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Sunday, 10 Adar 5772 / March 4, 2012

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Part 2

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Part 2

All the sages who were mentioned were the leaders of the generations. Among them were heads of academies, heads of the exile, and members of the great Sanhedrin. Together with them in each generation, there were thousands and myriads that heard their [teachings].

Ravina and Rav Ashi were the final generation of the Sages of the Talmud.

כל אלו החכמים הנזכרים הם גדולי הדורות. מהם ראשי ישיבות ומהם ראשי גליות ומהם סנהדרי גדולה. ועמהם בכל דור ודור אלפים ורבבות ששמעו מהם ועמהם. רבינא ורב אשי הם סוף חכמי הגמרא.

Rav Ashi composed the Babylonian Talmud in Shin'ar approximately one hundred years after Rabbi Yochanan composed the Jerusalem Talmud.1 The intent of both the Talmuds is to elucidate the words of the Mishnah, to explain its deeper points, and [to relate] the new matters that were developed by each court from the era of Rabbenu Hakadosh until the composition of the Talmud.

From the entire [body of knowledge stemming from] the two Talmuds, the Tosefta, the Sifra, and the Sifre, can be derived the forbidden and the permitted, the impure and the pure, the liable and those who are free of liability, the invalid and the valid as was received [in tradition], one person from another, [in a chain extending back] to Moses at Mount Sinai.

ורב אשי הוא שחיבר הגמרא הבבלית בארץ שנער אחר שחיבר ר' יוחנן הגמרא ירושלמית בכמו מאה שנה. וענין שני הגמרות הוא פירוש דברי המשניות וביאור עמקותיה ודברים שנתחדשו בכל בית דין ובית דין מימות רבינו הקדוש ועד חיבור הגמרא. ומשני הגמרות ומן התוספתות ומספרא וספרי (ומן התוספות) מכולם יתבאר האסור והמותר הטמא והטהור החיוב והפטור הפסול והכשר כמו שהעתיקו איש מפי איש מפי משה רבינו מסיני:

Also, [the sources mentioned above] relate those matters which were decreed by the sages and prophets in each generation in order to "build a fence around the Torah." We were explicitly taught about [this practice] by Moses, as [implied by Leviticus 18:30]: "And you shall observe My precepts," [which can be interpreted to mean]: "Make safeguards for My precepts."2

Similarly, it includes the customs and ordinances that were ordained or practiced in each generation according to [the judgment of] the governing court of that generation.3 It is forbidden to deviate from [these decisions], as [implied by Deuteronomy 17:11]: "Do not deviate from the instructions that they will give you, left or right."

It also includes marvelous judgments and laws which were not received from Moses, but rather were derived by the courts of the [later] generations based on the principles of Biblical exegesis. The elders of those generations made these decisions and concluded that this was the law. Rav Ashi included in the Talmud this entire [body of knowledge, stemming] from the era of Moses, our teacher, until his [own] era.

The Sages of the Mishnah also composed other texts to explain the words of the Torah. Rabbi Hoshaia, the disciple of Rabbenu Hakadosh, composed an explanation of the book of Genesis.4 Rabbi Yishmael [composed] an explanation beginning at "These are the names" [the beginning of the book of Exodus,] until the conclusion of the Torah. This is called the Mechilta. Rabbi Akiva also composed a Mechilta.5 Other Sages of the following generations composed other [collections of the] interpretations [of verses] (Medrashim). All of these works were composed before the Babylonian Talmud.

גם יתבאר מהם דברים שגזרו חכמים ונביאים שבכל דור ודור לעשות סייג לתורה כמו ששמעו ממשה בפירוש. שנאמר ושמרתם את משמרתי עשו משמרת למשמרתי. וכן יתבאר מהם המנהגות והתקנות שהתקינו או שנהגו בכל דור ודור כמו שראו בית דין של אותו הדור. לפי שאסור לסור מהם שנאמר לא תסור מן הדבר אשר יגידו לך ימין ושמאל. וכן משפטים ודינים מופלאים שלא קיבלום ממשה ודנו בהם בית דין של אותו הדור במדות שהתורה נדרשת בהן. ופסקו אותם הזקנים וגמרו שהדין כך הוא. הכל חיבר רב אשי בגמרא מימות משה ועד ימיו. וחברו חכמי המשנה חיבורים אחרים לפרש דברי התורה. רבי הושעיא תלמידו של רבינו הקדוש חיבר ביאור ספר בראשית. ורבי ישמעאל פירש מאלה שמות עד סוף התורה והוא הנקרא מכילתא. וכן ר' עקיבא חיבר מכילתא. וחכמים אחרים אחריהם חיברו מדרשות.והכל חובר קודם הגמרא הבבלית:

Thus, Ravina, Rav Ashi, and their colleagues represent the final era of the great Sages of Israel who transmitted the Oral Law. They passed decrees, ordained practices, and put into effect customs. These decrees, ordinances, and customs spread out among the entire Jewish people in all the places where they lived.6

After the court of Rav Ashi composed the Talmud and completed it in the time of his son, the Jewish people became further dispersed throughout all the lands, reaching the distant extremes and the far removed islands. Strife sprung up throughout the world, and the paths of travel became endangered by troops. Torah study decreased and the Jews ceased entering their yeshivot in the thousands and myriads, as was customary previously.

Instead, individuals, the remnants whom God called, would gather in each city and country, occupy themselves in Torah study, and [devote themselves] to understanding the texts of the Sages and learning the path of judgment from them.

נמצא רבינא ורב אשי וחבריהם. סוף גדולי חכמי ישראל המעתיקים תורה שבעל פה. ושגזרו גזירות והתקינו התקנות והנהיגו מנהגות ופשטה גזירתם ותקנתם ומנהגותם בכל ישראל בכל מקומות מושבותם. ואחר בית דין של רב אשי שחבר הגמרא וגמרו בימי בנו נתפזרו ישראל בכל הארצות פיזור יתר והגיעו לקצוות ואיים הרחוקים ורבתה קטטה בעולם ונשתבשו הדרכים בגייסות ונתמעט תלמוד תורה ולא נכנסו ישראל ללמוד בישיבותיהם אלפים ורבבות כמו שהיו מקודם אלא מתקבצים יחידים השרידים אשר ה' קורא בכל עיר ועיר ובכל מדינה ומדינה ועוסקין בתורה ומבינים בחיבורי החכמים כולם ויודעים מהם דרך המשפט היאך הוא.

Every court that was established after the conclusion of the Talmud, regardless of the country in which it was established, issued decrees, enacted ordinances, and established customs for the people of that country - or those of several countries. These practices, however, were not accepted throughout the Jewish people, because of the distance between [their different] settlements and the disruption of communication [between them].

Since each of these courts were considered to be individuals - and the High Court of 71 judges had been defunct for many years before the composition of the Talmud - people in one country could not be compelled to follow the practices of another country, nor is one court required to sanction decrees which another court had declared in its locale. Similarly, if one of the Geonim interpreted the path of judgment in a certain way, while the court which arose afterward interpreted the proper approach to the matter in a different way, the [opinion of the] first [need] not be adhered to [absolutely]. Rather, whichever [position] appears to be correct - whether the first or the last - is accepted.

וכל בית דין שעמד אחר הגמרא בכל מדינה ומדינה וגזר או התקין או הנהיג לבני מדינתו או לבני מדינות רבות לא פשטו מעשיו בכל ישראל מפני רחוק מושבותיהם ושבוש הדרכים. והיות בית דין של אותה המדינה יחידים ובית דין הגדול של שבעים ואחד בטל מכמה שנים קודם חיבור הגמרא. לפיכך אין כופין אנשי מדינה זו לנהוג כמנהג מדינה האחרת. ואין אומרים לבית דין זה לגזור גזירה שגזרה בית דין אחר במדינתו. וכן אם למד אחד מהגאונים שדרך המשפט כך הוא ונתבאר לבית דין אחר שעמד אחריו שאין זה דרך המשפט הכתוב בגמרא, אין שומעין לראשון אלא למי שהדעת נוטה לדבריו בין ראשון בין אחרון:

Footnotes
1.

Thus, according to the Rambam, the approximate date of the composition of the Babylonian Talmud was 4125 (465 C.E.).
The commentaries point to Bava Metzia 86a, which relates that "Rav Ashi and Ravina were the final authorities with regard to instruction," as the source for the Rambam's statements. From the Rambam's later statements, it appears that in this instance as well, Rav Ashi laid the foundation for the Talmud. However, the composition of the text was completed by Ravina Zuta, Mar bar Rav Ashi, and Rav Yosse more than seventy years after Rav Ashi's death.

2.

In the Introduction to his Commentary on the Mishnah, the Rambam deals with this subject at length, citing as examples, the prohibition of eating fowl together with milk and the eighteen decrees passed by the School of Hillel and the School of Shammai.

3.

In the Introduction to his Commentary on the Mishnah, the Rambam also mentions these two categories, describing them as:
Laws that were established after meditation on the proper structure for interpersonal relations, without adding or detracting from the words of the Torah, or matters that [were instituted] for the spiritual betterment of mankind.
Among the examples of such laws he cites are: Hillel's institution of the Pruzbul and the ordinances of Ushia, which require a father to support his children. The Rambam also discusses these three categories of Rabbinic decrees in Hilchot Mamrim, Chapters 1 and 2.

4.

The Rambam is referring to Bereshit Rabbah.

5.

Today, this collection of teachings is known as Mechilta D'Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai.

6.

Because these ordinances were universally accepted by the Jewish people, their observance became mandatory, as the Rambam explains further on.

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