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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Bikkurim - Chapter 6, Bikkurim - Chapter 7, Bikkurim - Chapter 8

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Bikkurim - Chapter 6

1

One who purchases bread from a baker is obligated [to separate] challah.1 He may separate a portion from bread freshly taken from the oven for bread that has cooled or from bread that has cooled for bread freshly taken from the oven. [This applies] even with regard to many trays of bread.2

א

הלוקח מן הנחתום חייב בחלה ומפריש מן החמה על הצוננת ומן הצוננת על החמה אפילו מדפוסין הרבה:

2

The obligation [to separate] challah applies only to [dough from] the five species of grain: wheat barley, rye, oats, and spelt,3 as [implied by Numbers 15:19]: "When you partake of the bread of the land." The term "bread" refers only to a loaf made from these five species.4 If, however, one makes bread from rice, millet, or other legumes, there is no obligation of challah at all.

ב

אין חייבין בחלה אלא חמשה מיני תבואה בלבד והם החטין והשעורים והכוסמין ושבולת שועל והשיפון שנאמר באכלכם מלחם הארץ ואין קרוי לחם אלא פת הנעשית מאלו אבל העושה פת אורז או דוחן וכיוצא בהן מן הקטניות אינן חייבין בחלה כלל:

3

Although there is no obligation to separate terumah from leket, shichachah, pe'ah,5 grain which is ownerless,6 and grain which did not reach a third of its growth,7 there is an obligation to separate challah from these. Similarly, there is an obligation to separate challah [from dough made from grain in the following circumstances]: the tithes was separated from the grain early while it was still stalks8 and terumat ma'aser was separated from it, even though the portion of the great terumah is still included in it,9 [grain that was from] the second tithe or consecrated property that was redeemed, the extra [portions of barley harvested for] the omer offering,10 the two loaves [prepared to be offered on Shavuot], and [the loaves prepared for] the showbread11 which were redeemed.12

ג

הלקט והשכחה והפאה וההפקר ותבואה שלא הביאה שליש אע"פ שהן פטורין מן התרומה חייבין עליה בחלה וכן מעשר ראשון שהקדימו בשבלים שניטלה תרומתו אף על פי שיש בו חלק תרומה גדולה ומעשר שני והקדש שנפדו ומותר העומר ושתי הלחם ולחם הפנים כשיפדו כל אותן המותרות הכל חייבין בחלה:

4

When a dough was made from grain from the second tithe in Jerusalem13or from grain from the Sabbatical year,14 or when there is a doubt whether the dough was made from a mixture of terumah and ordinary produce,15 there is an obligation to separate challah. A mixture of terumah and ordinary produce is exempt from the obligation of challah.16

ד

עיסה של מע"ש בירושלים ועיסת שביעית וספק מדומע חייבין בחלה אבל המדומע פטור מן החלה:

5

The loaves for the thanksgiving offering17 and the wafers for the nazirite offering18 which a person made for himself19 are exempt from the obligation of challah, for they are sanctified.20 [If they were made] to sell in the market place to nazirites and to those bringing thanksgiving offerings, there is an obligation to separate challah, since [the baker] has the intent that if they are not sold [for sacrificial purposes], he will eat them.

ה

חלות תודה ורקיקי נזיר עשאן לעצמו פטורין מן החלה מפני שהן קדש למוכרן בשוק לנזירים ולמקריבי תודה חייבין בחלה לפי שבדעתו שאם לא תמכר יאכלנה:

6

There is an obligation to separate challah from a dough made for partners21 and a dough made for many people.22

ו

עיסת השותפין והעושה עיסה לרבים חייבת בחלה:

7

When a person makes dough using grain that is tevel - whether the challah is separated before terumah or the terumah separated before challah - what he did is effective.23 If he separated the challah first, he should not partake of it until he separates terumah and terumat ma'aser for it. If he separated terumah first, he should not partake of it until he separates challah.24

ז

העושה עיסה מן הטבל בין שהקדים חלה לתרומה בין שהקדים תרומה לחלה מה שעשה עשוי ואם הפריש החלה תחלה לא תאכל עד שיוציא עליה תרומה ותרומת מעשר ואם הפריש תחלה תרומה לא תאכל עד שיוציא עליה חלה:

8

When a person makes a dough with the intent25 of feeding the bread baked from it to an domesticated animal or a wild animal, it is exempt from challah.26There is an obligation to separate challah from a dough made for dogs27 which is eaten by the shepherds.28 A dough made by a gentile is exempt from challah.29

ח

העושה עיסה להאכיל הפת שלה לבהמה או לחיה פטורה עיסת הכלבים בזמן שהרועים אוכלין ממנה חייבת בחלה עיסת העכו"ם פטורה:

9

If a gentile and a Jew were partners in a dough and the portion owned by the Jew was large enough to be liable for challah, it is liable for challah.30

ט

היו ישראל ועכו"ם שותפין בעיסה אם היה בחלק ישראל שיעור עיסה החייבת בחלה הרי זו חייבת בחלה:

10

When a gentile separates challah even in Eretz Yisrael, it is not challah. Instead, we inform him that he does not have to [observe this mitzvah. The dough separated] may be eaten by a non-priest.31

Why do we not suspect that maybe the dough belonged to a Jew and he gave it to a gentile so that it will be exempt?32 Because if a Jew wanted to exempt himself he could do so by making his dough smaller than the required measure.33

י

עכו"ם שהפריש חלה אפילו בא"י אינה חלה אלא מודיעין אותו שאינו צריך ותאכל לזר ולמה לא חששנו לה שמא עיסה של ישראל היא ותלה אותה ביד עכו"ם וכדי לפוטרה שאם ירצה ישראל יפטור עצמו ויעשה ישראל עיסתו פחות משיעור חלה:

11

[The following laws apply when a person] mixes flour from wheat34and rice flour35 and makes a dough: If it has the flavor of grain, challah must be separated from it.36 If not, it is exempt. Even if one placed yeast37 from wheat38 into a dough from rice, one is obligated to separate challah from it if it has the flavor of wheat. If it does not have that flavor, it is exempt.

יא

המערב קמח חטין וקמח אורז ועשה מהן עיסה אם יש בה טעם דגן חייבת בחלה ואם לאו פטורה אפי' היה השאור חטים לתוך עיסת אורז אם יש בה טעם דגן חייבת בחלה ואם לאו פטורה:

12

There is an obligation to separate challah in all [the following instances]:39 a dough that was kneaded with wine, oil, or honey,40 or with boiling water, or one in which spices where placed, water was boiled and flour was placed inside of it and a dough was kneaded. [And challah must be separated when] dough was baked whether in an oven or [in a pit] in the earth,41 whether in a frying pan or a deep pan, whether first one attached the dough to the frying pan or the deep pan and then heated them with fire from below until the loaf was baked or one heated them first and then attached the dough.

If, however, one made a dough to dry it in the sun alone or to cook it in a pot, it is exempt from challah, for [dough cooked] in the sun is not bread whether it was kneaded with water or other liquids.42 Similarly, roasted grain that was kneaded whether with water or honey and which is eaten without being baked is exempt, for the obligation of challah applies only to a dough that will ultimately be baked as bread for human consumption.

יב

עיסה שנילושה ביין או שמן או דבש או מים רותחים או שנתן לתוכה תבלין או הרתיח המים והשליך הקמח לתוכו ולשו אם אפאה בין בתנור בין בקרקע בין על המחבת והמרחשת בין שהדביק את הבצק במחבת ובמרחשת ואחר כך הרתיחן באש מלמטה עד שנאפת הפת בין שהרתיחה ואח"כ הדביק הבצק כל אלו חייבין בחלה אבל העושה עיסה ליבשה בחמה בלבד או לבשלה בקדרה הרי היא פטורה מן החלה שאין מעשה חמה לחם בין שלשה במים בין שלשה בשאר משקין וכן קלי שלשין אותו במים או בדבש ואוכלין אותו בלא אפייה פטור שאין חייבת אלא עיסה שסופה להאפות לחם למאכל אדם:

13

When a dough was first kneaded to make a dough to be cooked in the sun and then the person completed making it for a loaf of bread, or he began making it to bake bread and completed it to cook it in the sun and similarly, when roasted flour was kneaded to bake a loaf of bread, there is an obligation to separate challah.43

יג

עיסה שלשה תחלה לעשותה מעשה חמה והשלימה לעשותה פת או שהתחיל בה לאפות פת והשלימה לעשות מעשה חמה וכן קלי שלשו לאפותו פת חייבין בחלה:

14

When bread was baked to be used for kutach,44 the manner in which it is made indicates the intent. If it was made as cakes, there is an obligation to separate challah.45 If he made it in strips, it is exempt from challah.46

יד

לחם העשוי לכותח מעשיה מוכיחין עליה עשאה כעכין חייבת בחלה עשאה כלמודין פטורה מן החלה:

15

What is the minimum measure of dough from which we are obligated to separate challah? An entire omer of flour,47 whether from one of the five species or from all five together, for they are all combined to reach the minimum measure.

What is the measure of an omer? One fifth [of a kab] less than two kabbin. A kab is four lugim and a log is four revi'iot.48 A revi'it is the volume of a cube two fingerbreadths by two fingerbreadths by a height of two and seven tenths fingerbreadths. A fingerbreadth refers to the width of a thumb.

Thus an omer is a measure that is ten fingerbreadths by ten fingerbreadths by a height of approximately 3 and one ninth fingerbreadths. Similarly, a cube with each side six and seven ninths fingerbreadths produces a measure of an omer.

How much does this measure contain? The volume of 43 and 1/5 eggs. This is equivalent to the weight of 86 2/3 selaim of Egyptian wheat flour.49 This is equivalent to 520 zuz of Egyptian zuzim at present. A measure that comprises such a weight of wheat is used universally to measure for the separation of challah.

טו

כמה שיעור העיסה שחייבת בחלה מלא העומר קמח בין מאחד מה' מינים בין מחמשתן כולם מצטרפין לשיעור וכמה הוא שיעור העומר שני קבין פחות חומש והקב ארבעה לוגין והלוג ד' רביעיות והרביעית אצבעיים על אצבעיים ברום אצבעיים וחצי אצבע וחומש אצבע וכל האצבעות הם רוחב גודל אצבעות של יד נמצאת למד שהמדה שיש בה י' אצבעות על י' אצבעות ברום שלש אצבעות ותשע אצבע בקירוב הוא העומר וכן מדה שיש בה שבע אצבעות פחות שני תשיעי אצבע על ז' אצבעות פחות שני תשיעי אצבע ברום שבע אצבעות פחות שני תשיעי אצבע היא מדת העומר ושתי המדות כאחד הם עולים וכמה מכילה מדה זו כמו ארבעים ושלש ביצים בינוניות וחומש ביצה והם משקל ששה ושמונים סלעים ושני שלישי סלע מקמח החטים שבמצרים שהם משקל חמש מאות ועשרים זוז מזוזי מצרים בזמן הזה ומדה שמכילה כמשקל הזה מקמח החטים הזה בה מודדין לחלה בכל מקום:

16

It is forbidden for a person to make his dough less than the minimum measure50 in order to free it from the obligation of challah.51 When a person separates challah from a dough that is smaller than the prescribed measure, his actions are of no consequence and the dough is ordinary dough as before.

When a person made a dough that is less than the prescribed measure, baked it, and put the loaf in a basket, baked another loaf52 and put it in the basket, and [continued doing this] until a measure from which challah [must be separated] was collected in the basket, the basket joins them together [as a single entity, establishing an obligation for] challah.53 He must separate challah from the bread. This is derived [from the prooftext mentioned above]: "When you partake of the bread of the land." [The verse] teaches that one should separate [challah] from [bread] that is baked. An oven, [however,] does not join loaves together [to create an obligation to separate] challah.54

טז

אסור לאדם לעשות עיסתו פחות פחות מכשיעור כדי לפוטרה מן החלה והמפריש חלה מעיסה שהיא פחותה מכשיעור לא עשה כלום והרי היא חולין כשהיתה עשה עיסה פחותה מכשיעור ואפאה ונתן הפת לסל וחזר ואפה פת אחרת ונתן לסל אם נתקבץ בסל שיעור חלה הסל מצרפן לחלה ומפריש החלה מן הפת שנאמר והיה באכלכם מלחם הארץ מלמד שהוא מפריש מן האפוי ואין התנור מצרפן לחלה:

17

If [small] loaves were joined together and a quantity equal to the measure of challah was gathered together, there is an obligation to separate challah.55 [This applies] even if they are not placed in a basket [together].56 If one baked loaves a little bit at a time and gathered together the entire quantity on a board that does not have a cavity,57 there is a doubt regarding [the matter].58 If [the obligation to separate] challah is of Rabbinic origin,59 one is not obligated to separate it until they are gathered in a container with a cavity.60

יז

היו הככרות נושכות זו בזו ונתקבץ מן הכל שיעור חלה חייבין בחלה אע"פ שאינן בסל אפה מעט מעט וקבץ הכל על לוח שאין לו תוך הרי זה ספק ואם חלה של דבריהם היא אינו חייב להפריש עד שיצרף אותו כלי שיש לו תוך:

18

When flour was not sifted, but instead kneaded together with its bran, since the entire measure of the flour61 comprises an omer, there is an obligation [to separate] challah.62 If, however, one removed the bran from the flour and then completed the [required] measure of dough by returning the bran to the flour, there is no obligation to separate challah.63

יח

קמח שלא רקדו אלא לשו בסובין שלו הואיל ויש בכל הקמח עומר חייב בחלה אבל אם נטל המורסן מן הקמח וחזר והשלים שיעור העיסה במורסן שהחזירו לקמח אינו חייב בחלה:

19

When a baker64 makes a dough to become yeast and divide it up,65 there is an obligation [to separate] challah, for if it is not sold, he will use it as bread. If, however, one makes a dough to divide it while dough,66 it is exempt.

יט

נחתום שעשה עיסה לעשותה שאור לחלקה חייבת בחלה שאם לא תמכר יעשנה פת אבל העושה עיסה לחלקה בצק פטורה:

20

[The following law applies when] women67 give flour to a baker to make yeast. If none of them individually [gave enough flour to make a dough] that comprises the required measure - even though [the dough made from the flour which] they all [gave] does - it is exempt.68

כ

נשים שנתנו קמח לנחתום לעשות להם שאור אם אין בשל אחת מהן כשיעור אף על פי שיש בכללן כשיעור פטורה:

Footnotes
1.

The commentaries raise a question concerning this ruling, because seemingly, the baker should separate challah himself. Moreover, because of the severity of the prohibition of challah, the common people were not considered suspect to refrain from making this separation.

The Radbaz explains that we are speaking about an instance where the baker told the purchaser to separate challah, alternatively, an instance where the baker is suspect not to separate challah. The Kessef Mishneh explains that the responsibility for the baker to separate challah applies only when the challah is ritually pure. Since it will be eaten by the priest, it is appropriate that the baker separate it. When, by contrast, it is impure and must be burnt, it should be separated by the purchaser.

2.

Difusim, translated as "trays," literally means "molds." In the Talmudic era, bread was baked in various molds so that the loaves would be shaped differently. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 1:3), the Rambam explains that there was an opinion which forbade separating challah from one tray for another lest the flour used to bake the different breads was from different years.

3.

I.e., whether the dough is made from each of the species individually or a combination of any of the five, as stated in Halachah 15.

4.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Challah 1:1) derives this concept because there is an association between challah and matzah. Matzah may only be made from these five species, for they are the only species that can become leaven. Hence, it is these five to which the mitzvah of challah applies. See Halachah 11 which discusses the laws that apply when a dough is made using one of these grains and other species.

5.

These mitzvot refer to grain left for the poor.

6.

When the grain was left by its owner, it was ownerless and hence, there were no agricultural obligations incumbent upon it. Now, however, that someone took possession of it, those obligations do apply.

7.

Because at this point it is not considered as grain yet. See Hilchot Ma'aser 2:3-5. Nevertheless, since a dough made from such grain will become leaven, there is an obligation to separate challah [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Bikkurim 1:4)].

8.

Before it was threshed; see Hilchot Terumah3:13, Hilchot Ma'aser 3:19.

9.

For as stated in Hilchot Terumah, op. cit., there is no obligation to separate terumah from such grain. And since there is no obligation to separate terumah, one might think that one is also exempt from the obligation to separate challah

10.

As explained in Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 7:11-12, three se'ah of barley would be harvested for the omer offering. That barley was then made into flour, sifted and refined until only an isaron (a far smaller measure) was selected for the omer offering. The remainder of the barley was redeemed and could be used for mundane purposes.

11.

This refers to the extra flour which had been set aside for the two loaves or the showbread, like the remainder of the barley mentioned in the previous note, it could be redeemed and then used for mundane purposes.

12.

In all these instances, since the dough was prepared after it was redeemed, it is considered as bread belonging to an ordinary person. Hence, the obligation to tithe it applies (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh).

13.

Although produce of the second tithe is "the property of the Most High," in Jerusalem, it is permitted to be eaten by ordinary people. Hence, challah must be separated from the dough (Radbaz).

14.

Like the ownerless produce mentioned in the previous halachah, at present, it is the property of the person who took it as his own. Hence, there is an obligation to separate challah.

15.

Although there is a possibility that the produce is a mixture of terumah and ordinary produce which is exempt as stated in the following clause, there is also a possibility that this is only ordinary produce in which instance, an obligation does apply.

16.

The Radbaz states that this law applies only in the present era when the obligation to separate challah is of Rabbinic origin. In that instance, the prohibition of a mixture of terumah offsets the obligation to separate challah, for they are both Rabbinic safeguards. If, however, the obligation to separate challah is Scriptural in origin, it would take precedence.

17.

Together with the thanksgiving offering, 40 loaves (10 each of four types) were offered.

18.

Together with the ram a nazirite offered 30 loaves (10 each of three types) were offered. See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 9:12-24 for a description of these loaves.

19.

To bring as part of his offering, rather than to sell to someone else.

20.

And challah need only be separated from a person's private property, not from consecrated property (Menachot 67a).

21.

This applies even if the dough is not large enough that each of the partners will receive a portion the size of an olive (Radbaz). Even though they intend to separate the bread after it is baked, as long as they do not intend to separate the dough, they are obligated to separate challah (Siftei Cohen 326:1).

22.

We are speaking about a situation where a person bakes bread in order to give it to many people. He does not, however, declare the bread ownerless. Were he to do so, there would be no obligation to separate challah, as stated in Chapter 8, Halachah 6.

23.

I.e., even though he should have separated the terumah before the dough was made, after the fact, his separation is effective

24.

The Radbaz questions why the Rambam does not mention the second tithe, for in the years that there is an obligation to separate it, one may not partake of the produce until it is separated.

25.

The Radbaz states that the law depends on the intent of the person making the dough and not what it is eventually used for.

26.

For the mitzvah applies only to dough prepared for human consumption.

27.

A dough made without bran being separated from the flour which is thus usually not intended for human consumption [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Challah 1:8)].

28.

Since the shepherds also intend to partake of it, it is considered as intended for human consumption and challah must be separated from the entire dough, even from the portion intended for the dogs.

29.

Menachot 67a derives this from the fact that Numbers 15:20, the prooftext for the obligation of challah, speaks of "the first of your dough," i.e., the dough of a Jew and not of a gentile.

30.

The Radbaz maintains that the Jew mayt separate challah from the entire dough, even from the gentile's portion.

31.

Because there is no holiness associated with it.

32.

I.e., the Jew thought that if he gave the dough to a gentile to prepare, it would be exempt and the gentile desired to separate challah from it. The Radbaz states that although generally we do not suspect that a prohibition is being violated, there is room to do so in this instance, because otherwise, why would the gentile think of separating challah.

33.

As stated in Halachah 15.

34.

Or any other of the five species of grain mentioned in Halachah 2.

35.

The Turei Zahav 324:9 states this law applies to rice and not to other species, because rice takes on the flavor of wheat.

36.

This applies even if quantitatively, there is more rice than wheat. For the wheat is considered as dominant.

The Ra'avad states that this ruling applies only when there is enough wheat in the dough to establish an obligation. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explain that the Rambam does not make such a distinction. The difference of opinion between them centers on the interpretation of the Jerusalem Talmud (Challah 3:5). The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 324:9) quotes the Rambam's wording without any further qualification. There is a similar disagreement between the Rambam and the Ra'avad with regard to matzah made from wheat and rice. See Hilchot Chametz UMatzah 6:5.

37.

Yeast is singled out, because a small amount of yeast can affect an entire dough.

38.

The Ra'avad states that this applies when the yeast is taken from a dough from which challah had not been separated. The Radbaz, however, states that it is possible that the Rambam does not accept that conclusion. In this instance as well, the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 324:10) quotes the Rambam's ruling without further qualification.

39.

All of the instances mentioned in the first clause of the halachah are not bread in the simple sense. Nevertheless, they are all considered as dough within the context of this mitzvah.

40.

Even though no water was mixed into it [Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 329:9)].

41.

Since ultimately the dough was baked, the fact that the flour was boiled first is not significant (Siftei Cohen 329:8).

42.

Similarly, dough boiled in water is not considered as bread, but as cooked food.

43.

As long as there was an intent to use the dough for bread at one stage in its preparation, challah must be separated.

44.

A mixture of whey and bread crumbs used as a dip.

45.

This shape indicates that he may change his mind and serve the cakes as bread.

46.

This indicates that he is not intending to serve the strips as bread, but will indeed crumble them and use them for kutach.

47.

Our Sages derived this measure as follows: Numbers 15:19 states: "You shall separate the first of your dough as challah." As Exodus 16:16 relates the amount of manna allotted to each individual in the desert was an omer. Hence we use that as the size of the required measure of dough (Eruvin 83b).

48.

A revi'it is approximately 86cc according to Shiurei Torah and approximately 150 cc according to Chazon Ish. Thus a log is 344 or 600 cc, a kab 1376 or 2400 cc, and the measure of the dough from which challah must be separated is 2500 (because the above figures are approximations) or 4320 cc.

49.

Shiurei Torah writes that a blessing should be recited when separating challah from a dough made from 3 pounds and 10 ¾ ounces of flour and one should be stringent and separate challah from a dough made from 2 pounds and 10.1 ounces of flour.

50.

I.e., less than the measure described in the previous halachah.

51.

This applies even though he is ritually impure and he knows that he will be separating the dough to have it burnt (Challah 2:3). The Turei Zahav 324:17 and the Siftei Cohen 324:25 emphasize that this applies only when the person's intent in making the loaf small is that he will not have to separate challah. If he has another intent, his actions are not sanctioned.

52.

Which was also less than the prescribed measure.

53.

This applies even though the loaves themselves are not joined together. One of the examples of the separation of challah with which many are familiar - the separation of challah from matzah - employs this principle.

54.

I.e., if small loaves are baked together in an oven, but taken out separately, there is no obligation to separate challah.

55.

Even though at the time the dough was made, there was not a sufficient quantity to require the separation of challah.

56.

The fact that they are joined is sufficient for them to be considered as a singled entity.

57.

In contrast to the basket mentioned in the previous halachah.

58.

Pesachim 48b mentions an unresolved difference of opinion concerning this question among the Sages.

59.

Like the challah separated in the present era, as stated Chapter 5, Halachah 5.

60.

For we follow the principle: When there is a doubt regarding a Rabbinic obligation, we rule leniently (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh).

The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 325:1) writes that if one places the bread on a board and then covers it with a cloth, there is an authority who requires the separation of challah. The Siftei Cohen 325:5 questions why the Shulchan Aruch uses the expression "there is an authority...," in as much as this principle is universally accepted.

61.

I.e., the flour together with the bran, even though the flour alone is not of sufficient quantity to require challah to be separated.

62.

For a poor person will eat bread made from coarse flour containing bran (Shabbat 76b).

63.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Challah 2:6) explains that this is derived from Numbers 15:21 that speaks of "your dough," i.e., the way dough is ordinarily made.

64.

According to the Rambam, this halachah pertains to a baker and not to ordinary individuals. The laws pertaining to them are mentioned in the following halachah.

65.

To sell to others to use the yeast to leaven other doughs without this dough being baked.

66.

So that he will be baking smaller portions and not be obligated to separate challah.

67.

I.e., private individuals who will use the yeast for themselves and not for commercial purposes.

68.

Because the dough is not being made to be baked as bread, but to be divided as dough. Since it is being made for private individuals, the Rambam maintains that there is little likelihood that they will change their minds and have it baked. Even though the women did not give their flour to the baker together, the fact that he made a dough from them would have caused an obligation for challah had the intent been to bake the dough. Moreover, the Rama (Yoreh De'ah 326:3) rules that if the women consent to having their flour mixed in a larger dough, an obligation to separate challah is created.

The Ra'avad maintains that if one woman makes dough to use as yeast, the law mentioned with regard to a baker in the previous halachah applies to her and she is required to separate challah. Here the leniency is granted because several women are involved. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh argue against the Ra'avad's conclusion and the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 326:2) states that the stringency applies to a baker and not to an ordinary person.

Bikkurim - Chapter 7

1

[The following laws apply when] there are two doughs that when combined comprise the measure that obligates the separation of challah, but neither comprises that measure alone should they touch each other and become attached to each other.1 If they belong to two individuals,2 they are exempt from challah even though they are of the same type of grain.3 [The rationale is that] we assume that the two people object [to the combination of their doughs].4 If it is known that they would not object to the combination of their doughs, they are considered as one.

א

שתי עיסות שיש בשתיהן שיעור החייב בחלה ואין באחת מהן כשיעור ונגעו זו בזו ונשכו זו את זו אם היו של שנים אפילו הן ממין אחד פטורין מן החלה שסתם שנים מקפידין ואם ידוע שאינן מקפידין על עירוב העיסות הרי אלו מצטרפות:

2

[Different rules apply if] the two belonged to one person. If they were from one type [of grain], they are combined and challah is obligated to be separated from them. If they are from two types, they are not combined. [The rationale is that] we assume that one person does not object [to the combination of his doughs].5 If he objects [to their combination and endeavors] that one dough not touch the other or become mixed with it, they are not considered as one, even if they are of one type of grain.

ב

היו שתיהן של איש אחד אם היו ממין אחד מצטרפין וחייבות בחלה ואם משני מינין היו אין מצטרפין שסתם אחד אינו מקפיד ואם היה מקפיד שלא תגע עיסה זו בזו ולא תתערב עמה אפי' היו ממין אחד אין מצטרפות:

3

What is meant by the statement that if they belonged to one person and were from the same type [of grain] they are combined? When a dough from wheat touches6 a dough from spelt, they are combined.7 If it touched [a dough from] another type of grain,8 they are not combined.9 Similarly, if a dough of barley touches a dough of spelt,10 oats, or rye, or doughs of spelt, oats, or rye touch each other, they can be combined.11

ג

וכיצד מצטרפות אם היו של אחד ממין אחד עיסת החטים שנגעה בעיסת הכוסמין מצטרפות נגעה בשאר המינין אין מצטרפות וכן עיסת שעורין שנגעה בעיסת הכוסמין או שבולת שועל או שיפון וכן עיסת כוסמין ושל שבולת שועל ושל שיפון שנגעה כל אחת משלשתן בחבירתה הרי אלו מצטרפות:

4

A dough from grain from one year should not be combined with a dough from grain from the previous year even though they are of the same species. [This is a decree,] lest people say that terumah may be separated from new grain for old grain.12 A person should not separate [the challah] from the middle of the two.13 Instead, he should bring another dough - either from this year or the previous - and combine it with them to complete the required measure.14

When does the above apply? When one dough touches another. If, however, one mixes flour from the species of grain and makes a single dough from one of them, the five are combined to comprise the measure of dough required for challah, as we explained.15

ד

עיסת חדש אינה מצטרפת לשל ישן אע"פ שהן ממין אחד כדי שלא יאמרו תורמין מן החדש על הישן ולא יתרום מאמצע שתיהן אלא יביא עיסה אחרת חדש או ישן ויצטרף להם להשלים השיעור בד"א בעיסה שנגעה בעיסה אחרת אבל הבולל קמח חמשת המינין ועושה מהם עיסה אחת הרי חמשתן מצטרפין לשיעור עיסת חלה כמו שביארנו:

5

When there is a dough that is less than the required measure on one side and another dough less than the required measure on the other side,16 and a dough that is exempt from challah in the middle - e.g., a dough of rice, a dough of terumah [flour] or from terumah [flour] that was mixed with ordinary flour, or a dough from a gentile17 - [the doughs] are not combined even though they touch each other.18 [The rationale is that] an entity that is exempt from challah separates in the middle.

ה

עיסה שהיא פחותה מכשיעור מכאן ועיסה פחותה מכשיעור מכאן ועיסה שאינה חייבת בחלה באמצע כגון עיסת אורז או עיסת תרומה או מדומע או עיסת עכו"ם אף על פי שנוגעות זו בזו אינן מצטרפות שהרי דבר הפטור מן החלה מבדיל באמצע:

6

When, by contrast, there is a dough from which challah was separated between them, [the two outer doughs] can be combined, because originally, there was an obligation to separate challah from the dough in the center.19Similarly, if a dough that was consecrated was in the center, they are combined, [because that dough] is fit to be redeemed20 [at which point,] there will be an obligation to separate challah from it. Similarly, if there was a dough of another type of grain, a dough belonging to another person, or a dough from a different year between them, the doughs on the sides are combined [to comprise an obligation to separate] challah.

ו

היה באמצע עיסה שהורמה חלתה מצטרפות שהעיסה שביניהן כבר היתה מחוייבת בחלה וכן אם היה ביניהן עיסת הקדש מצטרפות מפני שראוי לפדותה ותתחייב בחלה וכן אם היתה ביניהן עיסת מין אחר או עיסת איש אחר או עיסת חדש הרי שתי העיסות שבצדדין מצטרפות לחלה:

7

There were two doughs, each one of them less than the minimum measure for challah. One separated challah from each of them. Afterwards, they touched each other and [the combined doughs] comprise the [required] measure. There is an obligation to separate challah [from the combined doughs], for the challot separated originally are of no consequence.21

ז

שתי עיסות שכל אחת מהן פחותה מכשיעור שהפריש חלה מזו וחלה מזו וחזרו ונגעו זו בזו והרי בשתיהם כשיעור חייבין להפריש מהן חלה שהחלות הראשונות אינן כלום:

8

Two gentiles22 made a dough comprising the required measure [for challah]23 and divided it. Afterwards, they converted24 and after the conversion, each one added to his portion until it comprised the [required] measure. There is an obligation [to separate] challah. [The rationale is that] there was no time that it was of the size obligating [challah] while they were gentiles, because each was to receive less than the required measure.25

ח

שני עכו"ם שעשו עיסה כשיעור וחלקוה ואחר כך נתגיירו והוסיף כל אחד על חלקו אחר שנתגייר עד שהשלימו לשיעור הרי זו חייבת שלא היתה לה שעת חובה כשהיו עכו"ם שהרי פחות מכשיעור היה ביד כל אחד מהן:

9

If, however, two Jews made [a dough] in the above manner and then, they divided it and each one of them added to his portion26 until it comprised the required measure, it is exempt. [The rationale is that] there was a time when there would have been an obligation [to separate challah from the original dough]27and they were exempt at that time, because the dough was made to be divided.28

ט

אבל שני ישראלים שעשו כך וחזר כל אחד אחר שחלקו והוסיף על חלקו עד שהשלימו לשיעור הרי זו פטורה שכבר היתה לה שעת חובה והן היו פטורין באותה שעה מפני שעשאוה לחלק:

10

[Different rules apply when], by contrast, the dough was owned by a gentile and a Jew in partnership and they divided it.29 If, afterwards, the gentile converted and then added to his portion and the Jew added to his portion until each one of them completed the measure that requires the separation of challah, there is an obligation to separate challah from the dough of the Jew,30 but the dough of the gentile31 is exempt.32

י

היתה העיסה ביד העכו"ם והישראל בשותפות וחלקו ואחר כך נתגייר העכו"ם והוסיף הגר על שלו [וישראל על שלו] עד שהשלים כל אחד עיסתו לשיעור של ישראל חייבת ושל עכו"ם פטורה:

11

[The following laws apply when a person] takes yeast from a dough from which challah was not separated and places it in a dough from which challah was separated. He should bring a second dough that - together with this yeast - will comprise a measure that obligates the separation of challah and combine it with the dough from which challah was separated.33 He should then separate from the second dough the appropriate measure of challah for it and for the yeast. [In this manner,] he is separating [challah] from [dough] that is in the same place.34 If he does not have a second dough, the entire [first dough] is considered as tevel. He should separate challah for the entire amount.35 [The rationale is that] when tevel36 is mixed with its own type,37 even the slightest amount causes the mixture to become forbidden.38

יא

הנוטל שאור מעיסה שלא הורמה חלתה ונתנו לתוך עיסה שהורמה חלתה ה"ז מביא עיסה שנייה שיהיה בה עם שאור זה שיעור עיסה שחייבת בחלה ונותנה בתוך העיסה שהורמה חלתה ומפריש מן העיסה השנייה שיעור חלה עליה ועל השאור כדי שיטול מן המוקף ואם אין לו עיסה שנייה נעשית זו כולה טבל ומפריש חלה על הכל שהטבל במינו אוסר בכל שהוא:

12

A dough from which challah has not been separated is like ordinary produce and not like challah with regard to the laws of ritual purity. As will be explained in the appropriate place,39 impurity of the second degree does not bring about impurity of the third degree with regard to ordinary produce.40

It is permitted to cause ordinary produce to contract ritual impurity in Eretz Yisrael.41 Therefore when there are two doughs, one that is ritually impure and one that is ritually pure, one may take [a portion of dough]42 equivalent to the measure of challah to be separated from both of them from a dough from which challah was not separated and place it in the center close to the pure dough. He should then extend a portion of the impure dough the size of an egg43 to the pure dough44 so that he will be able to separate challah45 from the dough in the same place.46

יב

עיסה הטבולה לחלה אינה כחלה והרי היא כחולין לענין הטומאה שאין השני עושה שלישי בחולין כמו שיתבאר במקומו ומותר לגרום טומאה לחולין שבארץ ישראל לפיכך שתי עיסות אחת טמאה ואחת טהורה נוטל כדי חלת שתיהם מעיסה שלא הורמה חלתה ונותנו באמצע סמוך לעיסה הטהורה ומושך מן הטמאה לטהורה כדי ביצה כדי לתרום מן המוקף:

13

A person may make a pure dough and refrain from separating challah from it, setting it - or a portion of it - aside to continuously separate challot from other doughs with it until the dough set aside becomes challah in its entirety,47 provided [the dough set aside] does not become spoiled to the point that it is no longer fit for human consumption. [This applies] even if the doughs became impure. Once the dough is no longer fit for human consumption, [challah] cannot be separated with it.

When does the above apply? When there is a question whether or not challah has been separated from the doughs for which he is separating challah.48[The rationale is that] challah of a doubtful status49may be taken from the pure dough for the impure as an initial preference50 and the two need not be in the same place.51

יג

עושה אדם עיסה טהורה ואינו מפריש חלתה ומניחה או מניח מקצתה להיות מפריש עליה והולך חלות של עיסות אחרות ואפילו נטמאו העיסות עד שתעשה העיסה שהניח כולה חלה ויתננה לכהן והוא שלא תפסל מאוכל אדם אבל משתסרח אינו מפריש עליה במה דברים אמורים כשהיו אותם העיסות שמפריש עליהן ספק אם הורמה חלה מהן או לא הורמה שחלת דמאי ניטלת מן הטהור על הטמא לכתחלה ושלא מן המוקף:

Footnotes
1.

The Radbaz emphasizes that touching each other is not sufficient; the two doughs must become attached. See Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 325:1).

2.

Who are not partners (Siftei Cohen 326:1).

3.

See the following halachah which distinguishes between doughs made from one type and those made from two. See also Chapter 6, Halachot 16-17, which deal with the issues mentioned in this and the following halachot.

4.

Thus even if they were kneaded together, since they were intended to be separated, they are considered as distinct entities.

5.

Since they both belong to him and are of the same type of grain, why would he object to their combination?

This, however, applies only when the two doughs are types that would normally be mixed together. If they would not be normally mixed, even if they are owned by one person, this principle does not apply [Shulchan Aruch and Rama (Yoreh De'ah 326:1)].

6.

And becomes attached. This applies to all the other instances when touching doughs are mentioned in this chapter.

7.

Although they are from different species, since they are of the same general type (for the doughs made from the two are similar, see Chapter 8, Halachah 4), they are combined.

8.

I.e., barley, oats, or rye.

9.

Despite the fact that if the different species of grain are mixed in the same dough, they are combined, as stated in the following halachah.

10.

Although spelt is often associated with wheat (ibid.), its dough can be combined with that of rye.

11.

The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 324:2) mentions the Rambam's perspective as a minority ruling, favoring the opinion of Rabbenu Asher who maintains that rye can be combined with barley and with spelt, but not with oats or wheat. And oats can be combined with barley and spelt, but not with rye or wheat.

12.

See Hilchot Terumah 10:18.

13.

I.e., taking a portion of both of the two doughs. This advice was given by Rabbi Yishmael (Challah 4:4).

14.

I.e., placing the doughs of new grain on either side of the dough of old grain or the doughs of old grain on either side of the dough from new grain. Since the person will see that he is adding an extra dough, he will not err and think that one may separate terumah from new grain for old grain [Kessef Mishneh; Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 324:8); see Halachah 6]. The Radbaz offers a different explanation.

15.

Chapter 6, Halachah 15.

16.

The two doughs on the sides are of the same type of grain and together, they comprise the required measure.

17.

See Chapter 6, Halachot 2-4, 9-10, which mention the exemption of these doughs.

18.

I.e., the two external doughs touch the middle dough. If, however, the two external doughs are touching, challah must be separated from them.

19.

In all the instances mentioned in this halachah, the governing principle is that even if the dough in the center cannot be combined with those on the side (as explained in Halachot 1-4), since it is fit to require the separation of challah, it does not prevent the doughs on the side from being combined.

20.

This is speaking about a dough that was not consecrated until after it was made. If it was consecrated before it was rolled together, it is not fit to be redeemed. See Chapter 8, Halachot 6-7.

21.

As stated in Chapter 6, Halachah 16.

22.

In contrast to two Jews or a Jew and a gentile, as explained in the following halachot.

23.

Since they were gentiles (see Chapter 6, Halachah 8) at the time the obligation to separate challah could have taken effect, the mitzvah of challah is not relevant to them at all . Hence, the exemption because the dough was made with the intent that it be divided into small portions (see ibid. 19) is not significant.

24.

If, however, they divided the dough after they converted, there is no obligation to separate challah even if they added to the dough. For in such an instance, they would be comparable to the two Jews mentioned in the following halachah (Rambam LeAm).

25.

Hence we do not say - as is said with regard to the following halachah - since the dough was exempt at the time when it could have been obligated, it cannot become obligated again.

26.

The Siftei Cohen 326:8 emphasizes that for this law to apply the addition must be less than the size that obligates the separation of challah.

27.

Had it belonged to one person.

28.

And since the obligation was not incurred at the time it could have been incurred originally, it cannot be incurred afterwards.

The Ra'avad objects to this ruling. He admits that it appears to have a source in the Jerusalem Talmud (Challah 3:4), but argues that logically, it is hard to distinguish this from a situation where a person made a dough smaller than the required size and then attached it to a dough of the required size (see Chapter 6, Halachah 16). Hence, he rules that both Jews should separate challah from the dough after they increased its size.

The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh support the Rambam's ruling, differentiating between the two instances by explaining that when a dough is smaller than the required size, it has never reached a state where the obligation to separate challah relates to it. In contrast, in the instance described here, the dough was of the size that obligates the separation of challah and it was exempted. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 326:4) quotes the Rambam's view.

29.

The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explains that this is speaking about a situation where the two had not originally intended to divide their dough and then decided to divide it. Had they originally intended to divide it, it would be necessary to separate challah from the portion belonging to the convert as well.

30.

In contrast to the situation mentioned in the previous halachah, the dough was not originally intended to be divided. Hence, since the gentile has a portion in it, while it is whole, it is not considered as if the mitzvah of challah relates to it. Thus the Jew's portion of the dough was never of the size that requires the separation of challah and when he increases its size, an obligation is created (Radbaz).

31.

I.e., the convert.

32.

Since originally, the gentile's involvement in the dough caused his portion to be exempted, when he adds to it, it is not liable, based on the principle explained above. The Ra'avad differs and maintains that there is an obligation to separate challah from both doughs. For just as the mitzvah of challah is not considered as relating to the Jew's dough, it also does not relate to the gentile's dough. Hence, when he adds to it after his conversion, the obligation takes effect. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh favor the Rambam's understanding and it is quoted as halachah by Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 330:6).

33.

This is preferable to separating challah from the dough with which the yeast was mixed, because a) it will represent a saving for the person separating the challah, since he will not be separating challah a second time; b) it is not desirable to separate challah from the first dough, because the obligation to separate challah from it is Rabbinic, not Scriptural, as will be explained.

34.

As is required (Chapter 5, Halachah 14). That is why the second dough must be combined with the first dough into which the yeast was placed.

35.

The combination of the yeast and the dough.

36.

The yeast.

37.

And yeast and dough are considered of the same type.

38.

This is a Rabbinic decree, according to Scriptural Law, the presence of tevel is also nullified when there is a majority of permitted substances. Our Sages considered tevel as a devar sheyeish lo matirin, a prohibition that could be released, since once the necessary separations are made, the prohibition no longer exists. See Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 15:6. Hence, he is not considered to be separating challah from dough that is obligated for that which is exempt (Siftei Cohen 324:20).

39.

Hilchot Sha'ar Avot HaTuma'ah 11:2, 15.

40.

It does, however, have such an effect with regard to terumah and challah.

41.

See Hilchot Tuma'at Ochalin 16:9. There the Rambam differentiates between produce from which the appropriate agricultural separations have been made and produce from which they have not been made (as in the present instance). If the separations have already been made, one may bring it into direct contact with ritual impurity. If they have not been made, one may only "cause it to contract ritual impurity," i.e., indirectly.

42.

Which is ritually pure.

43.

Challah 2:8 gives this suggestion, but speaks of taking less than the size of an egg of the impure dough, for in that manner, the other dough will not become impure.

44.

Causing it to touch it. This will cause the pure dough to become ritually impure (see Hilchot Tuma'at Ochalin 6:18). Nevertheless, this is not significant, because - as the Rambam stated - there is no prohibition against causing food to become ritually impure.

45.

The dough set aside to be separated as challah does not become ritually impure, because until it becomes consecrated as challah, it does not become impure because it was touched by dough that was impure to the second degree. And before it is consecrated as challah, it is lifted up and no longer in contact with the source of ritual impurity. To clarify this, the Rambam began this halachah: "A dough from which challah has not been separated is like ordinary produce and... impurity of the second degree does not bring about impurity of the third degree with regard to ordinary produce" (Radbaz).

46.

Ordinarily to separate challah for two doughs in the same place, it is not necessary for them to touch. Nevertheless, since one should not separate challah from dough that is ritually pure for dough that is ritually impure (Chapter 5, Halachah 14), in this instance, they must be touching.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, based on Challah 2:8, but the Radbaz explains the Rambam's position as above.

47.

I.e., the person would consider an appropriate portion of the dough set aside as challah for a given dough and would continue doing this for future doughs until the entire dough that was set aside became challah [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Challah 4:6)].

48.

E.g., two witnesses stated that challah had been separated from the dough and two other witnesses state that it was not separated.

49.

Here the demai is being used differently than its ordinary meaning. For unlike the tithes, it is taken for granted that the common people separate challah just as they separate terumah (Radbaz; see Chapter 8, Halachah 14).

50.

Generally, the initial preference is not to separate challah from dough that is ritually pure for dough that is ritually impure (Chapter 5, Halachah 14).

51.

And generally, they must (ibid.).

Bikkurim - Chapter 8

1

When a person separates challah from flour, it is not challah.1 [The flour given] the priest is like stolen property in his possession2 and there is an obligation [to separate] challah from a dough [made from] the remainder [of the flour].3 If the flour set aside [mistakenly] as challah is an omer in measure4 and a dough was made from it, one must separate challah from it as [is necessary with regard to doughs made] from any ordinary flour.

א

המפריש חלתו קמח אינה חלה וגזל ביד כהן ושאר העיסה חייבת בחלה ואותו הקמח שהפריש לשם חלה אם יש בו עומר ועושהו עיסה ה"ז מפריש ממנו חלה כשאר כל קמח חולין:

2

When should challah be set aside? When one adds water and mixes the flour with the water, he should set aside [a portion as] challah from the first portion that is kneaded, as [indicated by Numbers 15:20:] "From the first of your dough."5

[The above applies] provided a measure of flour equal to an omer6 that has not become mixed with water does not remain in the kneading trough.7 If he stipulates: "This is challah for the dough, for the yeast, and for the flour that remains. When it all becomes one dough, the portion set aside will become sanctified as challah," it is permitted.8

ב

אימתי מפרישין חלה כשיתן את המים ויתערב הקמח במים מפריש החלה מתחלת דבר שנילוש שנאמר ראשית עריסותיכם והוא שלא ישאר שם בעריבה קמח שלא נתערב במים שיעור עומר ואם אמר ה"ז חלה על העיסה ועל השאור ועל הקמח שנשתייר ולכשתעשה כולה עיסה אחת תתקדש זו שבידו לשם חלה ה"ז מותר:

3

If the person left the dough [intact] until it was all kneaded and mixed together and separated [the challah] afterwards, [the delay] is of no consequence. If he does not separate challah while the mixture is a dough, but bakes the entire dough, he should separate [challah] from the loaf, as we explained.9

ג

הניח העיסה עד שלש הכל וערבה ואח"כ הפריש אין בכך כלום ואם לא הפריש החלה בצק אלא אפה הכל ה"ז מפריש מן הפת כמו שביארנו:

4

When does the obligation [to separate] challah from dough take effect? When the wheat [flour] was rolled into a ball and [all of] the flour becomes mixed with it or when the barley [flour] was made into a single mass and formed one block. One may snack from the dough until the wheat [flour] was rolled into a ball or the barley [flour] was made into a single mass.10 The laws pertaining to wheat [flour] pertain to spelt [flour] and those pertaining to barley [flour] pertain to oat and rye [flour].11

ד

מאימתי תתחייב העיסה בחלה משתגלגל בחטים ויתערב הקמח במים או שתטמטם בשעורים ותעשה כולה גוף אחד ואוכלין עראי מן העיסה עד שתתגלגל בחטים ותטמטם בשעורים והכוסמין כחטים ושבולת שועל והשיפון כשעורים:

5

Once the wheat [flour] was rolled into a ball or the barley [flour] was made into a single mass, one who partakes of it before challah was separated, he is liable for death [at the hand of heaven], because it is tevel.12 Therefore, if there is a Scriptural obligation [to separate] challah from the dough, a person who partakes of it is liable for lashes, as is anyone who partakes of tevel.13 If the obligation is Rabbinic in origin, [a person who partakes of the dough] is liable for stripes for rebellious conduct.

ה

נתגלגלה בחטים ונטמטמה בשעורים האוכל ממנה קודם הפרשת חלה חייב מיתה מפני שהיא טבל לפיכך אם היתה העיסה חייבת בחלה מן התורה האוכל ממנה לוקה ככל אוכל טבל ואם היתה חייבת מדבריהם מכין אותו מכת מרדות:

6

When a dough from ordinary flour becomes mixed with flour that is terumah14 before [all the flour] was rolled into a ball, it is exempt [from the obligation of challah].15 When it becomes mixed with it after it was rolled into a ball, there is an obligation [to separate challah].16

Similarly, if a person consecrates a dough or declares it ownerless17 before it was rolled into a ball and then redeemed it or took possession of it and rolled it into a ball - alternatively, he consecrated it or declared it ownerless after it was rolled into a ball18 - there is an obligation [to separate] challah.

ו

עיסה שנדמעה עד שלא תתגלגל פטורה משתגלגל חייבת וכן המקדיש עיסתו או המפקיר אותה קודם שנתגלגלה ופדאה או זכה בה ואחר כך גלגלה או הקדישה או הפקיר אותה אחר שנתגלגלה ופדאה או זכה בה הרי זו חייבת בחלה:

7

If he consecrated it before he rolled it and it was rolled in the possession of the Temple treasury and afterwards, he redeemed it, it is exempt. For at the time the obligation would have taken effect, [the dough] was exempt.19

ז

הקדישה קודם שתתגלגל ונתגלגלה ביד ההקדש ואח"כ פדאה פטורה שבשעת חובתה היתה פטורה:

8

Similarly, if a gentile gave [flour] to a Jew to make a dough for him and then gave him [the dough] as a present. If he gave it to him [as a present] before it was rolled into a ball, he is liable.20 [If he gave it to him] after it was rolled into a ball, it is exempt.21

ח

וכן עכו"ם שנתן לישראל לעשות לו עיסה ונתנה לו במתנה עד שלא גלגלה חייבת ומשגלגלה פטורה:

9

[The following laws apply when] a convert joins the Jewish faith. If he had a dough that was rolled into a ball before he converted, it is exempt.22 If it was rolled afterwards, there is an obligation [to separate challah]. If there is a doubt [concerning the matter], there is an obligation, [because eating bread from which challah was not separated] is a transgression punishable by death [at the hand of heaven].23 If a non-priest [unknowingly] partook of this challah that was separated due to such a doubt or the like, he is not liable to add a fifth [when making restitution].24

ט

גר שנתגייר והיתה לו עיסה נתגלגלה עד שלא נתגייר פטורה ואם משנתגייר חייבת ואם ספק חייבת בחלה לפי שהוא עון מיתה וזר שאכל חלת ספק זו וכיוצא בה אין חייב עליה חומש:

10

When a question arises concerning the ritual purity of a dough before it was rolled together as a ball,25 he should prepare [the dough] in a state of ritual impurity.26 For it is permitted to make ordinary produce impure in Eretz Yisrael. The challah should then be burnt.27

If, after a dough was rolled into a ball, a doubtful situation arose concerning its ritual purity which, were it to be ascertained that it was definitely impure, would convey ritual impurity of Scriptural origin, its [preparation] should be completed in a state of ritual purity. [The rationale is that with regard to] any circumstance where impurity would be imparted to ordinary produce were one certain that it transpired, our Sages decreed that if there is a doubt that it transpired, a dough upon which the obligation to separate challah already fell should not intentionally be made impure, for that obligation has already taken effect.28 Instead, the challah [separated] is a tentative state; it is not eaten,29 nor is it burnt.30

י

עיסה שנולד בה ספק טומאה קודם שתתגלגל יעשנה בטומאה לפי שמותר לטמא חולין שבא"י ותשרף חלתה נולד לה אחר שנתגלגלה ספק טומאה שודאה מטמא את החולין מן התורה יגמרנה בטהרה שכל שודאה מטמא את החולין גזרו על ספיקו בחולין הטבולים לחלה שלא יטמאו אותן הואיל ונטבלו לחלה ותהיה החלה תלויה לא נאכלת ולא נשרפת:

11

As an initial preference, a person should not prepare his dough in a state of ritual impurity.31 Instead, he should be careful and endeavor to purify himself and his utensils so that he can separate challah in a state of ritual purity. If he is more than four mil32 from water [fit for an immersion],33 he should prepare [the dough] in a state of ritual impurity and separate impure challah.

יא

לא יעשה אדם עיסתו בטומאה לכתחלה אלא יזהר וישתדל ויטהר הוא וכליו כדי להפריש חלה טהורה היה בינו ובין המים יתר על ד' מילין יעשנה בטומאה ויפריש חלה טמאה:

12

A loaf to serve as challah34 should not be prepared in a state of ritual purity for a common person.35 A loaf of ordinary produce may, however, be made in ritual purity [for him].36

What is implied? A chaver37 may mix the dough and separate an appropriate measure of challah from it. He then places [the challah] in a utensil made from dung, stone, or clay, which do not contract ritual impurity.38 When the common person comes, he should take both of them, the dough and the challah. We tell him: "Be careful not to touch the challah, lest it become tevel again."39 Why is this allowed?40 So that the person making the dough could earn his livelihood.

יב

אין עושים חלת עם הארץ בטהרה אבל עושים עיסת חולין בטהרה כיצד מגבל העיסה זה החבר ומפריש ממנה כדי חלתה ומניחה בכלי גללים או כלי אבנים או בכלי אדמה שאין מקבלין טומאה וכשיבא עם הארץ נוטל את שתיהן את העיסה ואת החלה ואומרים לו הזהר שלא תגע בחלה שמא תחזור לטבלה ומפני מה התירו לו זה משום כדי חייו של גבל:

13

The wife of a chaver may sift and strain [flour] together with the wife of a common person.41 Once water has been mixed with the dough, however, she should not help her, because [the wife of the common person] makes her dough while ritually impure.42 Similarly, one should not kneaded or array dough with a baker who bakes his dough in a state of ritual impurity. [The rationale is that] one should not reinforce the hands of transgressors.43 One may, however, transport bread with him to a bakery.44

יג

אשת חבר מרקדת ובוררת עם אשת עם הארץ אבל משתטיל מים בעיסה לא תסייע אותה מפני שהיא עושה עיסתה בטומאה וכן הנחתום שעושה בטומאה לא לשין ולא עורכין עמו שאין מחזיקין ידי עוברי עבירה אלא מוליכין עמו פת לפלטר:

14

When a person purchases bread from a baker who is a common person in Syria45 and [the baker] tells him: "I separated challah," [the purchaser] does not need to separate challah because of the doubt.46 Just as the entire Jewish people47 in Eretz Yisrael were not suspect [to ignore the separation of] the great terumah, so too, in Syria, they were not suspect [to ignore the separation of] challah.

יד

הלוקח מנחתום עם הארץ בסוריא ואמר לו הפרשתי חלה אינו צריך להפריש חלה מספק כשם שלא נחשדו כל ישראל בארץ על תרומה גדולה כך לא נחשדו בסוריא על החלה:

15

When a person purchases [bread] from a baker in the Diaspora, he must separate challah because of the doubt involved.48 If, however, he purchases from a private person49 - and needless to say, if he enjoys his hospitality - he is not required to separate challah because of the doubt.50

טו

הלוקח בח"ל מן הנחתום צריך להפריש חלה מספק אבל הלוקח מבעל הבית ואין צריך לומר המתארח אצלו אינו צריך להפריש חלה מספק:

Footnotes
1.

It is permitted to be eaten by a non-priest. Rashi (Kiddushin 46b) explains that the rationale for this law is that the prooftext requiring the separation of challah mentions "your doughs," i.e., the obligation is incurred only when dough is made.

The Tur and the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 327:1) clarify that this law applies when the person desires that the flour be considered as challah while it is still flour. If, however, he stipulates: "May it be considered challah when a dough is made from it," when it is made into a dough, his statement takes effect.

2.

The priest is obligated to return it to the person who gave it to him. This applies even if the one who gave it is a Torah scholar who knows that flour cannot be separated as challah. Although one could assume that he was giving the flour to the priest as a gift, it must be returned lest the priest think that it was challah and not separate challah from the dough he makes from it (Kiddushin 46b; Turei Zahav 327:1).

3.

Since the first separation is of no consequence.

4.

I.e., it was of the measure from which we are required to separate challah.

5.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, stating that it is undesirable to separate challah in this manner, for as indicated by Halachah 4, the obligation to separate challah has not taken effect yet. Based on the Jerusalem Talmud (Pesachim 3:3), the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explain that the statements in this halachah are a safeguard against the dough becoming ritually impure. From the time the water is mixed with the flour, it is permitted to separated the challah and one may do so if he is worried that the dough will become ritually impure. It is, however, preferable to wait until the dough is thoroughly mixed as stated in Halachah 4. Certainly, this applies in the present era when there is no need to take safeguards against ritual impurity [Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 327:3)]

6.

I.e., it was of the measure from which we are required to separate challah.

7.

For then the dough made from that flour would have a separate obligation. When, by contrast, there is less than that measure, it is considered as ancillary to the initial dough.

8.

This applies even if an omer of flour remains. Since he can easily mix the dough, he can make a stipulation that will take effect when he actually mixes it together. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 327:2) states that it is desirable to teach women who separate challah to make this stipulation.

9.

Chapter 6, Halachah 16.

10.

After the obligation to separate challah takes effect, however, it is forbidden to snack from the dough. It is considered as tevel and one is liable as stated in the following halachah.

11.

For spelt flour has characteristics similar to wheat flour, and rye and oats to barley.

12.

See Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 10:19; Hilchot Ma'aser 1:5; 9:2.

13.

Hilchot Sanhedrin 18:1. This applies when he is given a warning before transgressing.

14.

And thus challah need not be separated from it.

15.

As stated in Chapter 6, Halachah 4. This applies only in the present era when the obligation to separate challah is Rabbinic in origin (Radbaz).

16.

Because the obligation to separate challah from the dough had already taken effect.

17.

There is no obligation to separate challah from dough that is consecrated. Once, however, the consecrated dough is redeemed, challah must be separated. When a person makes dough from flour that was ownerless which he acquired, he must separate challah from it. See Chapter 6, Halachot 3 and 5.

18.

In which instance, the obligation to separate challah had already taken effect before it was consecrated or declared ownerless.

19.

Because it was consecrated.

20.

Because the obligation to separate challah took effect when the dough belonged to the Jew.

21.

For at the time the obligation to separate challah was to take effect, the dough belonged to the gentile and was exempt.

22.

Because at the time the obligation to separate challah was to take effect, the convert had not converted and was not obligated to separate challah.

23.

The Rambam adds this explanation (based on Chullin 134a), because generally, we would follow the principle: "When one desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is on him" (see Chapter 9, Halachah 13). Nevertheless, in this instance, because of the severity of the transgression, challah should be separated. The Turei Zahav 330:3 and the Siftei Cohen 330:8 note that in the present age, when there is a question whether of not challah has been separated, one is exempt, for at present the observance of the mitzvah of challah is Rabbinic in origin. On this basis, the Sifei Cohen questions why this law is quoted by the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 330:5),

24.

Since there is a doubt concerning the matter, the person must make restitution for the challah, because whenever there is a question with regard to Scriptural Law, we rule stringency and require him to make restitution sp that he can gain atonement. There is, however, no such obligation with regard to the additional fifth, because it was never definitely established that he was liable.

25.

And thus, the obligation to separate challah has not been established. Hence, the principle that we are allowed to cause ordinary produce to become impure is applied.

26.

For in this way, he will have defined the ritual state of the challah.

27.

As stated in Chapter 5, Halachah 4.

28.

We are forbidden to cause challah mandated by Scriptural Law to contract ritual impurity (Hilchot Terumah 12:1). In this instance, since the challah has not been separated, that prohibition would not be violated. Nevertheless, since the obligation to separate challah has been established, it is preferable to be stringent.

29.

Lest it be impure. Thus a priest who partakes of it would be transgressing, as stated in Hilchot Terumah 7:3.

30.

Lest it be pure. In which case, it would be forbidden to destroy it unnecessarily. See Hilchot Terumah 12:3.

31.

This refers to dough prepared in Eretz Yisrael when the obligation to separate challah was of Scriptural origin. See Hilchot Terumah 12:1. See also Radbaz.

32.

A Talmudic measure roughly equivalent to a kilometer.

33.

I.e., a mikveh or stream in which he can purge himself from impurity. Compare to Hilchot Tefilah 4:2-3 which makes a distinction whether the water is before him or behind him. See Kessef Mishneh.

34.

I.e., a loaf to be set aside and used as challah for loaves to be baked in the future.

35.

Lest over time he cause it to become impure. The person making the loaf is thus enabling the common person to transgress the prohibition against making challah impure.

36.

By making the dough pure, the doughmaker is required to separate challah in a state of ritual impurity. That is problematic, because the common person may cause it to become ritually impure. Nevertheless, as will be explained, certain provisions are enacted to allow such a dough to be made.

37.

A person who is careful in his observance of the laws of ritual impurity.

38.

See Hilchot Tuma'at Meit 6:2, Hilchot Keilim 1:6, et al. Thus even if the common person would touch the utensil, it would not become impure.

39.

This warning is not true, for once challah is separated, a dough never becomes tevel again. Nevertheless, we assume that the common person will not know the law and will be careful not to touch the dough, because of this warning. We are not concerned about the dough itself, because one is permitted to cause ordinary produce to contract ritual impurity, as stated in Chapter 7, Halachah 12.

40.

I.e., it is not desirable, because ultimately, there is the possibility that the challah will become impure.

41.

Although the common person's wife is presumed to be ritually impure, nevertheless, since the flour is dry, it is not susceptible to ritual impurity. Hence even if she would touch it, it would not present a difficulty [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Sh'vi'it 5:9)]. This leniency is allowed only as an expression of "the ways of piece" (Sh'vi'it, loc. cit.).

42.

I.e., needless to say, the wife of the chaver should not let the wife of the common person help her, for her dough would become ritually impure. She should not even help the wife of the common person for the reason stated by the Rambam.

43.

And preparing dough in a state of ritual impurity was considered a transgression in the Talmudic era when the laws of ritual impurity were observed.

44.

For then the baking process has already been completed.

45.

Which is considered an intermediate level between Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora with regard to many of the agricultural laws. With regard to its status for challah, see Chapter 5, Halachah 8.

Certainly, this law applies in Eretz Yisrael where eating bread from which challah was not separated is punishable by death at the hand of heaven. We do not suspect a baker of being willing to cause a fellow Jew to violate such a transgression. Nevertheless, the above applies only when the baker says that he has separated the challah. If he does not make such a statement and he is a common person, even in Eretz Yisrael, the purchaser must separate challah as stated in Chapter 6, Halachah 1 (Radbaz).

46.

I.e., he can rely on the baker.

47.

Even the common people.

48.

We are speaking about a baker who is a common person. Even if he says that he separated challah, his word is not accepted (Radbaz).

49.

Even if he is a common person.

50.

We assume that a common person is careful about what he eats himself - and what he serves from his kitchen. It is only when selling retail that his integrity is suspect.

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