the sake of a person without designating him as a deity, but merely as a token of appreciation, he is not liable.

2.

In contrast to an entity which is eaten, as stated in Halachah 4.

3.

Excluding sacrifices that are not offered on the altar, as mentioned in Halachah 7.

4.

This applies with regard to all sacrifices, even sacrifices of a lesser order of sanctity. Since these parts are offered on the altar in the Temple, one is liable for offering them outside the Temple (Radbaz).

5.

Both the handful of meal taken from the meal-offering and the frankincense from that offering are offered on the altar in their entirety (Chapter 13, Halachah 12).

6.

This is offered on the inner altar twice daily (Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 2:11).

7.

Which is offered on the altar in its entirety (Chapter 12, Halachah 9).

8.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 1.

9.

For a wine libation is never less than three lugim. See the following halachah.

10.

The Radbaz and Kessef Mishneh maintain that one is liable for pouring water on an altar only during the holiday of Sukkos, for only then is water offered on the altar in the Temple. The Radbaz does clarify that this is not necessarily apparent from the Rambam's wording. Indeed, on the contrary, from the following halachah, one could infer the opposite.

11.

This refers to the sin-offerings that were burnt. See Chapter 5, Halachah 11.

12.

I.e., the fundamental aspect of pouring the blood is the sprinkling of the blood on the altar - or in the Temple Building - each sacrifice according to its laws. Pouring out the remainder of the blood on the base of the altar is not of fundamental importance and the sacrifices are acceptable even if it is not performed. Hence, it is not considered as an act of significance for which one is liable.

13.

When the water libation is offered. See the notes to the previous halachah.

14.

For three lugim is the smallest wine libation offered (see Chapter 17, Halachot 12, 15). Similarly, the water libation offered on Sukkot is three lugim (Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 10:7).

15.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Zevachim 13:5), the Rambam explains that the rationale is that we follow the principles that two entities that are the same substance are never considered as intervening substances.

16.

The red heifer should be slaughtered on the Mount of Olives, as stated in Hilchot Parah Adumah 3:1-2.

17.

As stated in Hilchot Avodat Yom HaKippurim 3:7, the goat sent to Azazel was pushed off a mountain cliff in the desert outside of Jerusalem.

18.

See Chapter 18, Halachah 11.

19.

I.e., the Temple. This excludes offerings like the above which, though they are consecrated, are not offered in the Temple.

20.

Radbaz notes that Zevachim 109a mentions sacrifices disqualified for other reasons. He explains that the Rambam does not mention them here, because here he is speaking in general terms. They are detailed in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim where he discusses the particulars pertaining to these laws.

21.

See Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim, ch. 19, which mentions the obligation to burn sacrifices that were disqualified for all these reasons.

22.

As explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim, ch. 3, if sacrificial meat or blood was brought to the top of the altar after being disqualified for these reasons, it should be offered on the altar's pyre.

23.

Any lesser amount is not considered significant. See Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 14:10.

24.

I.e., a portion of it was lost or burnt.

25.

This refers to a meal offering brought by a male priest, the meal offering of the High Priest, and the meal component of the accompanying offerings (Zevachim 13:4).

26.

For the prooftext states "it," and this implies that the entity must be complete.

27.

Note a similar ruling in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 3:10.

28.

We have translated the text according to its straightforward meaning. Nevertheless, the Radbaz states that this ruling applies, not only to a burnt-offering and its own innards, but even one that is combined with the innards of another sacrifice. Thus he maintains that one is liable for combining the meat of a burnt-offering, not only with the innards of a burnt-offering, but also with the innards of a peace-offering.

29.

For they are part of the same type of offering and are both offered on the altar in their entirety.

30.

Provided he was notified of the transgression between the offering of each particular limb (Radbaz, based on Hilchot Shegagot 6:2).

31.

The fact that the Torah uses two prooftexts implies that two different prohibitions are involved. The prooftext "to offer it" refers to both the prohibitions against slaughter and against sprinkling the blood and the prooftext "who will offer it" refers to the prohibition against offering the limbs on the altar (Radbaz and Kessef Mishneh, thus resolving the questions raised by the Ra'avad).

32.

The Ra'avad objects to this ruling, noting that the previous halachah stated that a person is liable if the combination of a portion of a limb and the portions of the innards offered on the altar equal an olive-sized portion. This indicates that a limb need not be whole. The Kessef Mishneh and others, however, justify the Rambam's ruling.

33.

This law has already been stated in Chapter 18, Halachah 16. Indeed, there are some who considered its inclusion here as a scribal error.

34.

The Hebrew original repeats the word ish meaning man, implying that even two men can be held liable for the same activity.

35.

Even though he did not complete the required service associated with the sacrifice, as long as he sprinkled the blood on an altar once, he is liable.

36.

The Rambam is quoting the wording of the mishnah (Zevachim13:6). Nevertheless, according to his understanding, this law applies to the blood of other sacrifices as well.

37.

He is liable even if he does not apply the blood to the altar inside. The Rambam mentions the application of the blood inside only to emphasize that offering the blood properly does not remove the liability that was already established.

38.

Hence if he offers any of it outside first, he is liable. The fact that he does not offer the entire amount outside is not significant. As long as a portion is offered outside, he is liable.

39.

I.e., the offering was completed through the application of the blood to the altar inside. Although the remainder of the blood should also have been dashed on the altar, that is not an absolute requirement. Hence one is not liable for offering such blood outside the Temple Courtyard.

40.

The Ra'avad takes issue with the Rambam regarding the latter point, explaining that Zevachim 112a states that one is exempt in the latter instance. Since the blood was first offered inside, the sacrifice is acceptable and the fact that later blood was also offered outside is not of consequence. The Radbaz explains that, according to the Rambam, that rationale applies when the blood was offered inside according to all of its specifications. In this instance, however, the Rambam is speaking about a situation where the applications of the blood to the Temple altar were not completed. Hence, the blood in the second cup is still significant.

41.

See Chapter 13, Halachot 12-13, which describe the offering of the meal-offering.

42.

See Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 5:2 for a description of the offering of the showbread.

43.

Even though the offering is not complete until both bowls of frankincense are offered (ibid.:3), one is liable for offering even one of them outside.

44.

See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 6:15-16 for an explanation of these concepts. See also ibid. 2:4 which states that as long as the altar is built in its appropriate place sacrifices may be offered even though the Temple is destroyed. Based on Zevachim 59a, the Radbaz states that even if the altar is not built, sacrifices can be offered on its site. Indeed, he writes that it is only because the gentiles do not allow us that we do not offer communal sacrifices in the present age. (Communal sacrifices may be offered while ritually impure.)

Based on this rationale, after the conquest of Jerusalem in 5727 (1967), the Lubavitcher Rebbe advised his chassidim to leave the holy city on the day before Pesach. The rationale is that the Paschal sacrifice may also be brought while ritually impure. Now anyone who is close to Jerusalem on the day before Pesach and does not bring a Paschal sacrifice is liable for karet. Although many factors are involved and the Rebbe did not advise his followers to actually bring a sacrifice, he felt it necessary that precautions be taken so that they would not be held liable for not bringing the offering. This situation persisted for several years until the Rebbe felt that the Jewish control of the Temple Mount was weakened to the point that it would be impossible to bring an offering.

45.

For slaughtering these animals outside the Temple Courtyard. As the Rambam proceeds to explain, this is speaking about a situation where the gentile desires to offer the sacrifice to God.

46.

Zevachim 116b notes that the passage prohibiting the slaughter of sacrificial animals outside the Temple Courtyard begins: "Speak to the children of Israel," implying that the prohibition applies only to them.

47.

This license applies in the present era as well.

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 1

1

It is a positive commandment to offer two lambs as burnt-offerings every day.1 They are called the continuous offering. One [should be brought] in the morning and one in the afternoon as [Numbers 28:3] states: "Two each day, a continuous offering."

א

מצות עשה להקריב שני כבשים עולות בכל יום והם הנקראים תמידין אחד בבקר ואחד בין הערבים שנאמר שנים ליום עולה תמיד וגו':

2

When is the time at which they should be slaughtered? The morning one should be slaughtered before sunrise,2 when the entire eastern horizon becomes illuminated.3 Once there was a pressing situation for the community in [the era of] the Second Temple4 and they offered the daily morning sacrifice at four hours after daybreak.5

ב

ואימתי זמן שחיטתן של בקר שוחטין אותו קודם שתעלה החמה משיאור פני כל מזרח ופעם אחת דחקה השעה את הצבור בבית שני והקריבו תמיד של שחר בארבע שעות ביום:

3

[The lamb for] the continuous offering of the afternoon should be slaughtered when the shadows have been extended6 and it is obvious to all that they have been extended.7 This is from six and a half hours of the day until the day's end. Every day, they would not slaughter it until eight and a half hours of the day and they would offer it at nine and a half hours.

Why would they delay [its slaughter] for two hours after the beginning of the time? Because of the sacrifices of individuals and those of the community.8 For it is forbidden to offer any sacrifice before the continuous offering of the morning and no sacrifice is offered after the continuous sacrifice of the afternoon9 with the exception of the Paschal sacrifice. [That leniency was granted, because] it is impossible for all of Israel to offer their Paschal sacrifices in two hours.

ג

תמיד של בין הערבים שוחטין אותו משיאריך הצל ויראה לכל שהאריך והוא משש ומחצה ומעלה עד סוף היום ולא היו שוחטין אותו בכל יום אלא בשמונה שעות ומחצה וקרב בתשע ומחצה ולמה מאחרין אותו שתי שעות אחר תחילת זמן שחיטתו מפני הקרבנות של יחידים או של צבור לפי שאסור להקריב קרבן כלל קודם תמיד של שחר ולא שוחטין קרבן אחר תמיד של בין הערבים חוץ מקרבן פסח לבדו שאי אפשר שיקריבו כל ישראל פסחיהן בשתי שעות:

4

The Paschal sacrifice is slaughtered only after the continuous offering of the afternoon.10 Similarly, those individuals requiring atonement11 may offer their atonement offerings after the continuous offering of the afternoon on the fourteenth [of Nisan] so that they will be ritually pure and [and able] to partake of their Paschal offerings in the evening.12

ד

אין שוחטין את הפסח אלא אחר תמיד של בין הערבים וכן מחוסרי כפורים מקריבין כפרתן אחר תמיד של בין הערבים ביום ארבעה עשר כדי שיהיו טהורין לאכול פסחיהן לערב:

5

When the day before Pesach falls during the week or on the Sabbath, the Afternoon Sacrifice would be slaughtered after seven and a half hours and offered after eight and a half hours so that [the people] would have time to slaughter their Paschal sacrifices.13 If the day before Pesach falls on Friday, [the Afternoon Sacrifice] would be slaughtered at six and a half hours, the beginning of the time allotted for it and offered at seven and a half hours, so that they would have ample time to roast [their sacrifices] before the commencement of the Sabath.14

ה

ערבי פסחים בין בחול בין בשבת היה התמיד נשחט בשבע ומחצה וקרב בשמונה ומחצה כדי שיהיה להם פנאי לשחוט פסחיהם ואם חל ערב פסח להיות ערב שבת היו שוחטין אותו בשש ומחצה בתחילת זמנו וקרב בשבע ומחצה כדי שיהיה להם ריוח לצלות קודם שיכנס שבת:

6

Even though [no sacrificial animals] are slaughtered after the continuous offering of the afternoon,15 any entity that is fit to be offered on the altar's pyre is offered the entire day. And the limbs of the burnt-offerings and the eimorim16may be offered until midnight, as we explained in [Hilchot] Ma'aseh HaKorbanot.17

The limbs and the eimorim - whether from the continuous offerings or from other sacrifices - that were not consumed [by the fire] may be turned over18 throughout the entire night until the morning,19 as [Leviticus 6:2] states: "The entire night until the morning."

ו

אף על פי שאין שוחטין אחר תמיד של בין הערבים מקטירין כל דבר הראוי להקטרה כל היום ומקטירין איברי עולות והאימורין עד חצי הלילה כמו שביארנו במעשה הקרבנות ואיברין ואימורין שלא נתאכלו בין מן התמיד בין משאר הקרבנות מהפכין בהן כל הלילה עד הבקר שנאמר כל הלילה עד הבקר:

7

[The offering of] the limbs of the continuous offering on the altar's pyre [at night] supersedes [the prohibitions of] ritual impurity,20 but does not supersede the Sabbath [prohibitions]. Instead, all of the limbs of the continuous offerings offered on Friday are offered on the altar's pyre on Friday alone.21 For the initial [offering] of the continuous offering supersede the Sabbath [prohibitions],22 but its concluding aspects23do not.24 The fats of [the communal sacrifices offered on] the Sabbath are offered on a festival at night if the festival falls on Saturday night. [These fats] may not, however, be offered on the night of Yom Kippur [if it falls on Saturday night].25 [These concepts are derived from Numbers 28:10 which] states: "The burnt-offering of a Sabbath on its Sabbath." [This excludes the offering of] a burnt-offering of a Sabbath on another Sabbath.26 Nor may the burnt-offering of a weekday be offered on a festival.

ז

איברים של תמיד דוחין את הטומאה ואין דוחין את השבת אלא בערב שבת בלבד מקטירין איברי תמיד של ערב שבת שהתמיד תחילתו דוחה שבת וסופו אינו דוחה חלבי שבת קריבין בלילי יום טוב אם חל יום טוב להיות במוצאי שבת אבל אין קריבין בלילי יוה"כ שנאמר עולת שבת בשבתו ולא עולת שבת זו בשבת אחרת ולא עולת חול ביום טוב:

8

When the fourteenth [of Nisan] falls on Sabbath, the fats of the Paschal sacrifice27 may be offered on the night of the festival,28 for they are considered as the fats of the Sabbath.29

ח

ארבעה עשר שחל להיות בשבת מקטרין חלבי הפסחים בלילי יום טוב מפני שהם כחלבי שבת:

9

There never should be less than six lambs that have been inspected30 in the Chamber of the Lambs.31 They should be prepared four days before their sacrifice.32 Even though they would be inspected beforehand, they would not slaughter the continuous offering until they inspect it again before its slaughter by the light of the torches.33 It was given water to drink from a golden cup34 so that it would be easier to skin.35

ט

אין פוחתין מששה טלאים המבוקרין בלשכת הטלאים שבמקדש ויהיו מוכנים קודם יום הקרבה בארבעה ימים ואע"פ שהיו מבקרין אותו מתחילה לא היו שוחטין את התמיד עד שמבקרין אותו שניה קודם שחיטה לאור האבוקות ומשקין אותו מים בכוס של זהב כדי שיהיה נוח להפשט:

10

The continuous offering of the afternoon is offered in the same manner as the continuous offering of the morning. Everything follows the regimen for the offering of the burnt offering, as written in [Hilchot] Ma'aseh HaKorbanot.36 The lamb was not bound before its slaughter so as not to copy the practice of the heretics.37 Instead, they would hold its forefeet and its hindfeet by hand.38 It would be held in the following manner: Its head would be to the south and its face to the west.39

י

כמעשה תמיד של שחר כך מעשה תמיד של בין הערבים והכל כמעשה העולה שכתבנו במעשה הקרבנות ולא היו כופתין את הטלה שלא יחקו את המינין אלא אוחזין ידיו ורגליו בידיהן וכך היתה עקידתו ראשו לדרום ופניו למערב:

11

The continuous offering of the morning would be slaughtered in the northwest corner of the butchering area40 on the second ring41 and that of the afternoon would be slaughtered in the northeast corner on the second ring. [In this way,] they would be opposite the sun.42 The Received Tradition states that [these sacrificial animals] should be slaughtered opposite the sun.

יא

תמיד של שחר היה נשחט על קרן צפונית מערבית של בית המטבחים על טבעת שנייה ושל בין הערבים על קרן צפונית מזרחית ממנה על טבעת שנייה כדי שיהיה כנגד השמש דברי קבלה הן שיהיו נשחטין כנגד השמש:

12

If they erred and inadvertently - or even intentionally - failed to offer the continuous offering of the morning, that of the afternoon should be offered.

When does the above apply? After the altar has been dedicated. If, however, it is a new altar on which no sacrifices have been offered, the continuous offering of the afternoon should not be offered on it first. For the altar for burnt-offerings should be dedicated solely by [sacrificing] the continuous offering of the morning.43

יב

טעו או שגגו אפילו הזידו ולא הקריבו תמיד של שחר יקריבו תמיד של בין הערבים במה דברים אמורים בשנתחנך המזבח אבל היה מזבח חדש שעדיין לא קרב עליו כלום לא יקריבו עליו תחלה בין הערבים שאין מחנכין מזבח העולה אלא בתמיד של שחר:

Footnotes
1.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 39) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 401) count this as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot. The Ramban (at the conclusion to his Hosafos to the negative commandments) argues that they should be considered as two separate mitzvot.

2.

For "the eager hurry [to perform] mitzvot" (Pesachim 4a).

3.

I.e., when the rays of the sun are already visible, but the orb of the sun has not appeared.

4.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Ediot 6:1, based on the Jerusalem Talmud, Berachot 1:4), the Rambam explains that once during the Greek occupation of the Holy Land, the Temple was besieged. Each day, the priests would exchange two baskets of gold coins for two lambs. One day, however, the Greeks refused to make the exchange. The people were forlorn. Later that morning, they miraculously found two lambs in the Chamber of the Lambs and R. Yuda bar Bava ruled that the morning sacrifice could be offered if the fourth hour of the day had not passed.

5.

The Radbaz derives two points from the Rambam's statements: a) only in a pressing situation may the offering of the sacrifice be delayed until after daybreak; b) even in a pressing situation, the sacrifice may not be offered after four hours of the day have passed.

6.

At noon, the sun is directly overhead and does not cast a shadow. By 12:30, the sun will have already passed to the western portion of the sky and will thus cast a shadow to the east.

7.

I.e., the sacrifice could have been offered directly after noon. Nevertheless, since the time of noon is not obvious to everyone, it was delayed slightly.

8.

I.e., to allow all of the other sacrifices to be offered, as the Rambam proceeds to explain.

9.

The Radbaz asks: Why isn't its sacrifice delayed any longer? He responds that the Sages did not desire for there to be any time pressure at all regarding its offering. Also, they wanted - at least partially - to fulfill the charge (Pesachim 4a): "The eager hurry [to perform] mitzvot."

10.

See Hilchot Korban Pesach 1:4 for more details.

11.

As stated in Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah, ch. 1, this term refers to certain individuals - a zav, a zavah, a person afflicted with tzara'at, and a woman after childbirth - who are not permitted to partake of sacrifices until they offer certain sacrifices.

12.

This leniency is granted because a person who does not offer the Paschal sacrifices is liable for karet (Pesachim 59a).

13.

For every member of the Jewish people would have to partake of a Paschal sacrifice. Thus there would be a multitude of animals to slaughter and have their blood offered.

14.

At all other times, the Paschal sacrifices could be roasted at night. Hence, as long as they were slaughtered before nightfall, there was no difficulty. The roasting of the Paschal sacrifices did not, however, supersede the prohibition against cooking on the Sabbath. Hence, the slaughter had to be performed earlier so that they could be roasted on time.

15.

This represents the division of the halachot in the authentic manuscripts and early printings of the Mishneh Torah. A printing error appears to have crept into the standard published text.

16.

The fats and inner organs of the animal that are offered on the altar.

17.

As stated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 4:2, this is a Rabbinic safeguard.

18.

So that they will be consumed by the fires faster and more completely.

19.

Although our Sages decreed that the limbs not be offered on the altar after midnight as mentioned above, if they were offered before midnight, they may be turned over the entire night.

20.

I.e., communal sacrifices may be offered in a state of ritual impurity. If the offering itself was offered in this manner, the limbs may be offered in this manner at night.

21.

I.e., during the day and not during the night.

22.

I.e., an animal sacrificed as a communal offering may be slaughtered and offered on the altar on the Sabbath.

23.

The offering of the limbs and fats which were not offered on the pyre on Friday.

24.

If there was no opportunity to offer the fats and the limbs on Friday, they should be brought up to the top of the altar on Friday night, but not offered on the pyre. On the top of the altar, they are not disqualified because of the passage of the night and they should be offered on Saturday night (Kessef Mishneh in the name of the Ritba).

25.

According to the fixed calendar followed at present, Yom Kippur can never fall Saturday night. Moreover, even when the new moon was sanctified based on the testimony of witnesses, an effort was made not to have Yom Kippur fall directly after the Sabbath (Rosh HaShanah 20a). Nevertheless, it is possible for the two holy days to follow in succession. See Hilchot Eruvin 8:10.

26.

And Yom Kippur is also called "a Sabbath."

27.

Which is offered on the Sabbath.

28.

I.e., on Saturday night which is the first night of the festival.

29.

I.e., even though they were not offered because of the Sabbath, since their blood was offered on the Sabbath, the offering of their fats supersedes the festival prohibitions (Radbaz).

30.

To make sure that they are free of physical blemishes [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Arachin 2:5)].

31.

This was one of the sub-chambers in the Chamber of the Hearth (Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 5:10).

32.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.), the Rambam writes that the source for this practice was the Paschal sacrifice brought by the Jews in Egypt. They were commanded to take the lambs four days before they were offered.

33.

The torches were necessary, because the offering was slaughtered before daybreak and more light was necessary for a careful inspection.

34.

This was a sign of the wealth and prosperity of the Jewish people, as appropriate for the Temple [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 3:4)].

35.

The commentaries note that the rationale the Rambam gives here is different from that which he initially gave in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Beitzah 5:6). Afterwards, he emended that text to include the rationale mentioned here (Rav Kappach's notes to that mishnah).

36.

Chapters 6 and 9.

37.

Rashi, Tamid 31b, states that thus refers to pagan idolaters who would bind all four feet of their sacrifices.

38.

Tamid 31b states that the sacrifice would be bound like the binding of Isaac the son of Abraham. Although some commentaries explain that this means that one of the animals forefeet and one of its hindfeet would be bound, the Rambam does not accept that interpretation and maintains that none of the legs were bound. the Tosafot Yom Tov (Tamid 4:1) brings support for this interpretation, noting that our Sages state that the priest who would offer the limbs on the altar would hold them during the slaughter. Thus each of the limbs was held by a different priest.

39.

In this way, if it defecated, its rear would not be facing the altar or the Temple Building.

40.

The area on the northern side of the Temple Courtyard where the sacrificial animals were slaughtered and cut up. See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 5:13-14.

41.

There were rings implanted into the floor of the Temple Courtyard into which were inserted the legs of the sacrificial animals to hold them in place during the slaughter. See ibid.:14; the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 4:1). Others maintain that the animal's head was inserted into the rings.

42.

The sun rises in the east. Hence if the sacrifice was slaughtered on the eastern corner in the morning, it is possible that the wall of the Temple Courtyard would block its rays. Conversely, since it sets in the west, the afternoon sacrifice was slaughtered in the east so that the sun's rays would not be blocked.

43.

Note the contrast to the Golden Altar, as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 1.

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 2

1

It is a positive commandment for there to be fire continuously burning on the altar,1 as [Leviticus 6:6] states: "A continuous fire shall burn on the altar."2Although a fire descended from heaven,3 it is a mitzvah to bring from ordinary fire, as [ibid. 1:7] states: "And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall place fire on the altar."

א

מצות עשה להיות אש יקודה על המזבח תמיד שנאמר אש תמיד תוקד על המזבח אף על פי שהאש ירדה מן השמים מצוה להביא אש מן ההדיוט שנאמר ונתנו בני אהרן הכהנים אש על המזבח:

2

In the morning, the wood was arranged.4 They would prepare a large array of fire at the top of the altar, as [ibid. 6:5] states: "And the priest shall burn on it wood each morning."5 Similarly, it is a mitzvah to bring two logs of wood6 [to the altar] together with the continuous offering of the morning, besides the wood of the arrangement. [This is also intimated by the same verse.]

Similarly, two logs of wood were added together with the continuous offering of the afternoon, as [implied by ibid. 1:7]: "And they shall arrange wood on the fire." According to the Oral Tradition,7 it was taught that the verse is speaking about the continuous offering of the afternoon.

ב

בבקר עורכין עצים ועורכין בראש המזבח מערכה גדולה של אש שנאמר ובער עליה הכהן עצים בבקר בבקר וכן מצוה להעלות שני גזרים של עץ עם תמיד של שחר יותר על עצי המערכה שנאמר ובער עליה הכהן עצים בבקר וכן מוסיפין שני גזרים עם תמיד של בין הערבים שנאמר וערכו עצים על האש מפי השמועה למדו שבתמיד של בין הערבים הכתוב מדבר:

3

The two logs brought in the afternoon are brought up [to the altar] by two priests, each one holding one log in his hand.8 This is derived from the fact that the term "and they shall arrange" used by the above prooftext is plural. Those of the morning, by contrast, are brought by one priest.9

ג

שני גזרים של בין הערבים מעלין אותן שני כהנים כל אחד ואחד בעץ יחידי בידו שנאמר וערכו הרי כאן שנים אבל של שחר בכהן אחד:

4

Three arrays of fire would be prepared on the top of the altar each day:10The first was the large arrangement upon which were offered the continuous offering and the other sacrifices. The second was a small [arrangement] to its side from which fire was taken in a fire-pan to offer the incense offering each day.11 The third was not associated with any other purpose except to fulfill the mitzvah of burning fire, as [ibid. 6:6] states: "A continuous fire shall burn."12

ד

שלש מערכות של אש עושין בראש המזבח בכל יום ראשונה מערכה גדולה שעליה מקריבין התמיד עם שאר הקרבנות שניה בצדה קטנה שממנה לוקחין אש במחתה להקטיר קטורת בכל יום שלישית אין עליה כלום אלא לקיים מצות האש שנאמר אש תמיד תוקד:

5

According to the Oral Tradition,13 it was derived that [ibid.:2] which states: "On the pyre, on the altar" - refers to the large arrangement. "The fire of the altar shall burn upon it" [ibid.] - refers to the second arrangement for the incense offering. And "The fire of the altar shall burn upon it" [ibid.:5] - refers to the third arrangement for the maintenance of the fire. The limbs and the fats that were not consumed during the evening are placed on the side of the large arrangement.14

ה

מפי השמועה למדו שזה שנאמר על מוקדה על המזבח זו מערכה גדולה ואש המזבח תוקד בו זו מערכה שניה של קטרת והאש על המזבח תוקד בו זו מערכה שלישית של קיום האש אבל איברים ופדרים שלא נתאכלו מבערב נותנין אותן בצדי מערכה גדולה:

6

One who extinguished the fire of the altar is liable for lashes,15 as [ibid.:6] states:16 "It shall not be extinguished." Even one coal - even if it was removed from the altar - if one extinguishes it, he is liable for lashes.17 If, however, one extinguishes the fire of a fire-pan18 or the fire designated to kindle the Menorah19 that was kindled on the altar, even if he extinguishes it on the top of the altar, he is exempt. [The rationale is that] this fire has been allocated for another mitzvah and it is no longer called "the fire of the altar."

ו

המכבה אש המזבח לוקה שנאמר לא תכבה אפילו גחלת אחת ואפילו הורידה מעל המזבח וכבה לוקה אבל אש מחתה ואש מנורה שהכינה במזבח להדליק ממנה אף על פי שכבה אותן בראש המזבח פטור שהרי נתקה למצוה אחרת ואין אני קורא בהן אש המזבח:

7

When one arrays the wood of the large arrangement, he should arrange it on the eastern portion of the altar. It should be made [in a manner that makes it apparent]20 that he began to arrange it from the east. There should be open space between the logs21 and the ends of the inner logs should touch the ashes that are in the center of the altar. It is called the ash-heap.22

ז

כשמסדר עצי מערכה גדולה מסדרה במזרח המזבח ויהיה מראה שהתחיל לסדר מן המזרח וריוח היה בין הגזרים וראשי הגזרים הפנימיים היו נוגעין בדשן שבאמצע המזבח והוא הנקרא תפוח:

8

After the large arrangement is arrayed, logs of high-quality fig wood23are selected and a second arrangement is made for [the fire for] the incense offering near the southwest corner,24 four cubits to the north of the corner.25 It would contain five se'ah26 of coals. On the Sabbath, it would contain about eight se'ah of coals, because on every Sabbath, the two bowls of frankincense from the showbread27 would be offered on it.

ח

ואחר שמסדר מערכה גדולה חוזר ובורר עצי תאנה יפים ומסדר מערכה שניה של קטורת מכנגד קרן מערבית דרומית משוכה מן הקרן כלפי צפון ארבע אמות ובה כמו חמש סאין גחלים ובשבת עושין בה כמו שמונה סאין גחלים מפני שעליה מקטירין בכל שבת שני בזיכי לבונה של לחם הפנים:

9

The third arrangement for the sake of the maintenance of the fire can be made on any place on the altar.28

The fire should be kindled on [the altar]. One should not kindle the fire on the ground and bring it up to the altar. Instead, it should be kindled on the altar itself, as [implied by] the verse: "The fire of the altar shall burn." This29 teaches that the kindling should be on the altar itself.

ט

מערכה שלישית של קיום האש עושה אותה בכ"מ שירצה מן המזבח ומצית בה את האש ולא יצית האש למטה ויעלה אותה למזבח אלא במזבח עצמו מציתין שנאמר ואש המזבח תוקד בו מכאן להצתה שלא תהיה אלא בראשו של מזבח:

10

It is a positive commandment to remove the ashes from the altar each day,30 as [Leviticus 6:3] states: "And he shall remove the ashes." This is one of the services performed by the priests.31

The priestly garments32 [worn] when removing the ashes33 should be less valuable than those [worn] when performing the other aspects of Temple service, as [ibid.] continues: "He shall remove his garments and put on other garments and remove the ashes." The term "other" does not imply ordinary34 garments, but rather [priestly garments] that are less valuable than the first. [The rationale is that]35it is not proper conduct to serve a cup [of wine] to one's master in the same clothes as one cooked food for him.36

י

הרמת הדשן מעל המזבח בכל יום מצות עשה שנאמר והרים את הדשן והיא עבודה מעבודות כהונה ובגדי כהונה שתורם בהן הדשן יהיו פחותין מן הבגדים שמשמש בהם בשאר עבודות שנאמר ופשט את בגדיו ולבש בגדים אחרים והרים את הדשן אינו אומר אחרים שיהיו בגדי חול אלא שיהיו פחותין מן הראשונים לפי שאינו דרך ארץ שימזוג כוס לרבו בבגדים שבישל בהם קדרה לרבו:

11

When should the ashes be removed from the altar each day? At dawn.37On the festivals, it should be carried out from the beginning of the middle third of the night.38 And on Yom Kippur, from midnight.39

יא

אימתי תורמין הדשן בכל יום משיעלה עמוד השחר וברגלים מתחלת שליש אמצעי של לילה וביום הכפורים מחצות הלילה:

12

How are [the ashes] removed? [The priest] who merited40 to remove the ashes would immerse [in the mikveh]41 and put on the clothes for the removal of the ashes.42 He would sanctify his hands and feet [from the basin].43 They would tell him:44 "Be careful lest you touch a sacred utensil before sanctify your hands and feet."

Afterwards, he would take a fire-pan - it was silver and would be placed in the corner between the ramp and the altar - to the west of the ramp.45 He would take the fire-pan and ascend to the top of the altar and scattered the coals this way and that. [With the fire-pan,] he would lift up some of the coals46 which were consumed by the heart of the fire and descend to the ground. He would turn his face to the north47 and walk on the ground at the east of the altar48 approximately ten cubits to the north.49He would gather the coals that he lifted up [from the altar, placing them] on the floor [of the Temple Courtyard] three handbreadths away from the ramp,50 in the place where they would place the innards of a fowl [brought as an offering],51 the ashes of the inner altar and the Menorah52

Picking up these coals with the fire-pan and bringing them to the floor near the altar is a commandment that must be performed each day.

יב

כיצד תורמין מי שזכה לתרום טובל ולובש בגדי הרמה ומקדש ידיו ורגליו ואומרים לו הזהר שמא תגע בכלי עד שתקדש ידיך ורגליך ואחר כך לוקח המחתה ושל כסף היתה והיא היתה נתונה במקצוע בין כבש למזבח במערבו של כבש ונוטל את המחתה ועולה לראש המזבח ומפנה את הגחלים אילך ואילך וחותה מן הגחלים שנתאכלו בלב האש ויורד למטה לארץ והופך פניו לצפון ומהלך בארץ למזרח הכבש כמו עשר אמות כלפי הצפון וצובר את הגחלים שחתה על גבי הרצפה רחוק מן הכבש שלשה טפחים במקום שנותנים מוראת העוף ודשון המזבח הפנימי והמנורה וחתיה זו שחותה במחתה ומוריד לרצפה אצל המזבח היא המצוה של כל יום:

13

After the person who [initially] removed ashes from the altar descended, his priestly brethren53 would run and sanctify their hands and feet quickly.54 They would take rakes and spits55 and ascend to the top of the altar. They would place all of the limbs of the burnt-offerings and the eimorim of the sacrifices that were not consumed [by the pyre] throughout the night on the side of the altar.56 If the sides of the altar could not contain [all the limbs], they would be arranged on the ramp57opposite [the altar's] surrounding ledge.58

Afterwards, they would use the rakes to rake the ashes from all the corners of the altar and make a pile on the ash-heap.59 This pile [of ashes] would be cleared away with a pasachiter.60 This is a large container that contains a letech.61It is taken down [to the floor of the Temple Courtyard]. On the festivals, they would not bring it down, but instead would leave a high pile in the center of the altar, because this beautifies the altar.

יג

אחר שירד זה שתרם רצים אחיו הכהנים ומקדשין ידיהם ורגליהם במהרה ונוטלין את המגרפות ואת הצנורות ועולין לראש המזבח וכל איברי העולות ואימורי הקרבנות שלא נתאכלו כל הלילה מחזירין אותם לצדדי המזבח אם אין הצדדין מחזיקין סודרים אותם בכבש כנגד הסובב ואח"כ גורפין את הדשן במגריפות מכל צדדי המזבח ומעלין אותו ערימה על גבי התפוח וגורפין אותה הערימה בפסכתר והוא כלי גדול שמחזיק לתך ומורידין אותו למטה וברגלים לא היו מורידין אותו אלא מניחין הערימה גבוהה באמצע המזבח מפני שהוא נוי למזבח:

14

Any one of the priests who desired would collect the ashes that were brought down [from the altar] and take them outside the city to the ash depository.62 Taking the ashes outside [the Temple Mount] did not require a lottery. Instead, whoever desired [was allowed to do so]. None of the priests were ever lethargic about removing the ashes.63

יד

כל מי שירצה מן הכהנים ממלא מן הדשן שהורידו למטה ומוציא חוץ לעיר לשפך הדשן ואין להוצאת הדשן לחוץ פיוס אלא כל הרוצה ומעולם לא נתעצל כהן מלהוציא את הדשן:

15

Although removing [the ashes] outside [the Temple Mount] is not considered as service,64 it should not be performed by priests with disqualifying physical blemishes.

When it is removed outside the city, it is deposited in a place where the wind will not blow it powerfully and nor [rivers] would not flow into it.65 It should not be scattered there, as [Leviticus 6:3] states: "And you shall deposit it."66 [Implied is] that it should be placed down gently. It is forbidden to benefit from it.67

טו

ואע"פ שאין הוצאתו לחוץ עבודה אין בעלי מומין מוציאין אותו וכשמוציאין אותו לחוץ לעיר מניחין אותו במקום שאין הרוחות מנשבות בו בחזקה ולא חזירים גורפים אותו ולא יפזרנו שם שנאמר ושמו שיניחנו בנחת ואסור ליהנות בו:

Footnotes
1.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 29) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 132) count this as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

The Radbaz explains that this mitzvah has four components: a) to have a fire continuously burning on the altar; b) to bring ordinary fire with each sacrifice; c) to arrange the array of wood on the altar; and d) to offer two logs with the continuous offering. Although this different actions are each associated with a separate verse, since they all share one objective: to have fire burn on the altar, they are considered as one mitzvah.

2.

There was a special pyre kept burning on the altar for this purpose, as stated in Halachah 4.

3.

As Leviticus 9:24 states: "And fire emerged from before God and it... consumed the burnt-offering." This fire remained on the altar throughout the entire existence of the Sanctuary. Yoma 21b relates that in the First and Second Temples, fire also descended from heaven and burned on the altar.

4.

See Chapter 4, Halachah 5, which states that the priest who would remove the ashes from the altar would prepare the arrangement of wood and he would bring the logs together with the daily offering.

5.

Yoma 26b derives this concept from a different prooftext. It is questionable why the Rambam deviates from that source, since by doing so, he is forced to derive two different concepts from the same verse.

6.

Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 7:3 states that the logs used for the offering were "a cubit long and a cubit wide. Their thickness was like that of the leveling rod for an overflowing se'ah."

7.

See Sifra to the above verse; Yoma 26b.

8.

The Radbaz maintains that the priest who would bring the logs in the morning (see note 4) would also bring a log in the afternoon and he would invite a friend to join him and bring the other log.

9.

For the term used in that prooftext is singular.

10.

See Hilchot Avodat Yom Kippurim 4:5.

11.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 5.

12.

As stated in Halachah 1.

13.

Yoma 45a.

14.

I.e., when the altar was arranged in the morning, these limbs and fats were placed there until the large arrangement could be prepared and kindled.

15.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 81) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 133) count this prohibition as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

16.

We have cited this reference because it is the one the Rambam refers to in Sefer HaMitzvot, loc. cit. Others cite Leviticus 6:5. And in his commentary on the Torah, Rashi states that there are two negative commandments involved.

17.

Despite the fact that the fire of the altar as a whole continues to burn.

18.

See Halachah 4.

19.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 13.

20.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 2:4).

21.

So that there would be enough air for the fire to burn effectively (Radbaz).

22.

See Halachah 13. From the Rambam's statements here and in his Commentary to the Mishnah (op. cit.:2), it would appear that the top surface of the altar was flat and the name tapuach (literally, "bulging") was given because of the ash-pile made there. The Ra'avad differs and maintains that there was a bulge in the center of the surface of the altar itself. See also the Meiri in his commentary to Tamid who maintains that the term refers to a concave curve on the altar's surface. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh support the Rambam's interpretation.

23.

See Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 7:3.

24.

I.e., the corner closest to both the Temple Building and the ramp.

25.

For in this way, he will be fulfilling the directive of Leviticus 16:12: "And he shall take... flaming coals from the altar, before God." Yoma 45b explains that this refers to the outer altar which has a portion that is "before God," opposite the Holy of Holies. The second arrangement of fire was arrayed exactly in this position. Although the above verse speaks about the incense offering of Yom Kippur, our Sages also applied the concept to the incense offering brought each day.

26.

A se'ah is slightly more than 8 liter in contemporary measure according to Shiurei Torah. Other commentaries consider it larger.

27.

See Chapter 4, Halachah 11; Chapter 6, Halachah 11.

28.

Har HaMoriah states that this can be inferred from the fact that our Sages did not mention any specific place for this arrangement.

29.

I.e., its description as "the fire of the altar. The Radbaz notes that Yoma 45b derives this concept from a different verse and explains that this is a characteristic practice of the Rambam in the Mishneh Torah: to interpret the Torah's verses according to their simple meaning even though different interpretations are offered in prior Rabbinic sources.

30.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 30) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 131) count this as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

31.

It may not be performed by an Israelite (see Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 9:8).

32.

All four priestly garments, even though only two are mentioned explicitly in the Torah in this context [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 5:3)].

33.

In contrast to other commentaries, according to the Rambam, these clothes are worn when removing the ashes from the altar and not when taking them out of the Temple Courtyard, for, as he states in Halachah 15, taking them out of the Temple Courtyard is not considered as priestly service.

34.

I.e., garments that have not been consecrated.

35.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.), the Rambam explains that the reason they prepared clothes of lesser value is not because they did not wish to undertake the expense, because in the Temple, no such considerations were made. As our Sages state (Tamid 3:4), "Poverty is inappropriate in a place of wealth."

36.

Removing the ashes is comparable to cooking food, for both are acts of preparation. Serving wine and offering sacrifices are also analogous, for both involving presenting something.

37.

The time when the first rays of the sun become visible on the eastern horizon. According to the various opinions, this is between 72 minutes and two hours before sunrise.

38.

Since there are many sacrifices offered during the festivals, all of the activity in the Temple is begun earlier so that there will be ample opportunity.

39.

On Yom Kippur, all of the elements of the Temple service were performed by the High Priest. Lest he become tired, the different elements of the Temple service were spaced out as far as possible. Hence, this activity was performed earlier in the night.

40.

See Chapter 4, Halachot 1-5, for a description of the process in which this priest was chosen.

41.

From Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 5:4 and Tamid 26a, it appears that the intent is that a person who enters the lottery for the right to remove the ashes would immerse beforehand. See Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 5:9.

42.

Chapter 4, Halachah 1, states that the priests would come to the lottery wearing their priestly garments. Thus the one who was chosen would remove his ordinary priestly garments and put on the garments for the removal of the ashes.

43.

As the Rambam writes in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 1:4), a priest should not approach the altar for any aspect of the Temple service, as implied by Exodus 30:20. See Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 5:1.

44.

This warning was administered by the head of the clan that would serve in the Temple that day (Tifferet Yisrael, Tamid 1:4).

45.

I.e., the side near the entrance to the Temple Building.

46.

The Kessef Mishneh quotes authorities who mention that these coals must be from the limbs of the sacrifices that were consumed by the fire.

47.

For when descending the altar, he would be facing the south.

48.

The side closer to the entrance to the courtyard.

49.

Thus he is 20 cubits from the altar, for the ramp was 30 cubits long.

50.

Thus they are placed "near the altar," as stated in Leviticus 6:3.

51.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 6:21.

52.

Which are described in Chapter 3, Halachot 4 and 12 respectively.

53.

As opposed to the other services in the Temple, there was no lottery made for this service. In his gloss, the Radbaz first explains that since many priests were required, there was no need to make a selection. Anyone who desired could participate. The Radbaz appreciates the apparent question that arises from the comparison to the following halachah and hence offers another explanation: that the priest who was selected to remove the ashes initially was responsible for gathering several of his priestly brethren to help complete the task.

54.

They would hurry so that they would not remain in the Temple Courtyard without having sanctified their hands and feet (Tifferet Yisrael, Tamid 2:1).

55.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 2:1).

56.

If they would be removed from the altar, they would be disqualified for having remained overnight. Nevertheless, while limbs and fats were on the altar themselves, they would never be disqualified.

57.

For the ramp is considered as equivalent to the altar and the limbs are also not disqualified there.

58.

See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 2:7, 10.

59.

See note 22.

The mishnah (Tamid 2:1) states that this pile would at times reach 300 kor (every kor being 2 letechim, see below). Although the Rambam states that this is an exaggeration, we can be certain that the size of the ash-heap was significant.

60.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 6, for more details regarding this utensil.

61.

A Talmudic measure equal to 9 kor which is equivalent to approximately 121 liter (approximately 27 gallons) according to Shiurei Torah and approximately 211 liter (48 gallons) according to Chazon Ish.

62.

Leviticus 6:4 speaks of taking the ashes "outside the camp." For future generations, that was interpreted as meaning "outside of Jerusalem." In the same place the bull brought by the High Priest as a sin-offering would be burnt as required by Leviticus 4:12. See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 7:4.

63.

Even though it was not considered part of the Temple service, as the Rambam proceeds to state.

64.

And thus does not require immersion or wearing the priestly garments.

65.

Our translation follows the first printings and authoritative manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah and also follows the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Temurah 7:6).

66.

The Ra'avad questions the Rambam's statements, noting that the prooftext he cites refers to the removal of the ashes from the altar and not depositing them outside of Jerusalem. As the Radbaz explains, the Rambam does not differentiate between the two.

67.

See Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 19:13 which mentions this prohibition. The Radbaz maintains that not only is a prohibition is involved, a person is liable for meilah, unauthorized use of sacred property, as stated in Hilchot Meilah 2:14.

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