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Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Kilaayim - Chapter 6

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Kilaayim - Chapter 6

1

When a person sows vegetables or grain in a vineyard or maintains these species, allowing to grow 1/200th, he causes the vines around it to become hallowed in a radius - not a square1 - of sixteen cubits. We consider the entire circle with a diameter of 32 cubits as if it were filled entirely with vegetables. Any vine that grows in this circle becomes hallowed together with the vegetables. Any one outside the circle is not hallowed.

א

הזורע ירק או תבואה בכרם או המקיימו עד שהוסיף במאתים הרי זה מקדש מן הגפנים שסביבותיו שש עשרה אמה לכל רוח עגולות ולא מרובעות ורואין כל העיגול שרחבו שתים ושלשים אמה כאילו הוא כולו מלא ירק וכל גפן שתהיה בתוך עיגול זה נתקדשה עם הירק וכל שחוץ לעיגול אינן מתקדשות:

2

When does the above apply? When there are more than four cubits between the edge of this circle and the rows of the vines outside of it.2 If, however, there were exactly four cubits or less between them, we consider the circle as if it reached the row which is next to it and it is as if the diameter of the circle is 40 cubits. We take into consideration every vine that is included in this circle that is 40 cubits in diameter and it is hallowed.

ב

בד"א כשהיה בין שפתי העיגול הזה ובין שורות הגפנים שחוצה לו יותר על ארבע אמות אבל אם היה ביניהם ארבע אמות מצומצמות או פחות רואין את העיגול כאילו הגיע לשורה הסמוכה לו וכאילו רוחב העיגול ארבעים אמה ורואין כל גפן שתפול בתוך עיגול זה של ארבעים אמה הרי היא מתקדשת:

3

When does the above apply? When one sows or maintains the different species in the midst of the vineyard. When, however, he sows [the grain or vegetable] outside the vineyard, but next to it, he causes the two rows of the vines3 next to [the different species] sown to become hallowed. [The hallowed portion of the vines continues] over the entire length of [the area] sown plus four cubits [on either side]. A portion four cubits wide [of the area] sown along the entire length of the [external] row of the vineyard becomes hallowed.4 If one sows [such crops] next to a single vine, only a circle with a radius of six handbreadths of the area sown becomes hallowed.5

ג

במה דברים אמורים בזורע או מקיים תוך הכרם אבל הזורע חוץ לכרם וסמוך לו הרי זה מקדש שתי שורות של גפנים הסמוכות לזרע באורך כל הזרע ויתר ארבע אמות חוץ לזרע ומתקדש מן הזרע רוחב ארבע אמות באורך כל השורה של כרם ואם זרע בצד גפן יחידית אינו מקדש מן הזרע אלא ששה טפחים לכל רוח:

4

A small vine that is less than a handbreadth long does not cause the sown [area]6 to become hallowed.7 When does the above apply? When there are two [vines] planted opposite two others and another one projects as a tail.8 If, however, the entire vineyard [was planted] in this manner, it does become hallowed.9

ד

ילדה פחות מטפח אינה מקדשת את הזרעים בד"א בשתים כנגד שתים ואחת יוצאה זנב אבל אם היה כל הכרם כן הרי זה מקדש:

5

[The following rules apply when there are] two gardens one above the other10 and the lower one is planted as a vineyard. One should plant the upper one until he reaches within the aerial space of ten handbreadths of the vineyard.11 For it is forbidden to sow seeds within ten handbreadths of the aerial space of a vineyard or a vine. If the upper [garden] was planted as a vineyard, one should sow the lower garden until he reaches within three handbreadths of the roots of the vines.

ה

שתי גנות זו על גב זו התחתונה עשויה כרם זורע את העליונה עד שהוא מגיע לאויר עשרה טפחים קרוב לכרם שאויר עשרה טפחים סמוך לכרם או לגפן יחידית אסור לזרוע בו זרעים ואם היתה העליונה עשויה כרם הרי זה זורע את התחתונה עד שהוא מגיע למטה משלשה טפחים מעיקר הגפנים:

6

When a person's field was sown with vegetables or grain and he changed his mind and decided to plant vines in it, he should turn over the sown produce with a plow and then plant the vines.12 He should not plant the vines and then turn over [the produce].

If it was planted with vines and he changed his mind and decided to sow crops there, he should uproot the vines and then sow the crops. If he desires to merely cut off the vines until there is less than a handbreadth of them near the earth, it is permissible for him to sow [the crops at this point] and then uproot the remainder of the vines from the earth.13

ו

מי שהיתה שדהו זרועה ירק או תבואה ונמלך ליטע בה גפנים הופך את הזרעים במחרישה ואחר כך נוטע ולא יטע ואח"כ יהפוך היתה נטועה גפנים ונמלך לזרוע בה זרעים משרש את הגפנים ואחר כך זורע את הזרעים ואם רצה לקוץ את הגפנים עד שלא ישאר מהן אלא פחות מטפח סמוך לארץ הרי זה מותר לזרוע ואח"כ יחזור וישרש את הנשאר בארץ מן הגפנים:

7

[The following laws apply when a person] extends a vine [by embedding it] in the earth,14 even if he encloses it in a dried15 gourd that serves as a cylinder for it or in an earthernware cylinder.16 If there are three handbreadths or more of earth covering it, it is permitted to sow [crops of other species] above it.17 If there was less earth than that upon it, it is forbidden to sow above it18 It is, however, permitted to sow at its side.19

ז

המבריך את הגפן בארץ אפילו הבריכה בתוך הדלעת שיבשה ונעשת כסילון או בתוך סילון של חרש אם היה העפר על גבה שלשה טפחים או יותר הרי זה מותר לזרוע על גבה ואם היה על גבה פחות מזה אסור לזרוע על גבה ומותר לזרוע בצדה:

8

If he extended it through hard ground,20 it is permitted to sow crops over it even if there are only three fingerbreadths and not three handbreadths of earth upon it.21

When does the above apply?22 When the base of the vine is not visible. If, however, it is visible, it is necessary to make a distinction of [at least] six handbreadths23 at either side in every direction before sowing just as one must make such a separation from any one vine that was not extended in the ground, as will be explained.24

ח

הבריכה בסלע אע"פ שאין עפר על גבה אלא שלש אצבעות מותר להביא זרע עליה במה דברים אמורים שאין עיקר הגפן נראה אבל אם נראה צריך להרחיק ששה טפחים לכל רוח ואחר כך יזרע כמו שמרחיק מכל גפן יחידית שלא הוברכה כמו שיתבאר:

9

When a person extends three vines in the ground, but their bases are visible, if there are between four and eight cubits between them,25 they are grouped together with the other vines that are growing [in the vineyard]26 and it is as if they were not extended in the ground. If not, they are not included among the others.

ט

המבריך שלש גפנים ועיקריהם נראין אם יש ביניהן מארבע אמות עד שמונה הרי אלו מצטרפין לשאר גפנים העומדות וכאילו לא הבריכן ואם לאו אינם מצטרפות:

10

If there were less than three vines, they are not included [as part of the vineyard].27 Instead, one should separate six handbreadths on every side and sow [other crops].28

י

היו פחות משלש אין מצטרפין אלא מרחיק מהן ששה טפחים לכל רוח וזורע:

11

Anyone who sows crops under branches and leaves that emerge from the vines causes [the produce] to be hallowed even though the crops are several cubits away from the base of the vine.29

יא

כל הזורע תחת השריגים והעלין היוצאין מן הגפן הרי זה קידש ואף על פי שהזרע רחוק מעיקר הגפן כמה אמות:

12

When a person drapes a vine over a portion of a trellis30 [intended for vines], he should not plant [crops] under the remainder of the trellis31 even though there are no leaves or branches upon them.32 If he did plant there, since there are no crops under the shade of the vine, it is permitted.33 Similar [laws apply] if he draped a vine over some branches of a tree that does not produce fruit,34 e.g., cedars or pines. If, by contrast, he draped a vine over some of the branches of a fruit-bearing tree, it is permitted to sow under the branches of the tree where the vine was not draped. [The rationale is] that a person does not nullify a fruit-bearing tree to make it a trellis for a vine.35

If, after [produce] was sown, the branches were extended and covered the produce, they should be shifted to another place.36

יב

הדלה את הגפן על מקצת אפפירות לא יזרע תחת מותר האפיפירות ואע"פ שאין עליהן לא עלין ולא שריגים ואם זרע הואיל ואין הזרע תחת סכך הגפן הרי זה מותר וכן אם הדלה הגפן על מקצת בדי אילן שאינו עושה פירות כגון הארז והברוש אבל אם הדלה על מקצת אילן מאכל הרי זה מותר לזרוע תחת בדי האילן שלא נמשכו עליהן שריגי הגפן שאין אדם מבטל אילן מאכל ועושה אפיפירות לגפן ואם נמשכו השריגים אחר שזרע וסככו על הזרע הרי זה מחזירם למקום אחר:

13

When a person sows under the remainder of the trellises37 or under the remainder of the branches of a tree that does not produce fruit38 and then the branches of the vine were extended and covered the crops, it is forbidden to maintain them or shift the branches [of the vine].39 What should he do? He should uproot the crops.

יג

הזורע תחת מותר האפיפירות או תחת מותר אילן שאינו עושה פירות ונמשכו שריגי הגפן וסככו על הזרעים הרי זה אסור לקיימו או להחזיר השריגים אלא כיצד עושה עוקר הזרע:

14

When reeds are jutting out from the lattice on the surface of a trellis, but [the owner] does not want to jut them off lest he destroy the trellis, he is permitted to sow [crops] under them.40 If he left them so that the branches and leaves that emerge will grow upon them, it is forbidden to sow [crops] under them.

יד

קנים היוצאין מן הערים וחס עליהן לפוסקן כדי שלא ישחית האפיפירות הרי זה מותר לזרוע תחתיהן ואם הניחם כדי שיהלכו עליהן השריגים והעלין היוצאין הרי זה אסור לזרוע תחתיהן:

15

When a branch41 emerges from a vine which is propped up42 or from the trunk of a vine that is not propped up, 43 we considered it as if a plumb line is hanging from it to the earth and it is forbidden to sow under it. Similarly, if one extends a branch from one tree to another, it is forbidden to sow under it.

טו

פרח היוצא מן העריס או מן הדלית רואין אותו כאילו משקולת תלויה בו עד הארץ ואסור לזרוע תחתיו וכן המותח זמורה מאילן לאילן אסור לזרוע תחתיה:

16

When a person ties a rope or rubber cord to a branch and ties the other end to a tree, he is permitted to sow [crops] under the rope.44 If he extended this rope with the intent that the branches and leaves will grow upon it, it is like a trellis and it is forbidden to sow under it.

טז

קשר חבל או גמי בזמורה וקשר הראש אחד באילן הרי זה מותר לזרוע תחת החבל ואם מתח חבל זה כדי שיהלכו עליו השריגים והעלים הרי הוא כאפיפירות ואסור לזרוע תחתיו:

Footnotes
1.

And thus the vines on the corners are permitted.

2.

The Rambam derives these concepts from an analysis of the wording of Kilayim 5:5. To explain: The Mishnah states: "[A person who] plants a vegetable in a vineyard... causes 45 vines to be hallowed. When? When they are planted, each one four [cubits from the other] or five [cubits from each other]." As the Rambam explains in his Commentary to the Mishnah, if the vines are five cubits away from each other, some of the 45 vines will be outside the circle. Now its true, that if the vines are four cubits away from each other, there will be individual vines within four cubits of the circle. There will not, however, be "rows of the vines" outside the circle.

The Ra'avad differs with his interpretation. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh support the Rambam's view.

3.

Since the prooftext cited above speaks of "the vineyard" becoming hallowed, the area that becomes hallowed must be at least two rows wide, for only that is worthy of being called "a vineyard" [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:5)]. The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, but the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh question his objection.

The Kessef Mishneh also clarifies that here a smaller portion of the vineyard is forbidden than in the previous halachah, because the mixed species is not surrounded by the vineyard on all sides. Hence, only four cubits, the area is necessary to perform the work necessary for the vineyard, is forbidden.

4.

The Radbaz adds that if one sows the vegetables or grain beyond the row of the vineyard, a four cubit portion of that area is also forbidden.

5.

For this is the size of the area necessary to tend to a single vine (Kilayim 6:1).

6.

This applies regardless of the species of crops sown there (in contrast to the opinion of Rashi, Sotah 43b) [Kessef Mishneh].

7.

I.e., because the plants are small, planting them is not considered planting a "vineyard." See also Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 10:19. It is possible to say that one should, however, keep a distance of six handbreadths between them and grain or vegetables, as stated in the previous halachah with regard to a single vine.

8.

See Chapter 7, Halachah 7, which describes vines planted in this manner as "a small vineyard."

9.

For this indicates that this person considers this as a vineyard; alternatively this is a Rabbinic safeguard, lest an observer think that planting other species is permissible in an ordinary vineyard (Radbaz).

10.

This refers to a terraced hill with gardens planted on an incline (Radbaz)

11.

The notes to the Frankel edition of the Mishneh Torah cite Hilchot Shabbat 4:4,18 which speaks about the significance of ten handbreadths of space.

12.

From the ruling in Chapter 2, Halachah 13, it would appear that he should also wait until the seeds rot (Tosafot Yom Tov).

13.

The Radbaz states that following this course of action will be beneficial, for pulling out the vines will save him the trouble of having to cover the seeds with earth, for that task will be accomplished as a matter of course.

14.

The Rambam is referring to a process which was used to extend a vine and increase its fertility. For if a vine was allowed to grow endlessly, its fertility would wane as it grew longer. Therefore its head was implanted in the ground. There it would grow roots - thus increasing the nurture it could give the plant - and then from the embedded head would sprout forth a new plant.

15.

If the gourd is not dried out, it is certainly forbidden, because the gourd itself is a separate species.

16.

Since as the vine's roots grow, they will emerge from the sides of these cylinders, they are considered as subservient to the earth and not as independent entity. If, however, the person places the vine in a metal pipe, these laws do not apply (See the Jerusalem Talmud, Kilayim 7:1).

17.

Since it is buried so deeply in the earth, it is no longer considered significant.

18.

Because the amount of earth over it is not that much to cause it to be considered as insignificant.

19.

Were it above ground, by contrast, one would have to move six handbreadths away before sowing a crop.

20.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 7:2).

21.

For its roots will not emerge.

22.

This applies to the previous halachah as well.

23.

The notes to the Frankel edition of the Mishneh Torah mention that this ruling appears to be somewhat of a departure from the Rambam's understanding as reflected in his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.).

24.

Chapter 7, Halachah 1.

25.

When vines are this distance apart they are still considered as part of the same vineyard (Chapter 7, Halachah 2).

26.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam and maintains that this law applies even if there are no other vines. He maintains that since a portion of the vines extended in the ground is visible, they themselves can be grouped together and considered a vineyard, because the three bases and the three heads are considered as six vines. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh justify the Rambam's ruling. They do not dispute the law mentioned by the Ra'avad, but maintain that it is not the interpretation of the mishnah cited above. (Significantly, the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah appears to follow the Ra'avad's approach.)

27.

The Rambam derives this law from the fact that the mishnah cited above speaks of "three vines." Implied is that the law does not apply to less.

28.

As stated in Halachah 8.

29.

I.e., even though the branch is only an extension of the vine, sowing under it is forbidden. See Halachah 15.

30.

See Chapter 8, Halachah 1, for a description of such trellises.

31.

I.e., a person prepared a series of trellises over which to drape a vine. In fact, however, he did not drape the vine over the entire area of the trellises, only over a portion of it. He should, nevertheless, be stringent and regard the vine as growing over the entire trellis, because ultimately, it will spread over it.

32.

The rationale is that they are placed there so that ultimately, the vine will grow and be extended upon them.

33.

For unless the vine spreads there, the prohibition is merely a Rabbinic safeguard.

34.

I.e., it forbidden to sow crops under the entire tree. The produce becomes hallowed, however, only when sowed under the area where the vine is actually draped.

35.

Since it is a fruit tree, it has its own importance and it is never considered as merely a trellis for the grapes as long as the grape vine is not draped over these branches.

36.

Note the contrast to the stringency mentioned in the following halachah. The reason for the leniency in this halachah is that the branches of a fruit-bearing tree are considered entities in their own right and are not subservient to the vine. Hence, since it was permitted to sow the crops there, they are not forbidden if the vine grows unintentionally.

37.

I.e., portions of the trellises to which the vines have not spread.

38.

For they are considered as equivalent to the trellises, as stated in the previous halachah.

39.

Since he transgressed by sowing there, our Sages required him to uproot the crops (Radbaz). From the Rambam's wording here and in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:3), it would appear that he maintains that only the crops are forbidden, but not the vines.

40.

Since his intent is not to drape vines upon them, they are not considered as part of the trellis [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid. 6:8)].

41.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid. 6:9).

42.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid. 7:1).

43.

Since he transgressed by sowing there, our Sages required him to uproot the crops (Radbaz). From the Rambam's wording here and in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:3), it would appear that he maintains that only the crops are forbidden, but not the vines.

44.

For he is not planning to have the vine grow upon it.

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