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Friday, 30 Tishrei 5778 / October 20, 2017

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Tefilah and Birkat Kohanim - Chapter Eight, Tefilah and Birkat Kohanim - Chapter Nine, Tefilah and Birkat Kohanim - Chapter Ten

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Tefilah and Birkat Kohanim - Chapter Eight

1

Communal prayer is always heard. Even when there are transgressors among [the congregation], the Holy One, blessed be He, does not reject the prayers of the many. Therefore, a person should include himself in the community and should not pray alone whenever he is able to pray with the community.

One should always spend the early morning and evening [hours] in the synagogue, for prayer will not be heard at all times except [when recited] in the synagogue.

Anyone who has a synagogue in his city and does not pray [together] with the congregation in it is called a bad neighbor.

א

תפלת הציבור נשמעת תמיד ואפילו היו בהן חוטאים אין הקב"ה מואס בתפלתן של רבים לפיכך צריך אדם לשתף עצמו עם הציבור ולא יתפלל ביחיד כל זמן שיכול להתפלל עם הציבור ולעולם ישכים אדם ויעריב לבית הכנסת שאין תפלתו נשמעת בכל עת אלא בבית הכנסת וכל מי שיש לו בית הכנסת בעירו ואינו מתפלל בו עם הציבור נקרא שכן רע:

Communal prayer is always heard - Berachot 7b-8a relates:

Rav Yitzchok asked Rav Nachman: "Why did you not come pray in the synagogue?"
[Rav Nachman] answered him: "I was unable to."
He said: "Gather ten men together and pray."
He responded: "The matter is a bother to me."
[Rav Yitzchok] suggested: "Tell the leader of the congregation to let you know when it is the time for prayer."
He said: Why is all this trouble necessary?"
He replied: "Rabbi Yochanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai: What is [the meaning of Psalms 69:14] 'As for me, let my prayer be to You, God, at an auspicious time'? When is an auspicious time? The time when the congregation is praying."

The Talmud continues, mentioning other prooftexts which emphasize the importance of praying together with a minyan.

Even when there are transgressors among [the congregation], - Eichah Rabbah explains this concept with the following parable. A group of people fashioned a crown for a king. Among them was a poor person who also put something of his own into the crown. Though the king noticed the poor man's contribution, since the crown as a whole found favor in his eyes, he accepted it and put it on his head. The Midrash continues: By the same token, if there are ten righteous people praying and one evildoer stands among them, will God say: Because of the evildoer, I will not accept their prayers?

Menachot 27a even attributes a positive dimension to the presence of the wicked in communal prayer:

[There are] four species in the [mitzvah of] lulav; two of which (the lulav and the etrog) bear fruit (refer to the righteous, Rashi) and two of which (the myrtle and the willow) do not bear fruit (refer to the wicked, ibid.).
The species which bear fruit require the presence of those which don't and the species which don't bear fruit require the presence of those that do. A person does not fulfill his obligation until he has all of them in one bound unit.
So, too, the Jewish people, when they seek acceptance [from God], must be one bound unit.

Accordingly, on Yom Kippur, it is customary to invite sinners to join in the prayer service. Note also the conclusion of Iggeret HaShmad where the Rambam encourages tolerance and acceptance toward sinners who come to the synagogue to pray.

[Note also the Sh'loh who writes that the word, צבור - "community" - is an acronym for the words, צדיקים - "the righteous," בינונים - "the intermediates," and רשעים, "the wicked."]

the Holy One, blessed be He, does not reject the prayers of the many. - Berachot 8a cites Psalms 55:19: "He delivered my soul in peace from the battle against me, for there were many who strove with me," as the prooftext for this concept.

Therefore, a person should include himself in the community - This phrase is quoted - somewhat out of context - from Berachot 29b-30a which explains why we recite our prayers in the plural. The Rambam borrows the concept and uses it to summarize the above teachings and derive the following directive.

and should not pray alone whenever he is able to pray with the community. - i.e., though praying without a minyan is permissible, one should do so only when he has no other alternative.

One should always spend the early morning and evening [hours] in the synagogue - i.e., one should be found in the synagogue at the times of the three Daily Prayers; Shacharit in the morning, Minchah in the late afternoon and Maariv at night.

The Rambam uses the word ישכים - to rise early. Perhaps he is alluding to Berachot 47b which states:

One should always rise early and go to the synagogue in order to merit being counted among the first ten present. Even if 100 people come after him, he receives the reward of all of them.

Alternatively, perhaps he is referring to his statement, Hilchot Kri'at Shema 1:11, that one should recite the Shema before sunrise.

for prayer will not be heard - i.e., accepted by God

at all times - The Lechem Mishneh explains: Prayer which is recited with the proper intentions outside the synagogue may be accepted, but there is no guarantee that prayer will be accepted at all times...

except [when recited] in the synagogue. - Berachot 6a derives this concept from I Kings 8:28: "...to listen to the song and the prayer." "In the place of song (i.e., the synagogue where the people sing God's praises - Rashi), prayer should be [recited]."

The Kessef Mishneh adds that based on this concept, one should pray in the synagogue even when he is praying alone. The Kessef Mishneh also rules that if one is unable to go to the synagogue he should, at least, attempt to pray at the same time as the community. He quotes both these concepts in his Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 90:9.

Though this and the following two halachot mention the importance of a synagogue, the synagogue is discussed here only within the context of the importance of communal prayer. In Chapter 11, the Rambam focuses on the sanctity of the synagogue as a subject in its own right.

Anyone who has a synagogue in his city and does not pray [together] with the congregation in it is called a bad neighbor. - Berachot 8a derives this concept based on Jeremiah 12:14: "So says God regarding all my evil neighbors that touch the inheritance (i.e., the synagogues and houses of study) that I have bequeathed to My people Israel."

When quoting this law, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 90:11) also quotes the continuation of the above Talmudic passage:

Furthermore, they cause dispersion to themselves and their children as [the verse in Jeremiah continues]: "Behold, I will uproot them from their land."

2

It is a mitzvah to run to the synagogue as [Hoshea 6:3] states: "Let us know. Let us run to know God." A person should not take long steps when he leaves the synagogue. Instead, he should proceed [slowly,] step by step.

When one enters a synagogue, he should go in the distance of two doorways and then pray, [in order] to fulfill [the instructions of Proverbs 8:34] which states: "to guard the posts of My doors."

ב

ומצוה לרוץ לבית הכנסת שנאמר ונדעה נרדפה לדעת את יי' וכשיצא מבית הכנסת אל יפסיע פסיעה גסה אלא ילך מעט מעט וכשיכנס בבית הכנסת יכנס שיעור שני פתחים ואח"כ יתפלל לקיים מה שנאמר לשמור מזוזות פתחי:


It is a mitzvah to run to the synagogue as [Hoshea 6:3] states: "Let us know. Let us run to know God." - The Tur (Orach Chayim 90) adds that it is also a mitzvah to run to perform other commandments.

A person should not take long steps when he leaves the synagogue. Instead, he should proceed [slowly,] step by step. - Rashi (Berachot 6b) explains that hurrying away from the synagogue, suggests that one views the synagogue and the obligations contained therein to be a burden.

When one enters a synagogue he should go in the distance of two doorways and then pray, - Rashi (Berachot 8a) explains that we are obligated to enter the distance of two doorways widthwise in order not to appear anxious to leave. The Beit Yosef (Orach Chayim 90) explains that this refers to a distance of eight handbreadths.

The Hagahot Maimoniot interprets the Talmud's statement, "the measure of two doorways" as a matter of time, not distance. One should wait a few moments after entering the synagogue before he starts to pray.

The Hagahot Maimoniot also states that according to the interpretation that the "measure of two doorways" refers to actual distance, this requirement only applies when the synagogue is located near the public thoroughfare. If it is not, one may pray near the door. Rabbenu Yonah also mentions that a person whose fixed place for prayer in the synagogue is beside the door does not violate this requirement. It is obvious that he is sitting there not because of his desire to leave quickly, but because it is his seat in the synagogue.

[in order] to fulfill [the instructions of Proverbs 8:34] which states: "to guard the posts of My doors." - The Jerusalem Talmud (Berachot 5:1) points to the plural forms of "posts" and "doors" as indicating the need to enter the distance of two doorways.

3

A study hall is greater than a synagogue. Even though [some of the] great Sages [lived in] cities where many synagogues were located, they would pray only in the place where they studied Torah.

The above applies, [however, only] when one can participate in communal prayer there.

ג

בית המדרש גדול מבית הכנסת וחכמים גדולים אע"פשהיו להם בעירם בתי כנסיות הרבה לא היו מתפללין אלא במקום שהיו עוסקין שם בתורה והוא שיתפלל שם תפלת הציבור:

A study hall is greater - i.e., it is a more auspicious place to pray.

than a synagogue - Other ramifications of this concept are mentioned in Chapter 11, Halachah 14, and in Hilchot Talmud Torah 4:9.

Even though [some of the] great Sages [lived in] cities where many synagogues were located, they would pray only in the place where they studied Torah. - Berachot 30b relates: "Even though there were thirteen synagogues in Tiberias, Rav Ami and Rav Assi would pray only between the pillars in the study hall."

Berachot 8a interprets the phrase "the gates of Zion" in Psalms 87:2: "God loves the gates of Zion above all the dwellings of Jacob" as referring to "the gates of those who are בהלכה המצויינים (distinguished by the halachah studied there)" and states that they receive the highest degree of Divine attention.

The Talmud continues: Abbaye says: "Originally, I would study in my house and pray in the synagogue. After hearing this, I pray only where I study."

The above applies [however, only] when one can participate in communal prayer there. - The Kessef Mishneh mentions the view of certain rabbinic authorities who maintain that it is preferable for a scholar to pray in a study hall even without a minyan. However, he also mentions the opinion of Rabbenu Asher (See Responsum 4) who writes that if the scholars do not appear in the synagogue the common people will assume that their presence is also unnecessary. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 90:18) quotes the Rambam's position.

4

What is implied by [the term,] communal prayer? One [person] prays aloud and all [the others] listen. This should not be done with fewer than ten adult free males. The leader of the congregation is [counted as] one of them.

Even if some of them have already prayed and fulfilled their obligation, they can complete the [quorum of] ten provided the majority of the ten have not prayed.

Similarly, we should not recite Kedushah, read the Torah with its blessings before and after it, or read the haftorah from the Prophets except in [a quorum of] ten.

ד

וכיצד היא תפלת הציבור יהיה אחד מתפלל בקול רם והכל שומעים ואין עושין כן בפחות מעשרה גדולים ובני חורין ושליח ציבור אחד מהם ואפילו היו מקצתן שכבר התפללו ויצאו ידי חובתן משלימין להם לעשרה והוא שיהיו רוב העשרה שלא התפללו וכן אין אומרים קדושה ולא קוראין בתורה ומברכין לפניה ולאחריה ולא מפטירין בנביאים אלא בעשרה:

What is implied by [the term,] communal prayer? One [person] prays aloud and all [the others] listen. - With this statement, the Rambam touches on a point debated both by the Sages of the Talmud and the later Rabbis. The mishnah, Rosh HaShanah 33b, states:

Just as the leader of the congregation is obligated [to pray], each individual is obligated. Rabban Gamliel states: "The leader of the congregation fulfills the obligation on behalf of the community."

The Talmud (34b) elaborates on the difference of opinion:

They asked Rabban Gamliel: "According to your opinion, why does the community pray?"
He replied: "In order to allow the leader of the community to prepare his prayers."
Rabban Gamliel asked them: "According to your opinion, why does the leader of the congregation pray aloud?"
They replied: "In order to allow those who are not knowledgeable to fulfill their obligation."
He told them: "Just as he fulfills the obligation on behalf of those who are not knowledgeable, he fulfills it on behalf of those who are knowledgeable."

The Sages of the Talmud continued to debate the issue. The ultimate decision accepted by Rav Yitzchok Alfasi, the Rambam (See Halachah 9), and Rabbenu Asher, is that during the entire year, the Sages' opinion is accepted. However, on Rosh HaShanah, because of the complexity of the blessings (See Halachah 10), Rabban Gamliel's opinion prevails.

Both Rabban Gamliel and the Sages agree that the practice of communal prayer involves two elements:
a) the silent prayers of many individuals; and
b) the chazan's repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh.
They differ, however, as to which of these elements is considered of primary importance. According to the Sages, the essential element of communal prayer is that ten or more people recite the Shemoneh Esreh at the same time. According to Rabban Gamliel, the essential element of communal prayer is, as the Rambam states in this halachah, the prayer of the leader of the congregation.

[Note Likkutei Sichot, Vol. 24, which explains that their difference of opinion revolves around a more general issue: Which is of higher priority, quantity (the prayers of the many) or quality (the prayers of the leader of the congregation)?]

The Rambam's statement here is difficult to place in perspective. Though in Halachah 9, he accepts the Sages' view (See also Chapter 9, Halachot 2-3) in this halachah, his opinion follows that of Rabban Gamliel. In one of his responsa, the Rambam explains that after the Sages instituted the silent Shemoneh Esreh to allow the leader of the congregation to prepare his prayers, even Rabban Gamliel would agree that all the individuals praying in a minyan also fulfill their obligation to pray by reciting their own prayers. Still it is difficult to understand why the Rambam would have the individuals forfeit the higher quality of communal prayer in order to pray individually.

In his notes to Rosh HaShanah, ibid., Rav Chayim Soloveichik writes that to take into consideration the Rambam's statements in this halachah, after concluding his individual prayers, each person should stand and listen to the prayer of the leader of the congregation and thus, fulfill the mitzvah of communal prayer. Note Likkutei Sichot, ibid., which compares answering to the chazan's prayer to reciting a voluntary prayer (See Chapter 1, Halachah 9). By doing so, one will have both the advantages of individual and communal prayer.

This should not be done with fewer than ten - See Halachot 4 and 5.

adult - Males who have reached the age of thirteen years and a day and manifested signs of physical maturity. (See Hilchot Kri'at Shema 3:19.)

The Kessef Mishneh explains that the Rambam derives this halachah from Berachot 47b-48a which allows for the inclusion of a child in the zimmun for the grace after meals. (See Hilchot Berachot 5:7.) We assume that this leniency was granted only in regard to grace, but not in regard to prayer. See also Bereishit Rabbah 91:3.

Many Halachic authorities do not accept this conclusion. In his siddur, Rav Sa'adia Gaon rules that a child may be counted as the tenth in a minyan. Similarly, the Ba'al HaMe'or holds that even up to four minors may be counted in a minyan for prayer.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 55:4), rules that a minor may not be included in a minyan for prayer. The Ramah adds that under extraordinary circumstances, a minor may be counted. There are opinions that in such a case, the minor must be at least six years old, understand that prayer is service to God, and hold a chumash (Magen Avraham 55:5, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 55:5).

free males - i.e., excluding a Canaanite slave. However, a Jewish slave (עבד עברי) may be counted as part of a minyan. Berachot 47b relates that once, Rabbi Eliezer entered the synagogue and finding only nine people there, freed his slave to complete the quorum of ten.

The leader of the congregation is [counted as] one of them. - Though there is no explicit source to this effect, a number of midrashim (e.g., VaYikra Rabbah 23:4) lead to this conclusion.

One of the communal rites listed in Megillah 23b which requires a minyan is ברכת אבלים - the blessing one utters to those in mourning. For the recitation of that blessing, the presence of ten men other than the mourner himself is required. (See Hilchot Eivel 13:1.) Perhaps the Rambam feels that this statement is necessary to clearly distinguish between the different requirements of a minyan for prayer and ברכת אבלים.

Even if some of them have already prayed and fulfilled their obligation, they can complete the [quorum of] ten - Though they do not pray together with the others, their presence in the room where the others pray can complete a minyan.

provided the majority of the ten have not prayed. -Soferim 10:7 states:

Our Sages in the West say [that Kaddish and barchu may be recited] even with seven. They explain their position [based on Judges 5:2]: "In the time of tumult in Israel when the people volunteered themselves, blessed be God." [The number of people correspond] to the number of words [in the verse which describes the blessing of God].
There are those who say only six [are required], since ברכו is the sixth word [of the above verse].

The Rambam differentiates between the ruling regarding prayer and his statements in Hilchot Berachot 5:8 where he writes that it is necessary that seven people out of ten eat bread in order to constitute a minyan for zimmun, for "a noticeable majority" is required.

There are two views quoted in the name of Rabbenu Tam (Tosafot, Megillah 23b); one, requiring a minimum of seven people who have not prayed for a minyan just as seven who have eaten bread are required for a minyan in regard to grace after meals and, another, requiring, only five. However, the Rambam's opinion is universally accepted as halachah.

Similarly, we should not recite Kedushah, - See Chapter 7, Halachah 17.

In the chazan's repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh, it is customary to recite three verses in the Kedushah:
a) "Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of Hosts; the entire earth is full of His glory" (Isaiah 6:3);
b) "Blessed be the glory of God from His place" (Ezekiel 3:12);
c) "The Lord shall reign forever, your God, O Zion, throughout all generations" (Psalms 146:10).

Only the first two of these verses are recited in the Kedushah of the blessings before the Shema. However, in theKedushah recited at the end of the service, a verse similar to Psalms 146:10 is also included.

The commentaries debate the definition of Kedushah and therefore, question which passage the Rambam requires to be omitted when one prays alone. The Rambam's statements in Chapter 9, Halachah 5, appear to define Kedushah as only the first of these three verses.

read the Torah with its blessings - i.e., the reading of the Torah as part of the prayer service. Reading from a Torah scroll for the purposes of study does not require a quorum.

before and after it, - See Chapter 12, Halachah 3.

or read the haftarah from the Prophets except in [a quorum of] ten. - The Mishnah (Megillah 23b) equates the reading of the haftarah with other "holy matters" that require a minyan.

5

Similarly, one [person] should not recite the blessings associated with the Shema while the others listen and answer "Amen" except [in the presence of a quorum of] ten. This is called poreis al Shema.

One only recites Kaddish with ten. The priests do not bless the people except [in the presence of a quorum of] ten. The priests [themselves] may be considered part of the quorum.

[Ten are required] because every [group of] ten Jews is called a congregation as [implied by Numbers 14:27]: "How long [must I suffer] this evil congregation." They were ten, for Joshua and Calev were not included [among them].

ה

וכן לא יהיה אחד מברך ברכת שמע והכל שומעים ועונין אחריו אמן אלא בעשרה וזה הוא הנקרא פורס על שמע ואין אומרים קדיש אלא בעשרה ואין הכהנים נושאים ידיהם אלא בעשרה והכהנים מן המנין שכל עשרה מישראל הם הנקראים עדה שנאמר עד מתי לעדה הרעה הזאת וגו' והיו עשרה שהרי יצאו יהושע וכלב:

Similarly, one [person] should not recite the blessings - Even though the published text of the Mishneh Torah uses the singular term, "blessing," as will be explained, the plural is more appropriate. The authoritative Oxford and Yemenite manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah also use the plural.

associated with the Shema while the others listen and answer "Amen" except [in the presence of a quorum of] ten. This is called poreis al Shema. - This law is also based on the mishnah in Megillah 23b. Commenting on that mishnah, the Rambam defines פריסה as "presentation," i.e., the public reading of the blessings before the Shema. If people want to fulfill their obligation to recite the blessings associated with the Shema by answering "Amen" to the chazan's blessings instead of reciting those blessings themselves, a quorum of ten is required. See also Chapter 9, Halachah 1.

[Rabbenu Yonah supports this definition of פריסה based on the Targum Yonaton of I Samuel 9:13.]

Rashi, the Ra'avad, and others (See Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 69:1) define פריסה as "dividing in half." They explain the ceremony of poreis al Shema to refer to a situation where ten individuals who have already recited their prayers come together. One individual acts as a chazan and recites Kaddish, Barchu, and the first of the blessings before the Shema.

One only recites Kaddish - Kaddish is recited to mark different stages in the prayer service, after public study, and in memory of the departed.

Note also the brief remarks the Rambam makes concerning this prayer in his Order of Prayers for the Entire Year.

with ten. - Soferim 10:7 also considers Kaddish as a "holy matter" which requires a minyan.

The priests do not bless the people - literally, "raise their hands," for the priestly blessing is recited with raised hands. See Leviticus 9:22 and Chapter 14, Halachah 3.

except [in the presence of a quorum of] ten. The priests [themselves] may be considered part of the quorum. - See Chapter 15, Halachah 9.

[Ten are required] because - These prayers and rituals are considered "holy matters" which require a congregation (as mentioned in the following halachah) and...

every [group of] ten Jews is called a congregation as [implied by Numbers 14:27]: "How long [must I suffer] this evil congregation." - This verse records God's complaint about the spies sent to collect information about Eretz Yisrael (Numbers, Chapters 14 and 15). Twelve spies were sent.

They - The spies whom God condemned for trying to persuade the Jews that it was impossible to conquer Eretz Yisrael

were ten, for Joshua and Calev - though also sent on the mission

were not included [among them]. - and, in fact, resisted these attempts, calling for the Jews to enter the land as God had commanded.

6

Any holy matter may only [be performed] in a congregation of Jews, as [Leviticus 22:32] states: "And I shall be sanctified among the children of Israel".

Regarding all these matters, if they were begun with ten [people] and some leave - even though they are not permitted to - the remainder should conclude [the holy matter].

ו

וכל דבר קדושה לא יהא אלא בתוך העדה מישראל שנאמר ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל וכל אלו הדברים אם התחילו בהם בעשרה והלכו מקצתם אף על פי שאין רשאין יגמרו השאר:

Any holy matter - e.g., the prayers and rituals mentioned in Halachot 4 and 5.

may only [be performed] in a congregation - i.e., a quorum of ten (see the previous halachah).

of Jews, as [Leviticus 22:32] states: "And I shall be sanctified among the children of Israel" - Megillah 23b explains as follows: Leviticus 22:32 states, "And I shall be sanctified among the children of Israel." A גזרה שוה (an analogy based on the use of common words) is made between this verse and Numbers 16:21, "Separate yourselves from among this congregation" and a second גזרה שוה between the latter verse and the verse, Numbers 14:27, quoted in the previous halachah. Extending our use of the principle of גזרה שוה, we conclude that just as in regard to the spies, a congregation meant a minimum of ten people, the same applies in regards to all situations in which God is "sanctified."

Regarding all these matters, if they were begun with ten [people] and some leave - the place of prayer

even though they are not permitted to - The Jerusalem Talmud (Megillah 4:4) states that Isaiah 1:28, "And those that forsake God will be consumed" applies to those that leave in the middle of communal prayer when less than ten men remain. If more than ten are left, although leaving is undesirable, there is no prohibition.

the remainder - of those left in the minyan. A minimum of six people is, nevertheless, required (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 55:2).

should conclude [the holy matter]. - In one of his responsa, the Rambam writes that if a congregation began the first blessing before Kri'at Shema with ten people and then some left, leaving less than a minyan, the congregation may continue and recite the Kedushah in that blessing (see Chapter 7, Halachah 17). The chazan may also repeat the Shemoneh Esreh out loud including Kedushah, but he should not recite the Kaddish after Shemoneh Esreh, since it is not part of the "holy matter" started while the minyan was present.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 55:2-3) rules that, in such an instance, though the blessings of Kri'at Shema may be recited without deviating from the normal practice, the Shemoneh Esreh with Kedushah should not be recited. If the repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh was begun with ten, it may be completed including its Kedushah.

The Ramah (ibid.) adds that, in such a case, one even recites Kaddish after ובא לציון גואל since the Kaddish refers to Shemoneh Esreh.

7

All [ten members of a congregation] and the leader of the congregation must be in one place.

[The following rules apply when] a small courtyard opens up in its entirety into a large courtyard: If there are nine [people] in the large one and one in the small one, they may be considered as a group [to form a quorum of ten]. If there are nine [people] in the small one and one in the large one, they are not considered as a group.

If a congregation is in the large one, but the leader of the congregation is in the small one, they fulfill their obligation. If the congregation is in the small one, but the leader of the congregation is in the large one, they do not fulfill their obligation since he is separate from them and not with them in one place.

[The motivating principle is] that the walls on each side of the large courtyard separate it from the small one. [However], the smaller one is not separated from the large one, but rather, is considered as its corner.

ז

וצריך להיות כולם במקום אחד ושליח ציבור עמהם במקום אחד חצר קטנה שנפרצה במלואה לחצר גדולה והיו תשעה בגדולה ויחיד בקטנה מצטרפין תשעה בקטנה ויחיד בגדולה אין מצטרפין ציבור בגדולה ושליח ציבור בקטנה יוצאין ידי חובתן ציבור בקטנה ושליח ציבור בגדולה אין יוצאין ידי חובתן שהרי הוא מופלג מהם ואינו עמהם במקום אחד מפני שיש בגדולה פסין מכאן ומכאן הרי היא כמו מופלגת מן הקטנה ואין הקטנה מופלגת מן הגדולה אלא הרי היא כקרן זוית שלה:

All [ten members of a congregation] and the leader of the congregation must be in one place. - This principle is the basis for the particular laws which follow.

[The following rules apply when] a small courtyard opens up in its entirety into a large courtyard: - This situation is described by the Mishnah, Eruvin 92a. The laws that follow in this and the following halachah are discussed by the Talmud immediately thereafter.

In his Commentary on the Mishnah, the Rambam explains that the small courtyard has only three walls. The fourth side opens into the larger courtyard. The large courtyard has three full sides, with the fourth side consisting of two short walls on each side of the opening into the small one. The accompanying diagram is based on a diagram drawn by the Rambam (accompanying his Commentary on the Mishnah) to depict this situation.
micha, drawing

If there are nine [people] in the large one and one in the small one, - since the majority of the people are in the larger courtyard and the smaller courtyard opens up to the larger one in its entirety

they may be considered as a - single

group - located in the larger courtyard.

[to form a quorum of ten]. - The same law would apply if four people were in the smaller courtyard.

If there are nine [people] in the small one and one in the large one, - Since the majority is in the smaller courtyard

they are not considered as a - single

group - located in the smaller courtyard because the walls of the larger courtyard separate it from the smaller one.

If a congregation is in the large one, but the leader of the congregation is in the small one, - he, like the individual(s) mentioned above, is considered part of the group in the larger courtyard. Hence,

they - the congregation, can

fulfill their obligation - by listening to his prayers and answering "Amen" as stated in Halachah 9.

If the congregation is in the small one, but the leader of the congregation is in the large one, - he, like the individual(s) mentioned above, is not considered part of the group in the smaller courtyard. Hence,

they do not fulfill their obligation - by listening to his prayers

since he is separate from them and not with them in one place.

[The motivating principle - i.e., the reason why individuals in the smaller courtyard can be considered as part of a group located in the larger courtyard, but individuals in the larger courtyard cannot be considered as part of a group located in the smaller courtyard,

is] that the walls on each side of the large courtyard separate it from the small one. [However], the smaller one is not separated from the large one, but rather, is considered as its corner. - It follows that if the smaller courtyard has walls on the side that opens to the larger courtyard, the above laws do not apply. By the same token, a person(s) standing in the courtyard of a synagogue or in an adjoining room cannot be considered as part of a minyan.

Nevertheless, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 55:14) qualifies this restriction and states that if the person in the outer room can see - and be seen by - the people in the main room, he may be counted together with them. Even if he is merely peering through a window, he is considered as part of that group.

The Shulchan Aruch 55:20 also mentions that even when the people in adjoining rooms cannot see each other, those in the outer room may respond to Kaddish and Kedushah. The rabbis differed as to whether a person praying in a separate room next to the room where a minyan is praying may be considered to have participated in communal prayer or not (See Mishnah Berurah 55:58).

8

Similarly, if there were feces in the larger [courtyard], it is forbidden to pray or recite the Shema [even] in the smaller one. If there were feces in the smaller one, it is permissible to pray and recite the Shema in the larger one provided there is not a foul odor since [the larger courtyard] is set apart from [the feces].

ח

וכן אם היתה צואה בגדולה אסור להתפלל ולקרות ק"ש בקטנה היתה צואה בקטנה מותר להתפלל ולקרות ק"ש בגדולה אם לא היה שם ריח רע מפני שהיא מופלגת ממנה:

Similarly, if there were feces in the larger [courtyard], it is forbidden to pray - as stated in Chapter 4, Halachot 8-9,

or recite the Shema - as stated in Hilchot Kri'at Shema 3:6-15, in the larger courtyard or

[even] in the smaller one - for it is considered as part of the larger courtyard. Thus, one is considered as praying in a place which contains feces.

If there were feces in the smaller one, - The recitation of any holy matter is forbidden in the smaller courtyard. Nevertheless, because the larger courtyard is considered a separate place

it is permissible to pray and recite the Shema in the larger one - even if the feces are visible; see Hilchot Kri'at Shema 3:10.

provided there is not a foul odor - in which case it would be forbidden. See Hilchot Kri'at Shema 3:10.

since [the larger courtyard] is set apart - by its walls

from [the feces].

9

The leader of the congregation can fulfill the obligation [of prayer] on behalf of the congregation.

What is implied? When he prays and they listen and respond "Amen" after each and every blessing, it is considered as if they prayed [themselves].

To whom does this apply? To one who does not know how to pray. However, one who does know how to pray, only fulfills his obligation by praying himself.

ט

שליח ציבור מוציא את הרבים ידי חובתן כיצד בשעה שהוא מתפלל והם שומעין ועונין אמן אחר כל ברכה וברכה הרי הן כמתפללין בד"א כשאינו יודע להתפלל אבל היודע אינו יוצא ידי חובתו אלא בתפלת עצמו:


In the opening halachot of this chapter, the Rambam explains that communal prayer has advantages over the prayer of individuals. In this halachah, he adds that there is another advantage to communal prayer:

The leader of the congregation can fulfill the obligation [of prayer] on behalf of the congregation. What is implied? When he - the leader of the congregation, the chazan

prays - recites the Shemoneh Esreh (and according to the Rambam - see Halachah 5 - the blessings before the Shema) aloud

and they listen - while standing in the posture for prayer

and respond "Amen" after each and every blessing, it is considered as if they prayed [themselves]. - If one desires to fulfill his obligation with the chazan's prayer, he should answer "Amen," but he should not answer Baruch Hu, uvaruch shemo after the mention of God's name.

To whom does this apply? To one who does not know how to pray. - This follows the opinion of the Sages in the difference of opinion between them and Rabban Gamliel (Rosh HaShanah 33b, 34b) as explained in Halachah 2.

However, one who does know how to pray, only fulfills his obligation by praying himself. - Since the essence of prayer is the request for Divine Mercy, it is fitting that each person request for himself (Tosafot Yom Tov, Rosh HaShanah).

See also the opening halachot of Chapter 9 which deal with the practical application of the concepts mentioned in this halachah.

10

When does the above apply? Throughout the entire year with the exception of Rosh HaShanah, and Yom Kippur of the Jubilee year.

On these two days, the leader of the congregation can fulfill the obligation [of prayer] on behalf of those who know [how to pray] just as he can fulfill the obligation [of prayer] on behalf of those who do not know [how to pray] because [the Shemoneh Esreh recited on these days contains] long blessings and most people do not know them [to the extent] that they can have the same intention as the leader of the congregation.

Therefore, on these two days, even a person who knows [how to pray] is granted permission to rely on the prayers of the leader of the congregation to fulfill his obligation [of prayer] if he so desires.

י

במה דברים אמורים בשאר ימות השנה חוץ מראש השנה ויום הכפורים של שנת היובל אבל בשני ימים אלו שליח ציבור מוציא את היודע כשם שמוציא מי שאינו יודע מפני שהם ברכות ארוכות ואין רוב היודעים אותן יכולין לכוון דעתן כשליח ציבור לפיכך אם רצה היודע לסמוך בשני ימים אלו על תפלת ש"ץ להוציאו ידי חובתו הרשות בידו:

When does the above apply? Throughout the entire year with the exception of Rosh HaShanah, and Yom Kippur of the Jubilee year - specifically, in contrast to the yearly Yom Kippur services.

Even on Sabbaths and festivals when the prayers differ from those recited every day, a person who knows how to pray is expected to pray alone. However, note one of the Rambam's responsa which states that, on Sabbaths and festivals, rather than begin with silent prayer, the chazan should begin by reciting the Shemoneh Esreh out loud together with Kedushah. Those who do not know how to pray should listen to his prayers with the intention of fulfilling their obligation. Those who know how to pray should recite their prayers, word by word, together with the chazan.

On these two - Though we celebrate Rosh HaShanah as two days by Rabbinic decree, the Torah itself requires only one day to be celebrated.

days, - All the Rabbis agree that although the halachah follows the Sages throughout the entire year, on these two days, an exception is made and Rabban Gamliel's opinion prevails.

the leader of the congregation can fulfill the obligation [of prayer] - In particular, this refers only to the musaf prayer.

on behalf of those who know [how to pray] just as he can fulfill the obligation [of prayer] on behalf of those who do not know [how to pray] - This leniency is granted

because [the Shemoneh Esreh recited on these days contains] long blessings - See Chapter 2, Halachah 6, and in greater detail, Hilchot Shofar 3:8-9. There, the Rambam explains that, on these days, one is required to recite three extra blessings:
Malchuyut - which expresses the theme of God's sovereignty,
Zichronot - which describes God's remembrance of His love for the Jews, and
Shofrot - which praises the shofar as a means of manifesting the previous two concepts.

Each of these three blessings includes the recitation of ten verses that express these themes: four from the Torah, three from the prophets, and three from Psalms.

In Chapter 2, Halachah 8, the Rambam writes that on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee year, one recites exactly the same blessings as on Rosh HaShanah.

and most people do not know them [to the extent] that they can have the same intention as the leader of the congregation. - Here, the Rambam does not appear to interpret "intention" as referring to the chazan's concentration and spiritual awareness, but simply, to his familiarity with the text of the blessings.

Therefore, on these two days, even a person who knows [how to pray] is granted permission to rely on the prayers of the leader of the congregation to fulfill his obligation [of prayer] if he so desires. - Though in principle, this ruling is accepted by all authorities, in practice, Ashkenazic Rabbis have advised each person to pray individually even on Rosh HaShanah since, at present, the use of machzorim which include a full text of the blessings is widespread. Furthermore, the inclusion of piyyutim (liturgical poems) in the chazan's repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh makes it very difficult to fulfill one's obligation by listening to his prayer and reciting "Amen." See Shulchan Aruch HaRav 591:1-4.

11

Only a person of great stature within the community in both wisdom and deed should be appointed as the leader of the congregation. If he is an older man, it is very praiseworthy. An effort should be made to appoint as the leader of the congregation, someone who has a pleasant voice and is familiar with reading [Biblical verses].

A person who does not have a full beard should not be appointed as the leader of the congregation even if he be a wise man of great stature, as a gesture of respect to the congregation. However, he may recite the Shema publicly after he has reached the age of thirteen and manifested signs of physical maturity.

יא

אין ממנין שליח ציבור אלא גדול שבציבור בחכמתו ובמעשיו ואם היה זקן הרי זה משובח ביותר ומשתדלין להיות שליח ציבור אדם שקולו ערב ורגיל לקרות ומי שלא נתמלא זקנו אע"פ שהוא חכם גדול לא יהא ש"ץ מפני כבוד ציבור אבל פורס הוא על שמע משיביא שתי שערות אחר שלש עשרה שנים:


Only a person of great stature within the community in both wisdom - Torah knowledge

and deed - performance of the mitzvot; alternatively, deeds of kindness, so that his appointment will be appreciated by all members of the community.

should be appointed - The Lechem Mishneh mentions that this applies only to the appointment of a permanent chazan and does not apply to someone who leads the congregation in prayer on occasion. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 53:6) mentions this in regard to a chazan having a full beard.

as the leader of the congregation. - Ta'anit 16a interprets Jeremiah 12:8: "She raises his voice against Me, therefore, I (God) have hated her" as a reference to a chazan who is unfit for this responsibility.

Most of the commentaries point to the mishnah (Ta'anit 2:2) as the source for the Rambam's statements. Though that mishnah deals with the appointment of the leader of communal prayer for a public fast, there is no reason to assume that the same principles should not apply to the appointment of a chazan at other times. In the Talmud (e.g., Rosh HaShanah 32a), we find many examples of leading Sages serving as chazanim.

If he is an older man, - Though the Hebrew, זקן, is often used to connote a wise man (See Hilchot Talmud Torah 6:1), this translation has been chosen based on the later statements of this halachah.

it is very praiseworthy. An effort should be made - i.e. it is desirable, but not an absolute requirement.

to appoint as the leader of the congregation, someone who has a pleasant voice - so that listening to his prayers will be enjoyable.

Throughout the generations, in their responsa, our Rabbis have chided the people for putting a pleasant voice at the top of their priorities for a chazan. [Note the Ramah (Orach Chayim 53:5) who states that it is preferable to appoint a boy of thirteen who understands his prayers as chazan rather than an older man with a pleasant voice who does not know what he is saying. See also Shulchan Aruch (ibid., 53:11).]

In particular, this applies regarding the High Holiday services. These days of sincere prayer should not be turned into concerts of ritual music. Instead, attempts should be made to find a chazan who can truly serve as a spiritual leader. If he also has a pleasant voice, it is obviously more desirable.

and is familiar with reading [Biblical verses] - so that he will not err in his recitation of the prayers.

A person who does not have a full beard - The Rabbis have explained that this simply refers to a person of intermediate age. Therefore, in one of his responsa, the Rambam states that a person who is physically incapable of growing a beard may serve as chazan and the requirement of a beard is only mentioned as a sign of "a full state of knowledge which one [usually] reaches at the age when one's beard begins to grow." See also Shulchan Aruch (ibid. 53:8).

However, a beard is also considered a sign of commitment to Jewish practice. The Rambam (Hilchot Avodat Kochavim 12:7) associates shaving with the practices of gentile priests. Many Rabbis have strongly encouraged growing a beard even when there is no question of violating the prohibition against shaving. (See Sefer Mitzvot Gadol 7, Shibolei Leket Vol. II, 41.)

However, in communities where removing one's facial hair in a permitted manner is an accepted practice, the lack of a beard is not considered as a deterrent against a person serving as a chazan.

should not be appointed as the leader of the congregation even if he be a wise man of great stature, as a gesture of respect to the congregation. - The Shulchan Aruch (ibid.:6) states that this only refers to the appointment of a permanent chazan. However, Rabbenu Nissim interprets the Rambam's words as meaning that even on occasion, a youth should not serve as a chazan. See also Chapter 15, Halachah 4.

However, he may recite the Shema publicly - haporeis al Shema as described in Halachah 5. See Megillah 24a.

after he has reached the age of thirteen and manifested signs of physical maturity. - until then, he is a minor and incapable of fulfilling the obligation of prayer on behalf of an adult.

12

Similarly, the inarticulate who pronounce an alef as an ayin or an ayin as an alef or one who cannot articulate the letters in the proper manner should not be appointed as the leader of a congregation.

A teacher may appoint one of his students to lead the prayers in his presence. A blind person may recite the Shema publicly and serve as the leader of a congregation. A person whose shoulders are uncovered - though he may recite the Shema publicly - may not serve as the leader of the congregation until he is covered by a cloak.

יב

וכן העלג כגון מי שקורא לאל"ף עי"ן או לעי"ן אל"ף וכל מי שאינו יכול להוציא את האותיות כתיקונן אין ממנין אותו שליח ציבור והרב ממנה אחד מתלמידיו להתפלל לפניו בציבור הסומא פורס על שמע ונעשה שליח ציבור אבל מי שכתפיו מגולות אף על פי שהוא פורס על שמע אינו נעשה שליח ציבור לתפלה עד שיהיה עטוף:

Similarly, the inarticulate who pronounce an alef as an ayin or an ayin as an alef - Megillah 24b relates that a chazan should not be appointed from Beit Shean or Haifa, since they mispronounce these letters. Rashi explains that such mispronunciations will cause blessings to be read as curses. For example, if the word, יאר, the first word of the second priestly blessing, פניו אליך ‘ה יאר, is read with an ע instead of an א, it becomes a curse.

or one who cannot articulate the letters in the proper manner should not be appointed as the leader of a congregation. - For many Jews today, this halachah is rather difficult to observe since we do not differentiate between the pronunciation of an alef and an ayin or a sin and a samech. The Radbaz and the Pri Chadash write that if these pronunciation errors are commonplace, even someone who pronounces a chet as a hay or a shin as a sin may serve as a chazan. See Shulchan Aruch HaRav 53:16, Mishnah Berurah 53:37-38.

The Mishnah Berurah also cites Chapter 15, Halachah 1, from which it appears that a person who stutters, lisps, or has another speech defect which prevents him from pronouncing the letters properly should not serve as a chazan.

A teacher may appoint one of his students to lead the prayers in his presence. - even if the student lacks the above qualities (Kessef Mishneh). Though the previous halachah stated that the leader of the congregation should be the man of the greatest stature in the community, the mishnah (Megillah, ibid.) and similarly, several sources throughout the Talmud (See Berachot 33b) indicate that a teacher could appoint a student to serve as a chazan instead of doing so himself.

The Or Sameach explains that this refers to a student who does not articulate the letters properly. Though such a person should not ordinarily serve as a chazan, if he is appointed by his teacher he may. Thus, we find that Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi appointed Rabbi Chiya as a chazan (Bava Metzia 85b) even though he would pronounce a chet as a hay (Megillah 24b).

A blind person may recite the Shema publicly - even though the first blessing before the Shema thanks God for creating light, a blind person also benefits from light (Megillah ibid.).

and serve as the leader of a congregation. - Perhaps the Rambam thought it necessary to clarify this point because there was a difference of opinion among the Sages as to whether a blind person is obligated in all the mitzvot or not. The Sages concluded that he is obligated. Hence, he can also fulfill the obligations of others as the leader of the congregation.

A person whose shoulders are uncovered - though he may recite the Shema publicly - may not serve as the leader of the congregation until he is covered by a cloak. - Soferim 14:15 understands this as a gesture of respect for the congregation. See also Rosh HaShanah 17b which states that when God taught Moses the thirteen attributes of mercy, "He robed himself as a chazan."

This does not necessarily refer to wearing a tallit gadol, but rather to a cloak or jacket that covers his shoulders and arms (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 53:13). However, in many communities, it is customary for a chazan to wear a tallit as a token of respect for the community.

Tefilah and Birkat Kohanim - Chapter Nine

1

The order of prayer is as follows:

In the morning, [while] all the people are sitting, the leader of the congregation descends before the ark in the midst of the people and recites the Kaddish. Everyone responds with all their strength: Amen. Yehei shemeih rabba mevarach le'alam ul'almei almaya. They answer "Amen" at the end of the Kaddish.

Afterwards, [the chazan] declares: Barchu et Ado-nai hamevorach, and they answer: Baruch Ado-nai hamevorach le'olam va'ed. He then begins by reciting the Shema and its blessings out loud. They answer "Amen" after each blessing.

A person who knows how to recite the blessings and read [the Shema] with him should read [the blessings by himself] until he recites the blessing ga'al Yisrael.

א

סדר תפלות הציבור כך הוא:

בשחר כל העם יושבים ושליח ציבור יורד לפני התיבה ועומד באמצע העם ומתחיל ואומר קדיש וכל העם עונים אמן יהא שמיה רבא מברך לעלם ולעלמי עלמיא בכל כחן ועונין אמן בסוף קדיש ואחר כך אומר ברכו את יי' המבורך והם עונים ברוך יי' המבורך לעולם ועד ומתחיל ופורס על שמע בקול רם והם עונים אמן אחר כל ברכה וברכה והיודע לברך ולקרות עמו קורא עד שמברך גאל ישראל:

2

Immediately [afterwards], all stand and pray in a hushed tone. A person who does not know how to pray should stand in silence while the leader of the congregation prays in a hushed tone together with the others. Whoever concludes his prayers with the congregation should take three steps back and stand [still] in the place he reached when he stepped backwards.

ב

והכל עומדין מיד ומתפללים בלחש ומי שאינו יודע להתפלל עומד ושותק עד שיתפלל שליח ציבור בלחש עם שאר העם וכל מי שיגמור תפלתו עם הציבור יפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ויעמוד במקום שהגיע אליו בעת שיפסיע:

3

After the leader of the congregation takes three steps backwards and stands still, he begins and prays in a loud voice from the beginning of the blessings, in order to fulfill the obligation on behalf of those who did not pray.

Everyone - both those who did not fulfill their obligation [to pray] and those who fulfilled their obligation - stands, listens, and recites "Amen" after each and every blessing.

ג

ואחר שיפסיע שליח ציבור שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ויעמוד מתחיל ומתפלל בקול רם מתחילת הברכות להוציא את מי שלא התפלל והכל עומדים ושומעים ועונין אמן אחר כל ברכה וברכה בין אלו שלא יצאו ידי חובתן בין אלו שכבר יצאו ידי חובתן:

4

[The leader of the congregation] recites Kedushah in the third blessing.

When the leader of the congregation reaches Kedushah, each individual may return to the place where he originally stood in prayer.

When the leader of the congregation reaches Modim and bows, everyone should also bow - but not bow exceedingly - and say:

We give thanks to You, God, our Lord, and Lord of all flesh, our Creator and the Creator of all existence. [We offer] blessings and thanks to Your great and holy name, for You have granted us life and sustained us. So may You continue to grant us life and sustain us, and gather our exiles into the courtyards of Your Sanctuary [so that we may] keep Your laws, serve You in truth, and fulfill Your will with a perfect heart, for we thankfully acknowledge You.

Whoever says Modim, modim should be silenced.

ד

ואומר קדושה בברכה שלישית וכיון שהגיע שליח ציבור לקדושה יש רשות לכל אחד ואחד לחזור במקום שעמד בו בתפלה וכשיגיע שליח ציבור למודים וכורע כל העם שוחין מעט ולא ישחו יותר מדאי ואומרים מודים אנחנו לך יי' אלהינו ואלהי כל בשר יוצרנו יוצר בראשית ברכות והודאות לשמך הגדול והקדוש על שהחייתנו וקיימתנו כן תחיינו ותחננו ותאסוף גליותינו לחצרות קדשך לשמור חוקיך ולעבדך באמת ולעשות רצונך בלבב שלם על שאנו מודים לך וכל האומר מודים מודים משתקין אותו:

5

After the leader of the congregation concludes the entire Shemoneh Esreh, he and the entire congregation should sit, fall on their faces, and lean over slightly, reciting supplicatory prayers while fallen on their faces.

Then, he and the entire congregation should sit, lift their heads, and recite a small amount of supplicatory prayer out loud while seated. Afterwards, the leader of the congregation alone should stand and recite Kaddish a second time. The congregation should answer as they did previously.

Afterwards, while he is standing, he recites V'hu rachum... and Tehillah [l'David]... The congregation remains seated and recites together with him. Afterwards, he recites [the following verses]: U'va l'Tzion go'el..., Va'ani zot..., V'attah kadosh... and V'kara zeh el zeh, v'amar: Kadosh... and completes the Kedushah.

They respond: Kadosh, Kadosh three times. He then recites the Kedushah in an Aramaic translation. Afterwards, he recites [the verse] Vatisa'eni ruach and reads it in Aramaic, and then recites [the verse], Ado-nai yimloch le'olam va'ed and reads it in Aramaic. [The Aramaic translations are intended] in order that the [common] people should understand.

ה

ואחר שישלים כל התפלה ישב ויפול על פניו ויטה מעט הוא וכל הציבור ויתחנן והוא נופל וישב ויגביה ראשו הוא ושאר העם ומתחנן מעט בקול רם מיושב ואחר כך יעמוד שליח ציבור לבדו ואומר קדיש פעם שנייה והם עונים כדרך שעונין בתחלה ואומר והוא רחום וכו' תהלה וכו' הוא עומד והם יושבים והם קוראים עמו ואח"כ אומר ובא לציון גואל וכו' ואני זאת וכו' ואתה קדוש וקרא זה אל זה ואמר קדוש וגומר הקדושה והם עונין קדוש קדוש שלש פעמים וחוזר וקורא הקדושה תרגום ואומר ותשאני רוח וכו' וקורא אותו תרגום ואומר יי' ימלוך לעולם ועד וקוראהו תרגום כדי להבין העם:

6

These verses [which are recited] before Kedushah and afterwards, together with their Aramaic translations, are referred to as "the order of Kedushah."

Afterwards, he recites supplicatory prayers and verses of mercy. He then recites the Kaddish. The people respond as is customary, and depart.

ו

ואלו הפסוקים שלפני הקדושה ושל אחריה עם תרגומן הם הנקראין סדר קדושה ואחר כך מתחנן בדברי תחנונים ובפסוקי רחמים ואומר קדיש וכל העם עונין כדרכן ונפטרין:

7

One who says in his supplicatory prayers: "May He who showed mercy on a bird's nest prohibiting the taking of the mother together with the chicks, or the slaughter of an animal and its calf on the same day, also show mercy on us," or [makes other] similar statements should be silenced, because these mitzvot are God's decrees and not [expressions] of mercy. Were they [expressions] of mercy, He would not permit us to slaughter at all.

Also, a person should not be profuse in his mention of adjectives describing God, and say: "The great, mighty, awesome, powerful, courageous, and strong God," for it is impossible for man to express the totality of His praises. Instead, one should mention [only] the praises that were mentioned by Moses, of blessed memory.

ז

מי שאמר בתחנונים מי שריחם על קן ציפור שלא ליקח האם על הבנים או שלא לשחוט אותו ואת בנו ביום אחד ירחם עלינו וכיוצא בענין זה משתקין אותו מפני שמצות אלו גזרת הכתוב הן ואינן רחמים שאילו היו מפני רחמים לא היה מתיר לנו שחיטה כל עיקר וכן לא ירבה בכנוים של שם ויאמר האל הגדול הגבור והנורא והחזק והאמיץ והעיזוז שאין כח באדם להגיע בסוף שבחיו אלא אומר מה שאמר משה רבינו עליו השלום:

8

In the Minchah service, the leader of the congregation recites Ashrei yoshvei veitecha..., Tehillah l'David.... He and the congregation recite this while seated. [Then,] the leader of the congregation stands and recites Kaddish. They stand and respond in their normal manner. [Afterwards,] they all pray in a hushed tone.

Afterwards, the leader of the congregation prays out loud, as in the morning service, until he concludes the Shemoneh Esreh. Then, both he and the congregation fall on their faces, recite supplicatory prayers, lift their heads, and recite a few supplicatory prayers while seated, as in the morning service.

[The leader of the congregation] rises and recites Kaddish. The congregation responds in the normal manner and they depart to their affairs.

ח

במנחה אומר שליח ציבור אשרי יושבי ביתך וכו' תהלה לדוד וכו' קורא הוא והעם מיושב ועומד שליח ציבור ואומר קדיש והם עומדים אחריו ועונין כדרכן ומתפללין כולם בלחש ואח"כ חוזר שליח ציבור ומתפלל בקול רם כדרך שעשה בשחרית עד שישלים כל התפלה ונופלים על פניהם ומתחנן ומגביה ראשו הוא והם ומתחנן מעט מיושב כדרך שעשה בשחרית ועומד ואומר קדיש וכל העם עונין כדרכן ונפטרין למעשיהם:

9

In the evening, all the people sit, and [the leader of the congregation] stands and recites: V'hu rachum.... [He announces:] Barchu et Ado-nai hamevorach, and they answer: Baruch Ado-nai hamevorach le'olam va'ed. He then begins by reciting the Shema and its blessings out loud and recites Kaddish. [Afterwards,] they all stand and pray in a hushed tone.

When they conclude, [the leader of the congregation] recites Kaddish and they depart. He does not repeat the evening Shemoneh Esreh out loud, since the evening service is not obligatory. Therefore, he should not recite blessings in vain, for there is no one who is obligated [to recite these blessings] whose obligation he would fulfill [by his recitation].

ט

בערב כל העם יושבין והוא עומד ואומר והוא רחום כו' ברכן את יי' המבורך וכו' והם עונין ברוך יי' המבורך לעולם ועד ומתחיל לפרוס על שמע ואומר קדיש ואחר כך הכל עומדים ומתפללין בלחש וכשמשלימין אומר קדיש והם נפטרין ואינו חוזר להתפלל בקול רם ערבית לפי שאין תפלת ערבית חובה לפיכך לא יברך ברכות לבטלה שאין כאן אדם שנתחייב בהם כדי להוציאו ידי חובתו:

10

On the night of the Sabbath, after praying together with the congregation in a hushed tone, the leader of the congregation prays out loud. However, he does not recite all seven blessings, but rather one blessing that includes all seven. He states:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord and Lord of our fathers, the Lord of Abraham, the Lord of Isaac, and the Lord of Jacob, the great, mighty, and awesome God, the supreme God, who, in His mercies, creates heaven and earth.
He shielded our ancestors with His word. He resurrects the dead with His statements - the holy God, like whom there is none. He causes His people to rest on His holy Sabbath, for to them did He desire to grant rest. We will serve Him with awe and fear and give thanks to His name every day, continually, according to the blessings [appropriate for that day]. God who is worthy of thanks, Lord of peace, who sanctifies the Sabbath and blesses the seventh day and brings rest with holiness to a people satiated with delight in commemoration of the work of creation.
Our Lord, and Lord of our fathers, desire our rest.... Blessed are You, God, who sanctifies the Sabbath.

He recites Kaddish and the people depart.

י

בלילי שבתות חוזר ש"ץ אחר שמתפלל בלחש עם הציבור ומתפלל בקום רם אבל אינו מתפלל שבע אלא ברכה אחת מעין שבע וכן הוא אומר ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו אלהי אברהם אלהי יצחק ואלהי יעקב האל הגדול הגבור והנורא אל עליון קונה ברחמיו שמים וארץ מגן אבות בדברו מחיה מתים במאמרו האל הקדוש שאין כמוהו המניח לעמו בשבת קדשו כי בם רצה להניח להם לפניו נעבוד ביראה ופחד ונודה לשמו בכל יום תמיד מעין הברכות אל ההודאות אדון השלום מקדש השבת ומברך השביעי ומניח בקדושה לעם מדושני עונג זכר למעשה בראשית אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו רצה נא במנוחתנו וכו' ברוך אתה יי' מקדש השבת ואומר קדיש ונפטרין כל העם

11

Why did the Sages institute this [practice]? Because the majority of people come to recite the evening service on Friday night. It is possible that someone will come late, remain alone in the synagogue, and thus be endangered. Accordingly, the leader of the congregation repeats his prayers in order that the entire congregation will remain, [allowing] the one who came late to conclude his prayers and leave together with them.

יא

ולמה תקנו חכמים זה מפני שרוב העם באין להתפלל ערבית בלילי שבתות ויהיה שם מי שנתאחר לבא ולא השלים תפלתו וישאר לבדו בבה"כ ויבא לידי סכנה לפיכך חוזר שליח ציבור ומתפלל כדי שיתעכבו כל העם עד שישלים המתאחר ויצא עמהם:

12

Therefore, when a festival, Rosh Chodesh or Yom Kippur coincides with the Sabbath, the leader of the congregation who recites the evening service does not mention the unique aspect of the day in this blessing. Instead, he concludes, "[Blessed are You, God,] who sanctifies the Sabbath," [mentioning] only [the Sabbath], because [on the other] days, there is no obligation [to recite] this blessing.

יב

יב. לפיכך יום טוב שחל להיות בשבת או יוה"כ או ראש חדש אין שליח ציבור היורד ערבית לפני התיבה מזכיר ענין היום בברכה זו אבל חותם בה מקדש השבת בלבד לפי שלא נתחייב היום בברכה זו:

13

On the Sabbaths and the festivals, after the leader of the congregation completes the recitation of the Shemoneh Esreh of the morning service out loud, he recites Kaddish and afterwards, Tehillah l'David. He recites Kaddish [again] and [the congregation] recites Musaf in a hushed tone. Afterwards, he recites the Musaf Shemoneh Esreh out loud, in the same manner as the morning service. He recites Kaddish after Musaf and the people depart.

We do not recite Kedushah and supplicatory prayers after the morning service. Instead, we recite them before the Minchah service. What is implied? We recite Tehillah l'David, the order of the day, and supplicatory prayers. [The leader of the congregation] recites Kaddish and the Minchah service is recited [in a hushed tone.] Afterwards, [the leader of the congregation] repeats the service out loud, and then recites Kaddish.

יג

בשבתות וימים טובים כשגומר שליח ציבור תפלת שחרית בקול רם אומר קדיש ואח"כ תהלה לדוד וכו' ואומר קדיש ומתפללין מוסף בלחש ואחר כך מתפלל מוסף בקול רם כדרך שעשה בשחרית ואומר קדיש אחר תפלת מוסף והעם נפטרין ואין אומרין קדושה ותחנונים אחר תפלת שחרית כשאר הימים אלא אומר אותה קודם תפלת המנחה כיצד קורא תהלה לדוד ואומר סדר היום ודברי תחנונים ואומר קדיש ומתפללין מנחה וחוזר ומשמיע תפלת מנחה בקול רם ואומר קדיש:

14

On Rosh Chodesh and Chol Hamo'ed, one recites the order of kedushah before the Musaf prayer. On the night following the Sabbath, the order of the day is also recited after the evening service. [Then] one recites Kaddish and afterwards, Havdalah.

יד

בראשי חדשים ובחולו של מועד אומר סדר קדושה קודם תפלת מוסף במוצאי שבת אומר סדר היום גם אחר תפלת הערב ואומרים קדיש ואח"כ מבדיל:

Tefilah and Birkat Kohanim - Chapter Ten

1

A person who prayed without concentrating [on his prayers] must pray a second time with concentration. However, if he had concentrated during the first blessing, nothing more is necessary.

A person who errs in the recitation of the first three blessings [of the Shemoneh Esreh] must return to the beginning [of the Shemoneh Esreh]. Should one err in the recitation of the final three blessings, one should return to [the blessing, R'tzey]. If one errs in the midst of [one of] the intermediate blessings, one should return to the beginning of that blessing and [then] conclude one's prayers in the [proper] order.

Should the leader of the congregation err when he is praying out loud, he should [correct himself] based on these principles.

א

מי שהתפלל ולא כיון את לבו יחזור ויתפלל בכוונה ואם כיון את לבו בברכה ראשונה שוב אינו צריך מי שטעה באחת משלש ברכות הראשונות חוזר לראש ואם טעה באחת משלש ברכות אחרונות יחזור לעבודה ואם טעה באחת מן האמצעיות חוזר לתחלת ברכה שטעה בה ומשלים תפלתו על הסדר וכן ש"צ שטעה כשהוא מתפלל בקול רם על דרך זו הוא חוזר:

2

However, if the leader of the congregation errs while he is praying in a hushed tone, I maintain that he does not repeat his prayers a second time, because of the difficulty it will cause the congregation. Rather, he relies on the prayer which he will recite out loud.

The above applies when he does not err in the first three blessings. If he errs in their [recitation], he always repeats [his prayers] in the same manner as any [other] individual.

ב

אבל אם טעה ש"ץ כשהוא מתפלל בלחש אני אומר שאינו חוזר ומתפלל פעם שנייה מפני טורח ציבור אלא סומך על התפלה שמתפלל בקול רם והוא שלא טעה בשלש ראשונות שאם טעה בהם לעולם חוזר כמו שהיחיד חוזר:

3

Should the leader of a congregation err [in his repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh], become confused and not know where to begin [again] - if he waits for a prolonged period, another person should replace him.

If he errs in the recitation of the blessing [that curses] the heretics, we do not wait for him [to correct himself]; rather, another person should replace him. This applies only when he did not begin this [blessing]. However, if he did begin [the blessing], we wait for him.

The second person should not refuse at this time.

ג

שליח ציבור שטעה ונבהל ולא ידע מהיכן יתחיל ושהה שעה יעמוד אחר תחתיו ואם טעה בברכת האפיקורסין אין ממתינין לו אלא מיד יעמוד אחר תחתיו שמא אפיקורסות נזרקה בו והוא שלא התחיל בה אבל אם התחיל בה ממתינין לו שעה ולא יהא השני סרבן באותה שעה:

4

From which point should [the substitute for the leader of the congregation] begin? If the first one erred in one of the intermediate blessings, [the substitute] should begin from the beginning of the blessing in which he erred. However, if he erred in one of the first three blessings, the [substitute] starts from the beginning [of the Shemoneh Esreh. If he erred in one of the final [three] blessings, the substitute should begin from [the blessing, R'tzey].

ד

ומהיכן הוא מתחיל מתחילת ברכה שטעה בה ראשון אם טעה באחת מן האמצעיות אבל אם טעה באחת מן השלש ראשונות מתחיל השני מן הראש ואם טעה באחת מן האחרונות יתחיל השני מן העבודה:

5

A person who says, "I will not lead the congregation in prayer because [I am wearing] colored clothes," should not lead the congregation in that prayer service even when wearing white clothes. If he said, "I will not lead the congregation because I am wearing sandals," he should not lead the congregation even when barefoot.

ה

האומר איני יורד לפני התיבה מפני שבגדי צבועים אף בלבנים לא יעבור באותה תפלה אמר איני עובר מפני שיש ברגלי סנדל אף יחף לא יעבור:

6

A person who is in doubt whether he prayed or not should not repeat his prayers, unless he recites the second prayer with the intention that it is a voluntary prayer, since an individual may recite voluntary prayers throughout the entire day.

A person who remembers that he has already prayed while he is in the midst of the Shemoneh Esreh should cease [praying] immediately, even if he is in the midst of a blessing. [However,] if he was reciting the evening service, he need not cease [praying], for even at the outset, he did not begin that prayer service with the thought that it was an obligation.

ו

מי שנסתפק לו אם התפלל אם לא התפלל אינו חוזר ומתפלל אלא אם כן מתפלל תפלה זו על דעת שהיא נדבה שאם רצה יחיד להתפלל כל היום תפלת נדבה יתפלל מי שהיה עומד בתפלה ונזכר שכבר התפלל פוסק ואפילו באמצע ברכה ואם היתה תפלת ערבית אינו פוסק שלא התפלל אותה מתחילה אלא על דעת שאינה חובה:

7

A person who erred and recited a weekday prayer on the Sabbath does not fulfill his obligation. If he recalled while he was in the midst of the Shemoneh Esreh, he should conclude the blessing which he has begun and [continue] reciting the Sabbath prayers.

When does the above apply? In the evening, morning, and Minchah services. However, in the Musaf service, one should cease [praying] even in the midst of a blessing. Similarly, if one completed a weekday Shemoneh Esreh with the intention that it be one's Musaf prayers, one must recite Musaf again. This applies on the Sabbath, on a festival, and on Rosh Chodesh.

ז

מי שטעה והתפלל של חול בשבת לא יצא ואם נזכר והוא בתוך התפלה גומר ברכה שהתחיל בה וחוזר ומתפלל של שבת בד"א בערבית או בשחרית או במנחה אבל במוסף פוסק אפילו באמצע הברכה וכן אם השלים תפלה של חול על דעת שהוא מוסף חוזר ומתפלל מוסף אחד שבת ואחד יום טוב ואחד ראש חדש:

8

[When] one errs during the rainy season and does not recite either morid hageshem or morid hatal, he must return to the beginning of the prayers. However, if he mentions dew, he need not repeat [his prayers].

Should one err in the summer and recite morid hageshem, he must return to the beginning of the prayers. However, if he omits mention of dew [in the summer], he need not repeat his prayers, for dew is never held back, nor is there a need to request it.

ח

מי שטעה בימות הגשמים ולא אמר מוריד הגשם ולא מוריד הטל חוזר לראש ואם הזכיר הטל אינו חוזר ואם טעה בימות החמה ואמר מוריד הגשם חוזר לראש ואם לא הזכיר טל אין מחזירין אותו שאין הטל נעצר ואין צריך בקשה:

9

[The following rules apply when] one forgets to request rain in the blessing for material prosperity: If he remembers before [the blessing,] shome'a tefilah, he should request rain in [that blessing]. If he [recalls] after reciting the blessing, shome'a tefilah, he should return to the blessing for material prosperity. If he does not recall until after he completes the Shemoneh Esreh, he must return to the beginning of the prayer and pray a second time.

ט

מי ששכח שאלה בברכת השנים אם נזכר קודם שומע תפלה שואל את הגשמים בשומע תפלה ואם אחר שבירך שומע תפלה חוזר לברכת השנים ואם לא נזכר עד שהשלים כל תפלתו חוזר לראש ומתפלל שנייה:

10

[The following rules apply when] a person errs and fails to mention Ya'aleh v'yavo: If he remembers before he has concluded the Shemoneh Esreh, he should return to [the blessing, R'tzey], and recite it. If he remembers after he has concluded his prayers, he must repeat the Shemoneh Esreh from the beginning. If he is accustomed to recite supplicatory prayers after Shemoneh Esreh and remembers after he has concluded his prayers, but before he has lifted up his feet [to step backwards after prayer], he should return to [the blessing, R'tzey].

י

טעה ולא הזכיר יעלה ויבא אם נזכר קודם שישלים תפלתו חוזר לעבודה ומזכיר ואם נזכר אחר שהשלים תפלתו חוזר לראש ואם היה רגיל לומר תחנונים אחר תפלתו ונזכר אחר שהשלים תפלתו קודם שיעקור רגליו חוזר לעבודה:

11

When does the above apply? On Chol Hamo'ed or in the morning or Minchah services of Rosh Chodesh. However, in the evening service of Rosh Chodesh, if one failed to mention it one need not repeat his prayers.

יא

במה דברים אמורים בחולו של מועד או בשחרית ובמנחה של ראשי חדשים אבל ערבית של ראש חדש אם לא הזכיר אינו חוזר:

12

In every case in which an individual is required to repeat his prayers [because of an error], the leader of the congregation is also required to repeat his prayers if he made a similar mistake while praying out loud, with the exception of the morning service of Rosh Chodesh.

[In this instance,] if the leader of the congregation failed to mention Ya'aleh v'yavo before completing his prayers, he is not required to repeat his prayers because of the difficulty it would cause the congregation. The Musaf service is still to be recited and Rosh Chodesh will be mentioned there.

יב

כל מקום שהיחיד חוזר ומתפלל ש"ץ חוזר ומתפלל אם טעה כמותו בעת שמתפלל בקול רם חוץ משחרית של ראש חדש שאם שכח ש"ץ ולא הזכיר יעלה ויבא עד שהשלים תפלתו אין מחזירין אותו מפני טורח ציבור שהרי תפלת המוספין לפניו שהוא מזכיר בה ראש חדש:

13

If during the ten days between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, one erred and concluded the third blessing, Ha'El hakadosh, he should return to the beginning of the Shemoneh Esreh.

If he erred and concluded the eleventh blessing, Melech ohev tzedakah umishpat, he should return to the beginning of the blessing and conclude Hamelech hamishpat, and continue reciting his prayers in order. If he did not remember until he concluded his prayers, he must recite [his prayers again] from the beginning.

[These laws apply] to both an individual and to the leader of the congregation.

יג

עשרה ימים שמראש השנה עד יום הכפורים טעה וחתם בהם בברכה שלישית האל הקדוש חוזר לראש טעה וחתם בעשתי עשרה מלך אוהב צדקה ומשפט חוזר לתחלת הברכה וחותם בה המלך המשפט ומתפלל והולך על הסדר ואם לא נזכר אלא עד שהשלים כל תפלתו חוזר לראש אחד יחיד ואחד שליח ציבור:

14

If a person erred and did not mention Havdalah in the blessing, chonen hada'at, he should conclude his prayers, without returning [to correct himself]. Similarly, one who did not mention Al hanisim on Chanukah or Purim, or Anenu in the prayers on a fast day, need not repeat his prayers. [These laws apply] to both an individual and the leader of a congregation.

If one remembers before lifting his feet [to step backwards after prayer], he should say: "Answer us because You are the one who hears prayer, redeems, and rescues in all times of difficulty and distress. May the words of my mouth...."

יד

טעה ולא הזכיר הבדלה בחונן הדעת משלים תפלתו ואינו צריך לחזור וכן מי שלא הזכיר על הנסים בחנוכה ובפורים ועננו בתפלת תענית אינו חוזר ומתפלל אחד יחיד ואחד שליח ציבור ואם נזכר קודם שיעקור את רגליו אומר עננו כי אתה שומע תפלה פודה ומציל בכל עת צרה וצוקה יהיו לרצון אמרי פי וגו':

15

[A person who] forgot to recite the afternoon service on the Sabbath eve should recite the Sabbath evening service twice. [The same law applies] on a festival.

[A person who] forgot to recite the afternoon service on the Sabbath or a festival should recite the weekday evening service twice after their conclusion.

He should recite Havdalah in the first of these prayers and not in the second. However, if he recited Havdalah in both prayers or omitted it in both prayers, he fulfills his obligation. Nevertheless, if he did not recite Havdalah in his first Shemoneh Esreh, but mentioned it in his second, he [must] return and recite a third Shemoneh Esreh, since his first prayers were not acceptable because they were recited before the evening service.

Whoever recites two prayers [in succession] - even the morning service and the Musaf service - should not recite them one immediately after the other. Rather, he should wait between prayers, so that his mind will be settled.

טו

שכח ולא התפלל מנחה בערב שבת יתפלל ערבית שתים של שבת וכן ביום טוב שכח ולא התפלל מנחה בשבת או ביום טוב מתפלל במוצאיהן ערבית שתים של חול מבדיל בראשונה ואינו מבדיל בשנייה ואם הבדיל בשתיהן או לא הבדיל באחת מהן יצא אבל אם לא הבדיל בראשונה והבדיל בשנייה חוזר ומתפלל תפלה שלישית מפני שהראשונה לא עלתה לו מפני שהקדימה לתפלת ערבית וכל המתפלל שתי תפלות אפילו שחרית ומוסף לא יתפלל זו אחר זו אלא ישהה בין תפלה לתפלה כדי שתתחונן דעתו עליו:

16

It is forbidden for a person who is praying with a congregation to pray before the congregation.

[The following rules apply when] a person enters a synagogue and finds the congregation praying in a hushed tone: If he could begin and complete his prayers before the leader of the congregation reached Kedushah, he should recite the Shemoneh Esreh. If not, he should wait until the leader of the congregation begins reciting the Shemoneh Esreh out loud, and pray together with him word for word until the leader of the congregation reaches Kedushah. He should respond to Kedushah with the rest of the congregation and then recite the remainder of the Shemoneh Esreh alone.

One who began reciting the Shemoneh Esreh before the leader of the congregation, [but was unable to conclude his prayers before] the leader of the congregation reached Kedushah, should not interrupt his prayers [to] respond to Kedushah with [the congregation]. Similarly, one should not respond Amen, yehei shemeih rabba mevarach... while in the midst of Shemoneh Esreh. Needless to say, [this applies regarding responding "Amen"] to other blessings.

טז

אסור לו למתפלל בציבור שיקדים תפלתו לתפלת הציבור הנכנס לבית הכנסת ומצא ציבור שמתפללין בלחש אם יכול להתחיל ולגמור עד שלא יגיע שליח ציבור לקדושה יתפלל ואם לאו ימתין עד שיתחיל שליח ציבור להתפלל בקול רם ויתפלל עמו בלחש מלה במלה עד שיגיע שליח ציבור לקדושה ועונה קדושה עם הציבור ומתפלל שאר תפלה לעצמו ואם התחיל להתפלל קודם שליח ציבור והגיע שליח ציבור לקדושה לא יפסיק ולא יענה קדושה עמהן וכן לא יענה אמן יהא שמיה רבא מברך והוא באמצע התפלה ואין צריך לומר בשאר הברכות:

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