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Shabbat, 27 Tishrei 5773 / October 13, 2012

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 4, Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 5, Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 6

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Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 4

Halacha 1

What is the minimum measure for the impurity of foods? For them to contract impurity, even the slightest amount. Even a sesame or mustard seed contracts impurity, as Leviticus 11:34 states: "Any food that shall be eaten," including even the slightest amount.

Food does not impart impurity to other foods or liquids or a person's hands until it is the size of an egg without its shell. And a person who partakes of impure foods is not disqualified from partaking of terumah and sacrificial foods unless he partakes of a portion of impure food the size of an egg and a half. This is half a p'ras.

Halacha 2

Even the slightest amount of liquid can contract ritual impurity and impart ritual impurity. Even a drop of an impure liquid the size of a mustard seed that touched foods, keilim, or other liquids causes them to become impure. Nevertheless, a person who drinks impure liquids does not become disqualified unless he drinks a revi'it, as we explained.

Halacha 3

All liquids can be combined to comprise the minimum measure and disqualify a person's body if he drank a revi'it. All foods can be combined to comprise the minimum measure of an egg-sized portion that imparts the impurity associated with foods and to a half a pras to disqualify a person. Even wheat can be combined with flour, with dough, with figs, with meat and the like. Everything can be combined.

Halacha 4

When an animal's hide is connected to its meat, the juice it secretes, the spices, the meat connected to the hide - although one had the intent to eat part of it and did not have the intent to eat the remainder, even though part of it was separated by a beast of prey and part of it was separated by a knife - the bones that are connected to the meat, the giddim, the soft portions of the horns and the hoofs, the thin feathers and the wooly hairs of a fowl, the soft portion of its nails and the beak that are embedded in its flesh: all of these contract impurity, impart impurity, and are included in an egg-sized portion or half a pras.

Halacha 5

When an egg-sized portion of impure food was left in the sun and it shrank, it does not impart impurity. Similarly, an olive-sized portion from a human corpse or an animal carcass and a lentil-sized portion from a dead creeping animal that was left in the sun and shrank are pure.

Halacha 6

When an olive-sized portion of fat, blood, notar, or piggul was left in the sun and it shrank, one is not liable for karet for partaking of them. If he left them in the rain and they swelled, returning to the specified volume, they return to their original status, whether that involves severe impurity, a lesser impurity, or a prohibition against partaking of the substance.

Halacha 7

Onion leaves and onion shoots that are hollow which possess sap are measured according to their present size. If they are hollow and empty, their hollow should be compressed before their volume is measured.

Halacha 8

A puffy bread is measured as it is. If it has a cavity, the cavity should be compressed.

Halacha 9

When the meat of a calf expands or the meat of an older animal shrinks, its volume should be measured in its present state.

Halacha 10

The volume of nuts, dates, and almonds that have dried are measured in their present state.

Halacha 11

All entities whose type of impurity and minimum measures are similar can be combined with each other to reach that measure. If their impurity was similar, but not the minimum measures or the minimum measures, but not the impurity, they should not be combined, not even to impart the lesser type of impurity. What is meant by the type of its impurity, but not the minimum measure? E.g., the flesh of a corpse and the decomposed mass from it. What is meant by its minimum measure, but not its type? E.g., the flesh of a human corpse and the flesh of an animal carcass. Needless to say, impure entities that are not similar, neither in their measure and their type of impurity, e.g., the flesh of an animal carcass and the flesh of a dead crawling animal, are not combined.

Halacha 12

The measure of all impure food is the same. For all impure foods do not impart impurity unless there is an egg-sized portion present. And their impurity is of the same type, for all impure foods impart impurity only through touch and they do not impart impurity to humans or to keilim. Therefore, they can be combined to impart impurity according to the lesser level of impurity among them.

What is implied? When there was a half an egg-sized portion of food that was a primary derivative of impurity and a half of an egg-sized portion of food that was a secondary derivative that were mixed together, they are considered as an egg-sized portion that is a secondary derivative. If the mixture touches food that was terumah, it disqualifies it.

When there was a half an egg-sized portion of food that was a secondary derivative of impurity and a half of an egg-sized portion of food that was a tertiary derivative that were mixed together, they are considered as an egg-sized portion that is a tertiary derivative. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. Even when there was a half an egg-sized portion of food that was a primary derivative and a half of an egg-sized portion of sacrificial food that was a fourth degree derivative that were mixed together, they are considered as an egg-sized portion that is a fourth degree derivative.

Halacha 13

When an egg-sized portion of food that was a primary derivative of impurity and an egg-sized portion of food that was a secondary derivative were mixed together, the entire mixture is considered as a primary derivative. If the mixture was divided, each portion is a secondary derivative.

If one of the portions of the mixture that was divided fell on a loaf of bread that was terumah and then the other fell upon it, they disqualify it. If the two fell at the same time, they cause it to be considered as a secondary derivative.

Halacha 14

When an egg-sized portion of food that was a secondary derivative of impurity and an egg-sized portion of food that was a tertiary derivative were mixed together, the entire mixture is considered as a secondary derivative. If the mixture was divided, each portion is a tertiary derivative. If one of the portions of the mixture that was divided fell on a loaf of bread that was terumah and then the other fell upon it, they do not disqualify it. If the two fell at the same time, they cause it to be considered as a tertiary derivative.

Halacha 15

When an egg-sized portion of food that was a primary derivative of impurity and an egg-sized portion of food that was a tertiary derivative were mixed together, the entire mixture is considered as a primary derivative. If the mixture was divided, each portion is a secondary derivative. The rationale is that when a tertiary derivative touches a primary derivative, it becomes a secondary derivative.

Halacha 16

When two egg-sized portions of food that were primary derivatives of impurity and two egg-sized portions of food that were secondary derivatives were mixed together, the entire mixture is considered as a primary derivative. If the mixture was divided in half, each portion is a primary derivative. If they were divided into three or four portions, each one of them is considered a secondary derivative.

Similarly, when two egg-sized portions of food that were secondary derivatives of impurity and two egg-sized portions of food that were tertiary derivatives were mixed together, the entire mixture is considered as a secondary derivative. If the mixture was divided in half, each portion is a secondary derivative. If they were divided into three or four portions, each one of them is considered a tertiary derivative.

Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 5

Halacha 1

The term yad when used in connection with food refers to the thin stems that are close to fruit from which the fruit hangs from the tree, e.g. the stems of figs and pears and the edges of a grape cluster. In this category are also included seeds and other entities required by the foods and any shomrim for foods, i.e., the shell over the foods that protects it. Similar laws apply to all analogous substances.

Halacha 2

Any substance that is a yad, but not a shomer is susceptible to impurity, imparts impurity, but is not considered as part of the food. Any substance that is a shomer, even though it is not a yad is susceptible to impurity, imparts impurity, and is combined together with the food. Any entity that is not a shomer, nor a yad, is neither susceptible to impurity, nor does it impart impurity. Needless to say, it is not considered as part of the food.

What is meant by saying "it is susceptible to impurity, imparts impurity, but is not considered as part of the food"? If impurity touched the yad, the food suspended from it becomes impure. If impurity touched the food, the yad becomes impure. The yad is not combined with the food to comprise an egg-sized portion or a half a pras. If, however, an entity is a shomer it is considered as part of an egg-sized portion or a half a pras.

Halacha 3

Just as there is a concept of a yad with regard to contracting impurity, so too, there is a concept of a yad with regard to making foods susceptible to impurity through exposure to liquids. If the yad was exposed to a liquid, all of the food hanging from it is susceptible to impurity.

The concept of a yad applies even though the fruit is smaller than an olive-sized portion and the concept of a shomer applies even though the fruit is smaller than a bean. When a shomer is divided, it no longer is combined with the food.

Halacha 4

What is the source that teaches that the shomerim of food contract impurity together with the food when they are connected to it? Leviticus 11:37 states: "On any type of kernels of seed that will be sown." Implied is that the kernels are considered in the form which people use to sow, e.g., wheat in its coating, barley in its shell, lentils in their coverings. Similar laws apply to other shomerim.

Halacha 5

What is the source that teaches that the yadot of food are susceptible to impurity and impart impurity when they are connected to foods? It is written ibid.: 38: "They shall be impure for you," included is anything necessary for you so that the food can be eaten.

Halacha 6

When a person harvests grapes for a winepress, there is no concept of yadot, for he has no need of the yad, because it absorbs the liquid.

Halacha 7

When one harvests produce to use as a covering for his sukkah, there is no concept of yadot, for he has no need of the yad.

Halacha 8

Whenever the yadot of food were crushed in the granary, they are pure.

Halacha 9

When a sprig of a cluster is stripped of its grapes, it is pure. If one grape remained, it is considered as a yad for that grape and it is susceptible to impurity. Similarly, if a stalk from a date palm was stripped of its dates, it is pure. If one date remained, it is impure. Similarly, if a pod of legumes was emptied, it is pure. If one legume remained, it is susceptible to impurity.

Halacha 10

There can never be a concept of a shomer for a shomer. Only the protective covering that is closest to the food is considered as part of it.

Halacha 11

There are three peels to an onion: the inner peel, whether it is whole or cut, it is combined with the food. When the middle peel is whole, it is combined. If it is cut, it is not combined. The outer peel is pure in both instances.

Halacha 12

All shells become susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, and are combined together with the food because they are shomerim. When the pods of beans and vetch are discarded, they do not become susceptible to impurity. If they were saved to be served as food, they do become susceptible to impurity. If food remains inside them, they are susceptible to impurity regardless.

Cucumber peels are susceptible to the impurity of foods, even though they are not connected to the cucumber at all. When barley kernels are dry, their shell is included with them. If the kernels are fresh, the shells are not included with them. The shells of wheat kernels are included with them in all instances.

Halacha 13

All seeds become susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, but are not combined together with the food with the exception of a fresh date seed. The seed of a dried date, by contrast, is not combined with the food.

Halacha 14

The covering of a fresh date seed is not combined with the fruit. The covering of a dry date seed, by contrast, is combined with the fruit. Since it cleaves to the fruit, it is considered as part of the fruit.

Halacha 15

When a portion of a date seed projects outside the fruit, the portion that has food around it is combined with it. The portion that projects beyond it does not.

Similarly, when there is a bone with meat on it, any portion of the bone that has meat around it is combined with the meat. If it has meat on it only from one side, only the portion of bone under the meat is combined with it and only the upper portion of the bone until its cavity. If a bone does not have a cavity, we consider it as the thickness of a hyssop stem. Only that portion is combined with the meat; the remainder is not combined. The rationale is that the bones are considered like shomerim for the meat.

Halacha 16

A thigh bone that has meat - even a mere bean-size portion - upon it causes the entire bone to be included in the reckoning for impurity.

Halacha 17

Olive and date seeds that were cooked to be eaten are not susceptible to impurity.

Halacha 18

Even though one collected carob seeds with the intent of eating them, they are not susceptible to impurity. If one cooked them with the intent of eating them, they are susceptible to impurity.

Halacha 19

The following are susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, and are combined together with the food: the roots of garlic, onions, and leek, when they are fresh, their protuberance, whether fresh or dry, their stalk which is opposite the food, the roots of lettuce and Israeli radishes, and the main root of large radishes are combined with the food. The thin roots of large radishes, by contrast, are not combined. The roots of mint and rue and the roots of wild vegetables that were uprooted with the intent of replanting them, the center stalk of grain and the husks of its kernels, the stems of figs, dried figs, thin figs, and carobs are susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, and are combined together with the food.

Halacha 20

The following are susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, but are not combined together with the food: the roots of garlic, onions, and leek, when they are dry, stalks growing from them that are not opposite their central portion, the mila'in of grain stalks, i.e., the dark hairs on top of a grain stalk that resemble the teeth of a saw, the stems of pears, small pears, quince, and crabapples, the handbreadth of the stem of squash that is closest to the vegetable itself, a handbreadth of the stem of an artichoke, and similarly, a handbreadth from either side of a branch from which a twig of a grape vine grows. From the twig of a grape vine grow many clusters. This same ruling is applied to the stem of a cluster regardless of its size. The yad of the tail end of the shoot of the cluster from which the grapes were removed and that of a branch of a date palm is four handbreadths long. The term branch refers to the red branch that the stalks hang from; the dates hang from the stalks. Three handbreadths of the stem of the grainstalk are considered as a yad. Similarly, three handbreadths of the stem of all plants that are reaped are considered as a yad. If plants are not reaped, their stems and roots are considered as yadot regardless of their length.

All of the aforementioned are susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, but are not combined together with the food, because they are yadot.

Halacha 21

The following are not susceptible to impurity, do not impart impurity, and are not combined together with the food: other stems, the roots of cabbage heads, the roots of beets, the roots of turnips - this refers to the deep roots that remain when the cabbage and turnips are harvested from which the plants grow a second time - and all the roots that are cut off when they are uprooted together with the food.

The button of a pomegranate is combined together with the fruit. The buds that grow from it are not combined.

Halacha 22

When part of a pomegranate or a watermelon decomposed, the remainder is not considered as joined to the part that decomposed. The remainder of the peel is not combined with the fruit, for its protection of the fruit is of no benefit. Similarly, if such fruit was intact on either side, but rotten in the center, the portions of fruit on the sides are not considered as joined to each other, nor is the peel combined with the food.

The green leaves of vegetables are combined with the foods. The white leaves are not, because they are of no benefit.

Tum'at Okhalin - Chapter 6

Halacha 1

When the shells of nuts and almonds are cracked, they are still considered as attached to the food until the shell is shattered.

Halacha 2

Once a perforation has been made through which to suck out the contents of a soft-roasted egg, the remainder of the shell is not considered as connected to it. When an egg has been cooked, its shell is considered as connected to it until it is shattered. If the shell has been spiced, even if it is shattered entirely, it is still considered as connected.

Halacha 3

When a bone contains marrow, the bone is considered as connected to the marrow until it is shattered. The wool on the heads of sheep and the hair on a goat's beard even when charred with fire are still considered as connected to the food until one begins removing them.

Halacha 4

Even though one already passed a knife over the wings of locusts or the scales of fish, they are considered as connected until one begins actually peeling them off. When the seeds of a pomegranate have separated, they are still considered as connected until one strikes it with a reed.

Halacha 5

The stalks of a date palm are not considered as connected to each other.

Halacha 6

When one cut a cucumber and placed it on the table, the portions are considered as connected until one begins to separate one from the other. If one begins to separate, a piece and anything that ascends with it is considered as connected. The remainder is not considered as connected. The lower tip is considered as connected to itself and not to the other pieces.

When there were two or three cucumbers, one cut each one of them and placed them on the table and began eating one of them, the one he began eating is considered as connected and the others are not considered as connected. Even if he said: "I am eating half in the morning and half in the evening," the half with which he began is considered as connected and the remainder is not considered as connected.

Halacha 7

When a person cuts vegetables and the like to cook them, even though he did not finish cutting them to the extent that they were separated, they are no longer considered as connected. Instead, if one piece contracts impurity, the other does not contract impurity even though they remain attached.

If one cuts a vegetable to pickle, to cook lightly, or to serve on the table, the pieces are considered as connected, even if he begins to separate what he cut.

Halacha 8

Any food that was still not separated is considered as connected. If part of it contracts impurity, it is impure in its entirety.

Halacha 9

The following rules apply when food was divided, but the pieces were still partially attached and an impure person touched one piece. Were he to hold the piece that he touched, the other piece would ascend with it, they are considered as connected. If when one holds the impure piece and lifts it up, the other one would break off and fall, they are not considered as connected. Instead, the second piece is considered as touching the piece that contracted impurity.

Halacha 10

The following laws apply whenever leaves or stems are connected to foods. Those that are usually held by their leaves, should be held by their leaves. If they are held by their stalks, they should be held by their stalks. If the food remains hanging from the leaves or the stems, it is considered as connected when touched by a person who immersed in a mikveh that day. Needless to say, this applies to other impurities.

Similarly, if a fruit has a part that could be considered as a handle, it should be held by the handle. If it has both leaves and a handle, it should be held by whichever one desires. If it has neither leaves nor a handle, concerning such a situation, our Sages said: If when one holds the impure piece and lifts it up, the other one ascends with it, they are considered connected. If not, they are not considered connected.

Halacha 11

When one cut off nuts with their stems when they are soft and joined them together like a rope or joined onions together in a like manner, they are considered as joined. If he begins separating the nuts or cutting off the onions, the remainder are not considered as joined. Even if there were 100 kor left, they are all not considered as connected, because he has indicated that his intent is to undo all of them.

Halacha 12

When there is a braided chain of garlic heads and liquids fell on one of them, it is impure, but those joined to it are pure. For articles joined together by humans are not considered as joined together for all matters. Similarly, when an esrog was separated into pieces and skewered by a weaving needle or a sliver of wood, the pieces are not considered as joined.

Halacha 13

When a dough was kneaded with fruit juice, the portions of the dough are not considered as joined, for the only entities that join food are the seven liquids.

Halacha 14

When one crushes foods together and amasses them, e.g., dried figs, dates, or raisins that were amassed and made into a single block, they are not considered as joined. Therefore, when impure liquids fell on a portion of a ring of dried figs, one may remove the portion on which the liquids fell and the remainder is pure.

Halacha 15

If one cooked dates and dried figs together and made them a single mass, they are considered as joined.

Halacha 16

When olives were stored and combined together in a single mass, they are considered as joined, since at the outset, they were placed in the pit with the intent that their fluids flow from one to another.

Therefore if the carcass of a creeping animal was found on a mound of olives, i.e., olives that have become a single mass, even if it touched only a barley-sized portion of the mass, the entire amount is impure, because it is all a single entity.

If a person had a mass of olives and he was planning to turn it over, once he inserts the spade into the mass, they are no longer considered as connected even though there are many lumps. If a mass is formed after they were turned over, they are not considered as joined.

Halacha 17

When separate foods are all collected in the same place and are clinging to each other, even though they are not considered as joined with regard to the contraction of impurity, and they are not considered as a single mass, as explained, they are still combined to produce the measure of an egg-sized portion to impart impurity to other foods. If the foods were not collected as one mass, but instead were separate like cooked food and legumes, they are not considered as a combined entity even in that context until they are collected and formed into a single mass.

When there were many lumps of food, one next to another and a primary source of impurity touched one of them, that lump is considered as a primary derivative of impurity. The lump next to it is considered as a secondary derivative, the one next to the second, a tertiary derivative, and the one next to the third, a derivative of the fourth degree.

Halacha 18

If a loaf that was terumah was a primary derivative of impurity became attached to others, they are all considered as primary derivatives. If it was separated, it is considered as a primary derivative and the others, as secondary derivatives. If it was a secondary derivative and it became attached to others, they are all considered as secondary derivatives. If it was separated, it is considered as a secondary derivative and the others, as tertiary derivatives. If it was a tertiary derivative and it became attached to others, it remains a tertiary derivative and they are all considered as pure, whether they were separated or not.

Halacha 19

When loaves that are terumah are attached to each other and one of them contracted impurity from the carcass of a crawling animal, they are all considered as primary derivatives even if they are separated afterwards. If one of them contracted impurity from impure liquids, they are all considered as secondary derivatives even if they are separated afterwards. If one contracted impurity from impure hands, they are all considered as primary derivatives even if they are separated afterwards. The rationale for this law is that the loaves were a single entity at the impurity was contracted.

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